Skip to main content

Full text of "The standard Hoyle; a complete guide and reliable authority upon all games of chance or skill now played in the United States, whether of native or foreign introduction"

See other formats


ME 



HOYLE 




\ 




Class _ikVLLLA2> 

Book 07 

Copyright^? 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT, 



(% 






isrtantrarb itople 



A COMPLETE GUIDE and Reliable Authority 
upon all Games of Chance or Skill now 
played in the United States, whether of Native 
or Foreign Introduction. 

Full Explanations how the various Games 
are to be played, with Diagrams and Illustrations. 
New and Revised Edition. 








ileto I?or*: 






€r 


c*l£iot 


$ubli0f) 


tng 


i^ou^e 




fHtHeon & fecfjoficlb, 


$ropa 








1912 










COPYRIGHT, 1887, BY 
EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE. 



COPYRIGHT, 1903, BY 
EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE. 



COPYRIGHT, 1312, BY 
EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE. 



ECLA316385 



^ 



PREFACE. 






A FAITHFUL endeavor has been made in this volume to present all the 
best known games of cards. It is believed, then, that The Standard 
Hoyle is complete, containing a greater number of games in actual usage, 
with the explanations in regard to the playing of them, than any work yet 
published. Little that is original can be claimed for a volume of this char- 
acter, as the rules governing many of the games are fixed ; but what may 
be asserted is this, that when changes have been made, due to the modern- 
izing of certain games, such alterations have been diligently sought for, 
and are to be found incorporated in the work. Many of these leading 
games have been entirely rewritten by various experts, and present, there- 
fore, novel features. Prints of the cards themselves, in particular combi- 
nations, will be found useful, as they give a clearer insight into the peculi- 
arities of games. 

It would be impossible to print into one volume the thousand and one 
games which are only occasionally played. The larger proportion of 
such games have but a temporary existence, and played to-day are for- 
gotten to-morrow. The ingenuity of the maker of new games is endless, 
but his apparent genius generally amounts to nothing more than the 
changing or blending of one or two well-known games and the produc- 
tion of a worthless hybrid. 

The Standard Hoyle has been supplemented with the leading in 
and out of door games due to physical skill, and the description of such 
games, with their rules, adds in no small degree to the general usefulness 
of the volume. 

The endeavor has been made not so much to condense as to get rid 
of that unnecessary verbiage which so often overloads the text in 
books on games. This book is compiled, then, not alone for those 
who wish to acquire a new game, but is to be consulted by the expert 
who desires information in regard to the rules governing games. 



PREFACE. 



CARDS AND THE ORIGIN OF CERTAIN GAMES OF CARDS. 

Archaeological discussions in regard to the origin of cards are always 
interesting. As ethnologists trace the migrations of races, their studies 
are not directed alone to the resemblances of animal types, but the ways, 
manners, and customs of the various races of men are examined and com- 
pared. Looking at the subject in its broadest and most philosophical 
light, it must be apparent that as soon as primitive man became freed, in 
a certain measure, from the necessity of appeasing his hunger, or protect- 
ing himself from his enemies, there arose a desire for amusement. A 
stone, the first natural object found, if thrown into the air, will fall on 
one or the other side, and these sides differing in some simple way must 
have originated the game of Pitch and Toss. The antiquity of dice can- 
not be fathomed, for knuckle bones were played with in the most remote 
times. Some one has written a series of interesting chapters, not on the 
origin of games, but descriptive of their adoption by various peoples. In 
most of the cases the beginning was in the far East. In that long-lost 
civilization where art and luxury existed, the idea must be entertained 
that there was leisure. Men did not work all the time. There was need 
for recreation. 

As to the origin of cards — that is, pictures printed on some kind of 
lasting substance, not necessarily paper — an advanced condition of civil- 
ization is to be presumed. Long and learned efforts have been made to 
show that playing-cards were first known in India and China and carried 
from these countries to Europe. The question, we think, is not one as to 
invention of cards, but simply as to the time when cards were brought, 
if they were brought at all, from the East to the West. It is useless, 
then, to speculate as to when or where cards were first used. We do not 
see anywhere the possibility mentioned that the Crusaders might have 
acquired some inkling of cards from the Saracens. Might not the Moors, 
some centuries before the crusades, have introduced their games of chance 
through Africa to Granada ? We do not dismiss, then, in a few words, 
speculations advanced by those who favor the idea of the Oriental deri- 
vation and transmission of playing-cards. A newer element, however, is 
one which is gradually being advanced by archaeologists in regard to 
many "inventions." It is this: that in accordance with the wants of 
mankind, human brains have striven toward the accomplishment of the 
same things in various parts of the world ; or, in other words, similar ob- 
jects have been fashioned without one race of men having any possible 
connection with another. 

The earliest date, which has never been disputed and from which the 



positive history of paying -card* in Europe begins, is the one discovered 
by Pere Menestrier m the registers of the Chambres des Comptes of 
Charles VI. of France, the account being that of Charles Poupart, the 
royal Treasurer. In the account commencing ist of February, 1392, is 
the following entry : "DonnSa yacquemin Gringonneur, peintre, pour 
trots jeux de cartes a or, et a diver ses couleurs, ornis de plusieurs de- 
vises, pour porter devers le Seigneur fioi\ pour son Abatement L VI sols 
Parisis." That is, " Given to Jacquemin Gringonneur, painter, for three 
packs of cards in gold and various colors, and ornamented with several 
devices, to carry before the Lord our King, for his amusement, fifty-six 
sols of Paris." 

The conclusion drawn from this passage, that cards were invented for 
the use of Charles VI., is unwarrantable. A aareful examination of the 
wording shows that the payment was for paintings not for inventing 
cards. The general tenor of the entry, the simplicity with which it is 
made, the absence of any allusion to novelty in the conception, all point 
to the conclusion that playing-cards were already known ; and that these 
cards were executed to special order, with more elaborate gilding and 
coloring than usual, as would probably be the case with cards intended 
for the personal use of royalty. 

There are seventeen pieces in the National Library, Paris, which are 
erroneously called the Gringonneur or Charles VI. cards of 1392. They 
are in reality fine Venetian tarots of the fifteenth century, in the opinion 
of some judges not earlier than 1425. . s 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the xylographic art, or printing 
from a surface which receives the ink and makes an impression, in fact 
printing, is derivable from the cardmakers of yore. Cards first were 
stenciled ; then later the design was cut roughly on wood and put through 
the press If the earliest known print taken from a wood block is the St. 
Christopher or the St. Sebastian of the first or second quarter of the 
fifteenth century, there is the certainty that there were playing-cards, with 

ou S engravings on them, of a much earlier date. It need not shock 
then human susceptibilities to learn that the precursors of the pictures of 
saints were first the stencils, then the rough blocks made for the decora- 
tion of playing-cards. ^ 

A In 1328 there is a French romance which inveighs against the folly of 
g-umes such as " Dice, Checkers, and Cards." Cards must have been in 
use then for many years prior to this date. The account given by Charles 
Poupart in 1392 of the cards made for Charles VI. has already been pre- 
sented. The price paid the artist, Gringonneur, " 56 sols of Paris, 1 
would be equivalent to $40 to-day. We have the cost of a pack of cards, * 



4 PREFACE. 

not made for kings, in 1454, which was 5 sous Tournois. In 1397 there 
is aci edict promulgated by the Provost of Paris, forbidding people from 
playing " tennis, bowls, dice, cards on working days." The oldest printed 
cards in any private collection are of 1442. Cards were well known in 
Italy in 1379. There is a manuscript of that year which intimates that 
cards came from the land of the Saracen and were called Naib. The 
Duke of Milan in 1415 had cards painted on pieces of ivory. About this 
same time the Flemish nobles played with cards made of thin sheets of 
silver. In 1404 the Synod of Langres forbade the clergy playing cards. 
In 1423 St. Bernard of Sienna preached against playing cards, and with 
such effect that the people brought their " cards, dice, and games of 
hazard " and burnt them. Card-making must have been one of the im- 
portant manufactures of Venice, because, in 1441, the Senate issued a 
decree ordering the Venetians to encourage cards made in Venice, and 
putting an embargo on the importation of foreign cards. In this decree 
prints of a sacred character for altar-pieces and playing-cards are classed 
in the same category. 

The oldest pack of 52 cards known in the United States is one in 
perfect preservation, of the year 1642. It was found at an old house 
in New Jersey in 1870. The cards had never been U6ed. The cards 
are English ones. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE. 

ALL-FOURS 242 

All-Fives 244 

Blind All-Fours 244 

California Jack 246 

Commercial Pitch 245 

Dom Pedro 249 

Double Pedro (Cinch) 250 

Draw Pedro 249 

Laws of All-Fours 243 

Pedro 249 

Pitch 246 

Rustle , 247 

Sancho Pedro 247 

Shasta Sam 247 

BACCARAT 287 

Baccarat Chemin de Fer 291 

BACKGAMMON 420 

Laws of Backgammon 429 

Russian 428 

BAGATELLE 545 

BEZIQUL 187 

Cavendish s Rules for Bezique 187 

Four-Handed 197 

Four-Handed Polish *' 201 

Laws for " 195 

Laws of Polish 201 

Polish, or Fildinski '* 200 

Rubicon ** 197 

Three-Handed " 197 

BILLIARDS 390 

Block, or Everlasting Pool ., 412 

Bottle Pool 411 

Chicago Pool 410 

Fifteen-Ball Pool 410 

High-Low-Jack Game 414 

Losing Pyramids 414 

Rules of Balk-Line Game 402 

" Cushion Caroms 400 

* Pin Pool 396 

" Pyramid Pool 406 

'* Three-Ball Game 405 

Two-Ball Pool 403 

Russian, or Five-Ball Pool 413 

Shell Out 414 

Spanish Billiards 414 

The Game of Snooker 415 

The Laws of Snooker 417 



6 CONTENTS. 

BILLIARDS— Continued page. 

The Plant Game 4U 

Three-Cushion Carom 415 

Two-Ball Game ... • 415 

Two-Cushion Carom •••• • 415 

BUND HOOKEY 356 

BOODLE) 389 

BOSTON , 344 

French Boston , 347 

BRAG 333 

Three-Stake Brag 334 

BRIDGE WHIST 108 

Auction Bridge 568 

Double Dummy Bridge • 569 

Two-Handed Bridge 570 

CAEABRASELEA 260 

Laws of Calabrasella 263 

CASINO 283 

CATCH THE TEN 357 

CHESS 476 

CINCH, OR HIGH FIVE 250 

COMMERCE 335 

COMMIT 356 

CONNEXIONS .<.... 282 

COON CAN 540 

CRIBBAGE 160 

Dealing 160 

Five-Card Cribbage 173 

Four-Handed Cribbage . • • .• • 166 

Laws of Cribbage • ...* 170 

Six-Card Cribbage '.. • • 166 

Three-Handed Cribbage 166 

DICE 467 

Ace Pot 469 

Beggar Your Neighbor 47<> 

Centennial • 469 

Chuck-a-Euck, or Sweat. ...... . „ 470 

Draw Poker 468 

Going to Boston 471 

Help Your Neighbor • 471 

Multiplication • 468 

Raffles 468 

Round the Spot 470 

Vingt-et-Un 469 

DOMINOES 218 

All Threes 241 

Bergen • ••••••••»•••••••••••••«••;*••««:••••••••••••••• 224 



CONTENTS. 7 

DOMINOES— Continued page. 

Bingo ••••••• 220 

Cyprus 241 

Draw Game 219 

Draw Pool 241 

Four-Handed Bingo 222 

Euchre 223 

Loo 238 

Malakoff 228 

Matadore 239 

Muggins, or Fives 219 

Poker, or Bluff 225 

Pool 240 

Quinze 227 

Rouncc 222 

Rules used in Dominoes 234 

Sebastopol 227 

Speculation 229 

Terms used in Dominoes 229 

Three-Handed Bingo 221 

Tidley-Wink 228 

Two-Handed Euchre 224 

Vingt-Un 224 

Whist 240 

DRAW POKER n 7 

Jack Pot 124-135 

Laws of Poker 121 

Mistigris 157 

Poker Principles (Proctor) 149 

Positions and Probabilities 140 

Probabilities 134 

Progressive Poker 158 

Schenck's Rules 117 

Straight Poker 156 

Stud Poker 15; 

Tiger . ... 157 

Whiskey Poker 157 

DRAUGHTS, OR CHECKERS 443 

Italian Draughts 465 

Laws of Draughts 449 

Losing Game of Draughts 464 

Polish Draughts 448 

Spanish Draughts 465 

Turkish Draughts 465 

ECARTE 292 

General Rules for Ecarte 298 

Laws of Ecarte 301 

E. O iM^#m«Mili!JAU 3«9 



8 CONTENTS. 

TAGt. 

EUCHRE 174 

French Euchre 184 

Laws of Euchre ; 182 

Napoleon Euchre 184 

Progressive Euchre 185 

Railroad " 183 

Set-Back " 183 

Six-Handed M 186 

Three-Handed " 176 

FARO 212 

FILDINSKI 200 

FIVE AND TEN 342 

FIVE HUNDRED 563 

GAIGEL -. . 567 

G^iME OF 500 563 

GO BANG 267 

GRABOUGE 554 

HAZARD 472 

HEARTS 268 

Double, or Eagle Game of Hearts 270 

Five-Handed Hearts *74 

Progressive Hearts 274 

Three-Handed Hearts 27^ 

IMPERIAL 322 

Laws of Imperial 330 

JOCKEY CLUB 339 

KENO, OR LOTO 541 

American Loto 541 

English Loto 543 

Loto Dauphin, or French Loto 542 

Tombola, or Italian Loto - 543 

LANSOUENET 349 

LOO 352 

Club Law 354 

Division Loo , . 355 

Irish Loo 355 

Laws of Loo 354 

Mixed Loo 355 

Three-Card Loo 353 

Unlimited Loo 355 

LOTO , 541 

LOTTERY 350 

MATRIMONY 281 

MONTE 306 

NAPOLEON 550 

Blucher 553 

Misere, or Misery _. ££X 



CONTEXTS. 9 

NAPOLEON— Continued PAGE - 

Nine-Card Nap 553 

Sir Garnet, or Spare Hand 552 

Six, or Draw-Card Nap 553 

Variations of the Game 551 

Wellington 552 

NEWMARKET 285 

OLD SLEDGE (All- Fours) 242 

PEN UCHLE 566 

Auction Penuchle 57 1 

Four-Handed Penuchle 209 

Three-Handed Penuchle 206 

Two-Handed Penuchle .' 203 

PIQUET 430 

Laws of Piquet 434 

Three-Handed Piquet 437 

POKER PATIENCE 565 

POPE JOAN 28 . 

PROPS 3»S 

PUT 351 

Laws of Put 35-* 

QUADRILLE 308 

Laws of Quadrille 311 

QUINCE 279 

REVERSIS 336 

Laws of Reversis 338 

REVERSI 556 

Royal Reversi 557 

ROUGE ET NOIR 265 

ROULETTE 340 

ROUNCE 303 

German Ramsch 304 

Jack-Pot Rounce 304 

Rules for Rounce 304 

Short Ramsch 304 

Skat Ramsch 305 

SARATOGA , 286 

SHUFFLE-BOARD 475 

SIFT SMOKE 351 

SIXTY-SIX 315 

Four-Handed Sixty-six^ 318 

Laws of Sixty-six 320 

Three-Handed Sixty-six 318 

SKAT 359 

Rules of Skat 374 

Two-Handed Skat 387 

SLOBBERHANNES : 307 

SN1P-SN AP-SNORExM 355 



io CONTENTS. 

PAGE, 

SOLITAIRES 437 

Napoleon 442 

Nidgi Novgorod 438 

Pistols and Coffee for Two 439 

The Excelsior 440 

The Hopeful 439 

The Old Patience 442 

SOLO 545 

Four-Handed Solo 546 

Three-Handed Solo 549 

SPECULATION , 280 

SPOIL-FI VE 252 

Forty-five 259 

Jinks 259 

Laws of Spoil-Five 257 

Twenty-five 255 

SPOT 388 

THIRTEEN AND THE ODD 555 

TAROT 419 

TEN PINS 1 474 

THE EARL OF COVENTRY 349 

THIRTY-ONE 359 

TRIC-TRAC (Backgammon) 420 

VINGT-UN 275 

Rules of Vingt-Un 277 

WIIIST 11 

Auction Bridge Whist 558 

Auction Bridge Whist, Three-Handed 560 

Bridge Whist 108 

Cavendish's Rules for Leading 55 

Double Dummy Whist 104 

Double Dummy Bridge Whist 561 

Dummy Bridge Whist 115 

Dummy Whist i°4 

Duplicate Bridge Whist J J 4 

Duplicate Whist i Q1 

French Whist 555 

Laws of Whist 4i 

Pocket Guide to Whist 66 

Rhyming Rules 40 

Rules for Play 18 

Rules American Whist League 95 

Signalling 86 

Solo Whist 105 

Technical Terms 12 

The Whist Primer 8o 

Three-Handed Solo Whist I0 7 

Two-Handed Bridge Whist 562 



WHIST. 

BY WIJbl^IAM POL»B> 



Whist is a well-known game at cards, which requires great attention 
and silence : hence the name. It is played by four persons, who cut the 
cards for partners. The two highest and the two lowest are together, 
and the partners sit opposite to each other. The person who cuts the low- 
est card is to deal first. In cutting, the ace is lowest. 

Each person has a right to shuffle the cards before the deal ; but it is 
usual for the elder hand only, and the dealer after. 

The pack is then cut by the right-hand adversary ; and the dealer dis- 
tributes the cards, one by one, to each of the players, beginning with the 
person who sits on his left hand, till he comes to the last card, which he 
turns up, being the trump, and leaves on the table till the first trick is 
played. 

The person on the left-hand side of the dealer is called the elder hand, 
and plays first ; whoever wins the trick, becomes elder hand, and plays 
again ; and so on, till the cards are played out. 

The tricks belonging to each party should be turned and collected by 
the respective partner of whoever wins the first trick. 

All above six tricks reckon toward the game. 

The ace, king, queen, and knave of trumps, are called honors ; and it 
three of these honors have been played between, or by either of the two 
partners, they reckon for two points toward the game ; and if the four 
honors have been played between, or by either of the two partners, they 
reckon for four points toward the game. 

The game consists of ten points. 

No one, before his partner has played, may inform him that he has, Of 
has not, won the trick : even the attempt to take up a trick, though won, 
before the last partner has played, is deemed very improper. 



12 WHIST. 

No intimations of any kind, during the play of the cards, between part- 
ners, are to be admitted. The mistake of one party is the gain of the 
other. There is, however, one exception to this rule, which is in case of 
a revoke. If a person does not follow suit, or trumps a suit, the partner 
is at liberty to inquire of him, whether he has none of that suit in his 
hand. This indulgence must have arisen from the severe penalties an- 
nexed to revoking, which affects the partners equally, and is now gener- 
ally admitted. 

EXPLANATION OF TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THE 
^ MODERN SCIENTIFIC GAME. 

Bring in.— See Establish. 

Command. — You are said to have the command of a suit when you 
hold the best cards in it. If you have sufficient of them to be able to 
draw all those in the other hands (as would probably be the case if you 
had ace, king, queen, and two others), the command is complete ; if not, 
it may be only partial or temporary. Commanding cards are the cards 
which give you the command. 

Conventional Signals are certain modes of play designed purposely, 
by common consent, for the object of conveying information to your part- 
ner. The principle was sanctioned by Hoyle, and several of them are es- 
tablished and legalized in the modern scientific game ; as, for example, the 
signal for trumps ; the return of the "highest from a short suit ; playing 
the lowest of a sequence ; discarding the highest of a suit of which you 
have full command, and so on. 

Discard. — The card you throw away when you have none of the suit 
ted, and do not trump it. In the modern game, your first discard should 
be from a short or weak suit. 

Establish.— A suit is said to be established when you hold the com 
plete command of it. This may sometimes happen to be the case orig- 
inally, but it is more common to obtain it in the course of the play by 
" clearing" away the cards that obstructed you, so as to remain with the 
best in your hand. It is highly desirable to establish your long suit as 
soon as you can, for which purpose not only your adversaries' hands, but 
also your partner's, must be cleared from the obstructing cards. 

When your suit is once established, if the adversaries' trumps are out, 
and you can get the lead, it is obvious you may make a trick with every 
card of it you hold ; and this is called bringing it in. 
'* The establishment and bringing in of long suits form the great distin. 
^uishing features of the modern scientific game. 



WHIST. 



13 



False CARD 6 a card played contrary to the established rules or con- 
ventions of the game, and which therefore is calculated to deceive your 
partner as to the state of your hand ; as, for example, following suit with 
the highest or middle card of a sequence, or throwing away other than 
your lowest card. The play of false cards without very good reason is 
characteristic only of hopelessly bad players. 

Finessing is an attempt, by the third player, to make a lower card 
answer the purpose of a higher (which is usually his duty to play) under 
the hope that an intermediate card may not lie to his left hand. Thus, 
having ace and queen of your partner's lead, you finesse the queen, hop- 
ing the fourth player may not hold the king. Or if your partner leads a 
knave, and you hold the king, you may finesse or pass the knave, 1. e. y 
play a small card to it, under the hope that it may force the ace. The . 
word is sometimes applied to cases where it is certain the inferior card 
will answer the purpose intended ; as, for example, where the left hand 
has already shown weakness. But this is clearly a misuse of the term, 
for unless there is a risk of the card being beaten, it is only ordinary 
play, and can involve no finessing — properly so called. 

You are said to finesse against the intermediate card, and sometimes 
also against the person who holds it ; but as by the nature of the case it 
should be unknown where the card lies, the latter meaning is apt to cre- 
ate confusion. The person against whom you act is more correctly the 
fourth player. 

Forcing means obliging your partner or your adversary to trump a 
trick, by leading a suit of which they have none. 

Guarded second, or second-best guarded, is the combination of 
the second-best card for the time being, with a small one to guard it 
against being taken by the best ; as, for example, king and a small one 
originally, or knave and a small one when the ace and queen have been 
played. 

This combination is an important one, having an advantage analogous 
to that of the tenace ; namely, that if the suit is led by your left-hand 
adversary, you are certain (bar trumping) to make your second-best card. 

Honors are the ace, king, queen and knave of trumps ; the term, 
however, is often applied to the same cards in plain suits. The ten and 
nine are sometimes called semi-honors. 

Leading through, or up to. — The person who leads is said to lead 
through his left hand adversary, and up to his right hand one, such 
being the direction in which the play runs. 

I^ong cards are cards remaining in one hand when all the rest of 
that suit have been played. 



14 



WHIST, 



Long suit. — One of which you hold moie than three cards. Sea 
Strength. 

Loose card means a card in hand of no value, and consequently the 
fittest to throw away. 

Makb. — To make a card means simply to win a trick with it. 

Master card, or best card, means the highest card in at the time 
Thus, if the ace and king were out, the master card would be the queen. 
This is sometimes also called the "king card," a name likely to cause 
confusion. 

Opening. — Term borrowed from chess, to denote the system on which 
you commence or open your game when you get your first lead. 

Plain suits are the three suits not trumps. 
. Re-entry. — A card of re-entry is one that will, by winning a trick, 
bring you the lead at an advanced period of the hand. 

Renounce. — When a player has none of the suit led he is said to re- 
nounce that suit. 

Revoke. — If he fails to follow suit when he has any of the suit, he re- 
vokes, and incurs a serious penalty. 

Ruffing is another word for trumping a suit of which you have none. 

Score. — The counting or marking of the progress of the game. At- 
tention to the score, which is very necessary in playing, refers not only to 
the progress, but also to the prospects of the game, as evidenced by the 
tricks made and honors held in the current hand. 

Seesaw, or saw, is when each of two partners ruffs a different suit, so 
that they may lead alternately into each other's hand. 

Sequence. — Any number of cards in consecutive order, as king, queen, 
and knave. The ace, queen, and ten would form a sequence if the king 
and knave were out. 

A tierce is a sequence of three cards ; a quart of four ; and a quint of 
five. 

A head sequenee is one standing at the head of the suit in your 
hand, even though it may not contain the best card. A subordinate 
sequence is one standing lower down, and it is an intermediate sequence 
if you hold cards both higher and lower. 

Short suit.— One of which you hold originally not more than three 
cards. See Strength, 

Signal for Trumps. — Throwing away unnecessarily and contrary to 
ordinary play, a high card before a low one, is called the signal for 
trumps, or asking for trumps ; being a command to your partner to lead 
trumps the first opportunity — a command which, in the modern scientific 
game, he is bound to obey, whatever his own hand may be. 



WHIST. 15 

Singleton.— A French name for one fcard only of a suit* 

Strength, Strong Suit, Strong Hand.— These are terms whic* 
it is highly essential to have clearly defined, as their interpretation lies a» 
the root of the theory of the modern scientific game. 

The cards of any suit contained in your hand may vary in two different 
ways : as regards number, and as regards rank. 

As regards number of cards— as there are thirteen cards to divide 
among four persons, it is clear that three cards or less will be under tha 
average, while four cards or more will be over the average due to each 
person. 

Again, as to rank, the middle card of a suit is the eight; any cards 
you hold above this may be considered high cards; any below, low 
cards. 

Now, it has been the habit to use the terms strength and weakness* as 
applied indiscriminately to either number or rank— a practice which, 
though no doubt it may be defended analogically, is yet calculated to 
cause great confusion in the mind of the student, inasmuch as the two 
things must be very differently regarded in any scientific system of play. 
If, for example, a strong suit has been spoken of, it might mean either 
one in which you possess a large number of cards (as, say, the two, three, 
four, five, six, and seven), or in which you hold only a few very high 
ones, as, say, ace, king, and queen ; the former being numerical strength, 
the latter strength of rank. 

This twofold meaning has, however, become so firm!y implanted in 
Whist nomenclature that it would be useless to attempt to eradicate it. 
All we can do is to endeavor to get a little more perspicuity by using as 
much as possible the term long suit to indicate strength in numbers, leav- 
ing the word strong to apply chiefly to high cards. 

Thus any suit of which you hold four or more will be called a long 
suit, being longer than the average. Any suit of three or less will be 
called a short suit, being shorter than the average. 

When we speak of a strong suit, we shall generally refer to one con- 
taining cards of a higher than average rank, and of a weak suit the con- 
trary. 
A long suit will naturally have a greater chance of containing high 

cards than a short one, and this is probably the reason why the confusioa 

of terms has arisen, 
A strong HAND is difficult to define, further than as one likely t* 

* The learned author is in error in regard to the derivation of 
Singleton, which is not French, but English.— Editor. 



l6 WHIST. 

make many tricks ; a weak one the contrary. The terms are often mis- 
used when parts of the hand only are referred to ; as, for example, when 
you are advised to " lead up to the weak hand," which merely refers to 
a hand weak in the particular suit you lead. 

Strengthening play is getting- rid of high cards in any suit, the 
effect of which is to give an improved value to the lower cards of that 
suit still remaining in, and so to strengthen the hand that holds them. 
Strengthening play is most beneficial to the hand that is longest in 
the suit. 

Tenace. — A tenace, in modern Whist,* is understood to mean the 
combination, in the same hand, of the best and third best card for the 
time being of any suit ; as, for example, the ace and queen originally, 
or the king and ten when the ace and knave have been played . 

The advantage of this combination is that, if you are fourth player in 
the suit, you will certainly (bar trumping) make two tricks in it ; and it 
is therefore much to your interest that the suit should be led by your left- 
hand adversary. 

The word has nothing to do with te?i and ace ; it probably comes from 
the Latin tenax, the policy being to hold back the suit containing the 
tenace rather than to lead it. 

A minor tenace is the combination of the second and fourth best 
cards. 

Under-play usually signifies keeping back best cards, and playing 
subordinate ones instead. This is sometimes advantageous in trumps, 
or in plain suits when strong in trumps, or when trumps are out ; but it 
requires care and judgment to avoid evil consequences from deceiving 
your partner, and from having your best cards subsequently rufled. 

Weakness, Weak Suit. See Strength. 

On the Management of Trumps. — The treatment of trumps is a 
great puzzle to ill-taught players, who generally use them in the wildest 
and most unskilful way. To play them in detail to the best advantage 
always requires much judgment, even in the most educated ; but the 
general principles of their management are easily and clearly determined 
by our theory, as we shall endeavor to show. 

Trumps may be used for three distinct purposes — namely : 

i. To play as ordinary or plain suits. This use, however, ignores their 
higher or special value, and ought therefore to be made quite subordinate 
to the other two. 

* The old writers use this word as referring rather to the position than th# 
cards ; but the meaning in the text is the more modern one. 



WHIST. 



17 



2. To make tricks by trumping. 

3. To aid in making your own or your partner's long suits or high 
cards. 

The theory we have enunciated points clearly to the third use of 
trumps as the highest and most scientific, and accordingly this applica- 
tion of them is always the most prominent in the scientific game. It is 
obvious that the chief obstacle to making long suits is their being trumped 
by the adversary ; and that therefore the advantage will be with that 
party who, having predominant strength in trumps, can succeed in draw- 
ing,those of the adversaries. 

For this reason, whenever you have five trumps, whatever they are, 
or whatever the other components of your hand, you should lead them ; 
for the probability is that three, or at most four, rounds will exhaust 
those of the adversaries, and you will still have one or two left to bring 
in your own or your partner's long suits, and to stop those of the enemy. 
And notice, that it is numerical strength of trumps that is most import- 
ant for this purpose, so that you must not be deterred from leading them, 
even if all five should be small ones ; for in this case probably your part- 
ner will hold honors, and even if the honors are all against you, you will 
probably soon bring down two together. 

Management of Plain Suits.— Long Suit Lead. We will show 
the general application of the scientific theory to the play of suits not 
trumps, or, as they are called, plain suits. 

Supposing you have first lead, not being very strong in trumps, but 
having a long suit in your hand. Adhering to the established mode of 
11 opening," you lead from your long suit, thereby at once informing 
your partner what is the chief component of your hand. He will recollect 
this, and as it is his duty to return your lead hereafter, and your interest 
to persevere in your suit, you will have the opportunity of M making" any 
good cards in it which the joint hands may contain, and you may prob- 
ably after three rounds be left with one or two long cards of it in yom 
own hand. These long cards will then become very valuable ; if the 
trumps can be extracted from the adverse hands, and you can get the 
lead, either by a trump or a card of re-entry, they will make certain 
tricks : if any trumps remain against you, the long cards may be made 
powerful weapons of offence by forcing them out ; so that in either case 
the system of play will be advantageous for you. 

Next comes the question, What card should you lead from your long 
suit ? To answer this fully would involve more detail than we purpose 
to go into here, but there are some prominent considerations tnat will 
serve at guides for g^nerai practice. 



1 8 WHIST. 

As an abstract principle, it is not good to part with your high caras 
at first, as it is very desirable to retain the complete command of the 
suit at a later period. Suppose, for instance, you hold ace, king, 
and three small ones; the most advantageous lead (if it were not for 
a consideration we shall enter into by and by) would be a small one: 
for on the second round you would have the complete command with 
your ace and king, being able probably thereby to draw all the others 
and pursue your suit to the end. When you have such command, 
your suit is said to be established, and it is evidently advantageous 
for you to get this effected as early as you possibly can. This prin- 
ciple would, therefore, dictate that your first lead should generally 
be the lowest of your suit. 

But there is a circumstance which considerably modifies the appli- 
cation of this principle in practice — that is, the risk of the suit being 
ruffed by the adversaries; — on which account it is advisable to depart 
in some measure fro ■ it for the sake of making your winning cards 
early. Thus in the above hand of ace, ^king, and three small ones, 
if you were to begin with the smallest, reserving your two high cards 
for the second and third rounds, you would probably have one of 
them trumped; for which reason it is good policy to play them out 
first, at the risk of delaying the establishment of your suit. 

The first-named principle will, however, always apply for leading 
trumps, and also for plain suits when trumps *>are out, as the motive 
for the departure from it then no longer exists. 

There is also another kind of exception from beginning with the 
lowest, but which directly tends to promote the early establishment 
of your suit; namely, when you have a high sequence, such as Q. 
Kn. 10, at the head of your hand. In this case your endeavor should 
be to force out the higher cards, for which purpose you lead the 
highest of your sequence, say the queen, which will be almost sure to 
force out either the ace or king; if the other is also against you, you 
may, on another round, bring it out with the knave, leaving you then 
with the best card and probably with the entire command. 



rui.es and directions for play. 

Many collections of Rules, carried out in considerable detail, will be 
found in the best modern works on Whist; but it will be useful to 
give here a short summary of the principal ones, arranged in a con- 
venient form for reference. 

It must be explained that among such rules are included many which 



WHIST. 19 

have no direct reference to the theory of the game, but are matters of de* 
tail, providing for what we may call the accidents of play. 

SUMMARY OF RULES AND DIRECTIONS FOR PLAY. 

The principles on which most of these rules are based will be found in 
the foregoing theoretical considerations. Some further explanations, to- 
gether with notes of exceptions and other useful remarks, are appended. 

The Lead.— Let your first or principal lead be from your best long 
suit. 

If you have two suits, each of more than three cards, you may pre- 
fer the one which is strongest in high cards ; but always avoid, if 
possible, an original lead from a suit of less than four. 

Holding in this suit ace and king, lead king first, then ace. 

This is preferable to beginning with the ace, as it may sometimes 
convey useful information. No good partner would trump your 
king led. 

If you hold ace, king, queen, lead king first, then queen, for the 
same reason. 

Holding king and queen, lead king. 

And, if it wins, a small one, as the ace ought to be with your 
partner. 

Holding king, queen, knave, ten, lead the lowest of the sequence, 
to induce your partner to put on the ace, if he has it, and leave you 
with the command. 

Holding ace, queen, knave, lead ace, then queen. 

So as to obtain the command with the knave. If your partner 
holds the king, he ought to put it on the queen (if he can trust your 
leading from a long suit), so as not to obstruct your establishment of 
the suit. 

Holding ace and four others (not including king, or queen with knave ), 
lead ace, then a small one. 

To prevent the chance of your ace being trumped second round. 

Holding queen, knave, ten, or knave, ten, nine, at the head of your 
Suit, lead the highest. 

It is an old and well-known rule to "lead the highest of a se- 
quence." But like many other rules, when the reason of it is not 
comprehended, it is often totally misunderstood and misapplied. 



20 WHIST. 

'the object of doiog this is to prevent your partner from putting on 
tne next highest, if he has it ; but there are many cases where you 
Owght to desire him to put it on, and where, consequently, the lowest 
ou^ht to be played — as, for example, when you hold a quart to a 
king, as before directed. In a general way the rule should apply 
only to a high sequence heading the suit in your own hand, and not 
to low or subordinate sequences, to lead the highest of which would 
only deceive your partner without doing you any good. See an ex- 
ample in the note to the following rule, and also remarks on the 
trump lead. 

In other cases lead the lowest card of your suit. 

If you hold king, knave, ten, nine, and a small one, lead the nine ' 
if king, knave, ten, and others, the ten. These are exceptional com 
binations. 

If trumps are out before you open your suit, you should lead differently, 
keeping back your high cards. 

See the rules for trump leads, which apply in a great measure to 
this case also. 

Lead your own long suit, if you have one, before you return youi 
partner's. 

U nless you happen to hold the master-card in your partner's suit, 
which you should part with as early as you can, to get it out of your 
partner's way, and prevent his imagining it is against him. 

In returning your partner's lead, if you held not more than three 
cards, of the suit originally, always return the highest you have left. 

To strengthen his hand, and as a conventional signal. If you 
originally held four, return the lowest, unless you have the master- 
card, which play out at once, as before directed. Also, if you happen 
to have discarded one of the four, play as if you had held only three. 

It is good to lead a suit in which your right hand adversary is weak^ 
•r your left hand strong. 

I. e., lead up to the weak suit, or through the strong one. On 
this principle avoid, if possible, returning your partner's suit, if you 
have won his lead cheaply. 

(Indication of strength is given by the lead — of weakness by th* 
©lay of third and fourth hand, and by the discard.) 



WHIST. 2\ 

If obliged tb lead from a suit of less than four cards, the general rule 
k to lead the highest. 

To inform your partner. If you have any reason to know he is 
long in the suit, the rule admits of no exception ; but if you are 
doubtful on this point, it may be taken with some reserve. For ex- 
ample, if you hold an honor and two small cards in a suit respecting 
which no indication has yet been given, to lead the honor might not 
only throw away a chance of making it, but strengthen one of your 
adversaries. 

Avoid leading a suit which one adversary ruffs, and the other dis- 
cards to. 

Unless you are sure of forcing the strong trump hand. 

Toward the end of the hand it may often win you an extra trick k 
avoid leading from a tenace or a " guarded second," and to try and induce 
your left-hand adversary to lead that suit for you. 

This is one of the points in which fine play is best shown. 

Second Hand. — The general rule for the second hand is to play your 
lowest. 

For your partner has a good chance of winning the trick ; and the 
strength being on your right, it is good to reserve your high cards 
(particularly tenaces, such as ace and queen) for the return of the 
lead, when you will become fourth player. 

With one honor and one small card the best players adhere to this 
rule. 

The following are some of the most usual exceptions to this rule : 
Holding Ace and King, put on King. 

41 King and Queen, " Queen. 

11 Ace, Queen, Knave, " Knave. 
" Ace, Queen, ten, " Queen. 

Also, if you have two high cards in sequence (as queen and knave, or 
knave and ten), with only one other ; or if you have three high cards in 
sequence with any number, it is generally considered right to play the low- 
est of the sequence second hand. 

To help your partner in case of the third hand being weak. There 
is, however, some danger of this being mistaken for the signal for 
trumps, and your partner must be on his guard. 



22 WHIST. 

The second round of a suit, it is generally right to win the trick, second 
hand, if you hold the best card. 

Great strength in trumps, however, which always warrants a back- 
ward game, may sometimes justify you in leaving it to your partner, 
particularly as you thereby keep the command of the adversary's suit. 

If an honor is led, you should generally put a higher honor upon it. 

But if you are strong in the suit, you may husband your strength 
and play a small one. 

Do not trump a doubtful trick second hand if strong in trumps : if 
weak, trump fearlessly. 

Third Hand. — The general rule for the third hand is to play the 
highest you have. 

In order not only to do your best to win the trick, but to strengthen 
your partner's long suit, by getting the high cards out of his way. 
If you have a head sequence, remember to play the lowest of it. 

This rule is subject, however, to the peculiar attribute of the third hand 
as regards finessing. 

To know how to finesse properly requires great judgment and ex* 
perience, but there are a few useful rules of general application : 

a . The first-time round of a suit, if you hold ace and queen, you 
always play the queen. 

b. With this exception, it is wrong in principle to finesse in your 
partner's long suit, as he wants the high cards out of his way. If 
you see that he leads from weakness, or if he leads you strengthen- 
ing cards in your own long suit, you may finesse more freely. 

c. It is dangerous to finesse the second-time round of a suit, as 
the chances are it will be trumped the third time. 

d. If, however, you are strong in trumps, you may finesse much 
more freely, as your trumps may enable you to bring your high 
cards in. 

e. With minor tenace it is generally proper to finesse the second 
round, as the best card must probably be to your left ; and if the 
third best is there also, both your cards must be lost in any case. 

f. It is of no use to finesse if the previous play has shown that the 
intermediate card, against which you finesse, does not lie to your 
right ; for in that case it must be either with your partner or your 
left-hand adversary, in either of which cases finessing is obviously 
useless. 



WHIST. 23 



g. The advisableness or not of finessing in certain cases late in 
the hand, is often determined by the fall of the cards or the state 
of the score; e. g., when you particularly want one trick to win 
or save the game, or if, from what you know of your partner's 
or opponents' cards, you see you can only get one, it would be 
wrong to finesse for the chance of gaining two. 

Be careful to watch the fall of the cards from your left-hand 
neighbor, in order that, if he proves weak in a suit, you may avoid 
wasting high cards when small ones would suffice to win the trick 
over him. This is very necessary, as your partner is often likely to 
lead up to the weak hand. 

Fourth Hand. — In this you have in most cases little to do but to 
win the trick as cheaply as you can. 

And recollect, if you do win it cheaply, it may afford you a 
hint for a good lead when you are in want of one. 

Cases sometimes arise, however, towards the close of the hand, 
where it is advisable not to win the trick. 

As, for example, when by not doing so you can force your 
left-hand adversary to lead up to your tenace or guarded second. 

There are also cases in which ft is advisable to win a trick already 
your partner's. 

As, for example, to get high obstructing cards out of his 
way, or to enable you to lead up to a weak hand, or otherwise to 
alter the position of the lead. 

Management of Trumps. — If you have five or more trumps al- 
ways lead them, or signal to your partner to do so.* 

As explained in the foregoing theoretical remarks. 

A trump lead from four may be warranted by strength, either of 
your own hand or your partner's in other suits, but always requires 
judgment and care. 

But if you have a long suit to bring in, it is generally best, 
with four trumps, to lead the plain suits first. 



* Good players are sometimes more cautious in asking for trumps 
than in leading them. The rule given by one of the best modern 
authorities is, not to ask for trumps unless you hold four with two 
honors, or five with one honor, together with good cards in one of 
the hands. It is simpler, however, for learners to adhere to the rule 
always to lead or ask for trumps when they hold five. 



24 



WHIST. 



h tramp lead from three or less is seldom wise, being only justifiable 
by great strength in all other suits, or by special necessity, such as stop* 
ping a cross ruff, etc. 

You must not lead trumps simply because your long suit is trumped, 
for if your adversaries are strong in them, you will only be playing 
their game. 

The proper card to lead from your own strong suit of trumps varies a 
Sttle from that of common suits. 

For the latter is influenced by the chance of being ruffed, from 
which the trump suit is free. 

For this reason, unless you have commanding strength enough to 
disarm the adversaries at once, you play a more backward game, 
generally leading your lowest, to give the chance of the first trick to 
your partner. 

It is also very often advantageous to reserve a high trump to give 
you the lead the third tim round, as in case of adverse strength of 
trumps remaining against you, ii may enable you to force it with 
much advantage. 

If you have ace, king, queen, or any other commanding sequence, 
lead the lowest of them first, and then the next lowest, and so on, to 
inform your partner. 

If you have ace, king, knave of trumps, it is good to lead the king 
and then stop, waiting for the return f the lead in order to finesse 
the knave. 

If your partner asks for trumps, you are bound to lead them, and if 
he leads them you are bound to return them, the first opportunity. 

Remember in either case, if you had not more than three, to 
play your highest, in order to strenghten his hand. 

In inferring that your partner has asked for trumps, recollect 
that there are cases in which he may have necessarily played the 
highest card first: in the trump signal it must be played un- 
necessarily. 

Never lead through an honor turned up, unless you otherwise want 
trumps led. On the other hand, do not hesitate to lead up to an 
honor, if you are strong in them. 
As explained at page 

You may finesse in trumps much more deeply than in plain suits 
As master cards must ultimately make. 



IV HIST. 25 

Ruff freely when weak in trumps, but not when strong. 
See directions for the Second Hand. 

It may often be advisable when strong in trumps even to re- 
fuse to trump a trick which is certainly against you, as your 
trumps will ultimately make, and you may perhaps discard ad- 
vantageously. If you see your partner do this, he will probably 
want trumps led, and you must carefully avoid forcing him. 

Do not force your partner if weak in trumps yourself.* 

At least, not until you have ascertained it will do him no in- 
jury; for your weakness renders it probable he may be strong, 
when forcing may be the worst injury you could do. 

On the other hand, force a strong trump hand of the adversary 
whenever you can. 

Whenever you are not strong enough to lead trumps, you are 
weak enough to force your adversary. 

If, when you or your partner are leading trumps, one adversary 
renounces, you should not generally continue the suit. 

As you would be expending two for one drawn. Your proper 
game is then to try and make your and your partner's trumps 
separately. 

It may, however, often be advisable, even under this disad- 
vantage, totally to disarm the adversary if you or your partner 
have cards or suits to bring in. In this case the renouncing hand 
should be led up to, rather than through. 

Similarly, if your partner renounces trumps, it is generally ad- 
visable to go on. 

As you draw two trumps by expending one. 

If you are dealer, retain the turn-up card as long as you can. 

To inform your partner; if not, recollect it, and notice when 
it falls. When, however, the adversaries are drawing trumps, it 
may sometimes be advisable to part with it unnecessarily, in order 
to make them believe you have no more. 

* One of the best modern players defines "four trumps with one 
honor" as sufficient strength to warrant your forcing your partner. 



WHIST. 

General Directions. — Sort your cards carefully, both according to 
suit and rank, and count the number of each suit. 

Thte wffl greatly assist the memorv. 

If not leading, always play the lowest of a sequence. 

Thte is one of the modern conventional rales by which Information 
k conveyed to your partner as to the contents of your hand, and Y- 
you have an observant and educated partner It must be carefully ao 
heredto. 

Get rid of the commanding cards of your partner's long suit as soot 

as possible. Retain those of the adversaries' suits as long as yon conven* 

ently can. 

Discard generally from short or weak suits, not from long or strong 

ones. 

For the cards of the former are of very little use, while those of the 

latter may be very valuable. Besides, your first discard is generally 

a very important source of information to your partner. 

It is, however, sometimes worth while to break the rule for the sake 

of retaining a guard to an honor or second-best card, particularly in 

your adversaries 1 suits. 

When you have the entire command of any suit, it is a conventional 
signal for you to discard (when the opportunity arises) the btst card, in 
order to inform your partner. 

Thus, having ace, king, queen, and knave of a suit not led, you 
would discard the ace ; for it must be obvious that yon would not do 
this unless you had others equally good behind. 

Discarding the second best generally intimates yon have no more of 
mat suit. 

You throw k away because ft is not likely to make. 

Be careful in the management of your small cards. 

In order not to mislead your partner. Do not throw away esxv 
lessly a three or four if you hold a two. 

When your partner first renounces a suit, call his attention to the met 

As it may save a revoke. 

Keep constantly in mind the desirableness of affording information tc 
your partner, of obtaining information as to his hand, and of playing; the 
hands jointly. 

11ns being the essence of the modern game. 



- WHIST. - %j 

Pay attention to the state of the score, which ought often to influence 
your play. 

Remember that the third trick saves the game when honors are 
equal ; that the fifth saves it against two by honors, and the seventh 
against four by honors. Note also that the odd trick is twice as val- 
uable as any other, as it makes a difference of two to the score. 
Notice, further, when you are near winning the game, how many 
tricks are wanting for that purpose. 

In all these cases it may be expedient to modify the usual play fof 
the sake of getting the trick you want in preference to speculating 
for more ; for when you particularly require one trick, it would be 
folly to risk it (by finessing, for example) in order to have the chance 
of gaining two. 

The state of the score may sometimes influence your whole plan. 
For example, if the adversaries are four, and you have a bad hand, 
you should lead your best trump, as before explained. 

Consider also the effect of the lead. 

It is often desirable to depart from the usual modes of play for the 
sake of gaining the lead, or of giving it to your partner. 

And it is also sometimes worth while even to throw away a trick in 
order to give the lead to one of your adversaries ; as, for example, 
to make them lead up to a tenace or guarded second. 

These two latter rules afford the principal opportunities for fine 
play. 

Do not be discouraged when sound play fails of success, which must 
often occur. 

INFERENCES. 

The following are some examples of the way in which inferences may 
be drawn from cards played : 

Play. Inference. 

Lead. 

(I* the player's own first lead.) N.B. When there is an alter no* 

tive, your own hand, or the fall 
of the other cards \ will often de- 
termine it. No account is here 
taken of the signal for trumps, 
which will sometimes modify th* 
inference to be drawn. 



28 



WHIST. 



Plat. 



Inference, 



Lead {continued). 



Any plain suit. 



King. 

Ace, followed by queen. 
Ace, followed by a small one. 
Queea (plain suits). 



Does not hold it. 
Has no more. 



(In returning his partners lead.) 
Does not lead out the master card. 
Any card, afterward dropping a 

lower one. 
Any card, afterward dropping a Has more. 

higher one. 
{Generally.) 
Forces his partner. 
Refrains from doing so. 



Is the best in his hand ; he holds 
four or more of it ; and has not 
five trumps. 

Holds also either queen or ace. 

Holds knave also. 

Had originally five or more. 

Holds also knave and ten ; but not 
ace or king. 



Is strong in trumps. 
Is weak in them. 



King (to small one led). 
Queen (ditto). 

Knave (ditto). 



Any smaller card. 
Trumps a doubtful trick. 
Does not trump it. 



Ace. 

Cannot win the trick. 
Wins it with any card. 



Second Flayer. 

Holds ace also, or no more. 

Holds king also, or ace and ten, 
or no more. 

Holds also queen and king, or 
queen and ace, or queen and one 
other only, or no more. 

Has none lower. 

Has not more than three trumps. 

Has more than three. 

Third Player. 

Holds neither king nor queen. 

fourth Player. 

Has no card higher than the one 

against him. 
Has no card between this and the 

one against him, 



WHIST. 2$ 

Second^ Third, or Fourth Player, 
Any card. Has not the one next below it. 

Refuses to trump a trick certainly Probably is strong in trumps, and 

against him. wants them led. 

Any discard, generally. Is weak in that suit. 

Discards the best of any suit. Has the next best and the full com- 

mand. 
Discards the second best. Has no more. 

Plays unnecessarily a higher card Signal for trumps. 

before a lower. 

When it is considered that several of these opportunities for inference 
will occur in every trick, it will cease to be a matter of wonder what a 
clear insight skilled and observant players will, after a few tricks, obtain 
into each others hands. 

EXAMPLES OF HANDS. 

The following are a few simple hands played through. They are not 
intended to exemplify skill, for, as in almost all hands, the play might 
admit of modification according to the capabilities of the several players ; 
they have merely the object of illustrating the routine practice of some of 
the more common and important points in the modern game — such as 
the signal for trumps, forcing, the return of a suit, discarding, and so on. 

A and C are partners against B and D ; the attention being chiefly 
directed to the play of the two former. The reader is supposed to play 
the elder hand A. The winner of each trick is marked with an asterisk. 



3° 



WHIST. 



Example I. 

The object of this example is to illustrate the making of a long plain 
suit by the aid of your partners long suit of trumps ; the trump lead 
being called for by signal. 

Hearts. Kg. 8, 6, 4, 2. 
Spades, 6, 2, 
Diamonds. 9, 6, 3, % 
Cluhs. A. 7. 



Hearts. A. Q. Kn. 
Spades. 8, 7, 5. 
Diamonds. A. ia 
Clubs. Q. Kn. 10, 5, 
3- 



C 

Hearts Trumps. 

B D 

(Dealer) 

9 turned up. 

A 



Hearts. 9, 5, 3« 
Spades. Q. Kn. 
Diamonds. Kg. 

Kn. 8, 7. 
Clubs. 9,4,2. 



Hearts. 10, 7. 

Spades. A. Kg. 10, * * 3. 

Diamonds. 5, 4. 
Kg. 8, 6. 



WHIST. 



V 



Trick. Ftajr. 

L *A King of Sp. 
B 5 M 
C6 " 

Remark.— Having five tru 


mps, 

l not 

that 

and 

the 


Trick. Pity. 

V. BQ. ofCL 
*C A. « 
D2 M 

A6 • 


C signals to have them led. £ 
seeing the 2 fall, will know 
some one is asking for trumps, 
will therefore carefully watch 
next round. 

D Knave of Sp. 


VI. C4©fH. 
D 9 " 
A 4 of Di. 
*BA.ofH. 


II. *A Ace of Sp. 
B 7 
C 2 M 

Remark.— Trump signal 1 
pleted. 

D Q. of Sp. 


com- 


VII. B Kn. of Ci. 

C 7 

D4 «• 

*AKg. • 






III. A 10 of H. 

Remark. — In obedience to trump 
signal. 

B Kn. of H. 

*C Kg. " 
D3 


VIII. *AioofSp. 

Remark. — A has now brougte, 
in his long suit, and pursues it tc 
the end. C discards his diamonds. 
It is immaterial what the adve* 
saries play. 


IV. C2ofH. 

D 5 ' 

A 7 ■ 

# B Q. " 


IX. *A9ofSp. 
X. *A4 " 
XI. *A 3 * 
XII. *C 6 of H. 
XIII. *C S u 



The result is that A and C win a treble by cards against two by honots 
ind other considerable adverse strength. 



32 



WHIST. 



Example II. 

In this the elder hand (A) has the same long suit as before, but tfi€ 
■strength in trumps is now given to the adversaries. The example is in 
tended to illustrate how a long suit, though it may not be brought in. 
may be made useful in forcing the strong adverse trump hand. 



Hearts 
Spades 



Q. Kn. 5. 
6. 



Diamonds. A. 8, 7, 3. 
Clubs. A. Q. Kn. 7, 2. 





c 


Hearts. Kg. 10, 6, 


Hearts. A, 9, 8. 


Hearts Trumps. 


4,2. 


Spades. 8, 7, 5, 2. 


B D 


Spades. Q. Kn. 


Diamonds. 9, 6, 2 


(Dealer) 


Diamonds. Kg. Q, 


Clubs. 10, 4, 3. 


King turned up. 


Kn. 10. 




A 


Clubs. 9, 5. 



Hearts. 7, 3. 

Spades. A. Kg. *>, 9, 4, 3. 

Diamonds. 5, 4. 

Clubs. Kg. 8,6. 



WHISft 



33 



Trick. Play. 




Trick. Play. 


I. *A King of Sp. 




VII. *C A. ofCL 


B 2 




D5 " 


C6 




A 6 " 


DQ. 




B 3 « 


Remark. — Commencement 


of 




signal for trumps. 




■ 




II. *A A. of Sp. 




VIII. CQ. ofCL 


Remark.— Better to go on with 


Do " 

*A Kg. " 


spades at the risk of being trumped 


than to open a new weak suit. 




B 5 of Sp. 




Remark.— To get rid of the 


C 3 of Di. 




command. 


D Kn. of Sp. 




B 4 of CI. 


Remark. — Signal completed. 










III. AioofSp. 

Remark. — To force the adverse 


IX. A 9 of Sp. 


hand, which has, by asking 


for 


Remark.— Repeating the force 


trumps, declared itself strong 


in 


to extract the last trump. 


them. 

B 7 of Sp. 
C 7 of Di. 




B 8 of Sp. 




C 8 of Di. 


*D 2 of H. 




*D io of H. 


IV. D4ofH. 






A3 " 
*B A. " 




X. D io of DL 




A 5 " 


C 5 " 




B2 " 
*CA. " 


V. BgofH. 






C Kn. of H. 




*D Kg. " 




XI. *C Kn. of CI. 


A 7 




Remark. — The adverse trumps 




being now all forced out, C, hav- 






ing gained the lead by a card of re- 


VI. D 6 of H. 




entry, brings in his clubs, and makes 


A 4 of Di. 




them all. 


B 8 of H. 




XII. *C 7 of CI. 


# CQ. " 




XIII. *C 2 " 



A and C gain 3 by cards, 



34 



WHIST. 



Example III. 

The object of thjs is to illustrate the value of the discard as a 
means of communicating information. 



Hearts. A. 9, 7, 6. 
Spades. 6, 2. 

Diamonds. Q. Kn. 10, 9, 4. 
Clubs. 8, 3. 



Spades. Kn. 10, 4. 
Diamonds. A. 3. 
Clubs. A. Q. 9, 7, 2. 
Hearts. Q. 8, 5. 



Hearts Trumps. 

B D 

(Dealer) 
10 turned up. 

A 



Hearts. Kn. 10, 3. 
Spades. 9, 8, 7. 
Diamonds. 8, 7, 6, 2. 
Clubs. Kn. 10, 4. 



Hearts. Kg. 4, 2. 
Spades. A. Kg. Q. 5, 3. 
Diamonds. Kg. 5. 
Clubs. Kg. 6, 5. 



WHIST. 



35 



xikx* tnt&» 


L # AKingofSp. 


B 4 


C2 


D7 


II. *A Q. of Sp. 


B 10 " 


C 6 " 


D 8 " 


HL *AA.ofSp. 


BKn. M 



C 3 of CI. 
Remark. — This discard at once 
gives great insight into C's hand. 
He discards from his weak suit, 
and therefore he ought to be strong 
ki trumps and diamonds. But he 
has not 5 trumps or he would have 
signalled for them, and hence, in 
all probability, he has at least 4 or 
5 diamonds. 

D 9 of Sp. 



IV. A Kg. of Di. 

Remark.— The spade lead being 
now unadvisable, A is justified in 
acting on the information gained 
by his partner's discard, and leads 
a, strengthening diamond. 

*B A. of Di. 

C4 " 
Da " 



V. *BA. oiCL 
C8 " 
D 4 
A 5 " 



Trick. Flay. 
VI. B2ofCL 
C Q. of DL 

Remark.— This second discard 
completes the full information as to 
B's hand. In the first place, hav- 
ing passed a doubtful trick, he has 
more than three trumps, and, as we 
have seen, he has not five, he must 
have four with three diamonds 
Secondly, his discarding the best 
diamond shows he has perfect com- 
mand of the suit remaining behind 

D 10 of CI. 
•A Kg. M 



VII. *A Kg. of H. 

Remark. — Strengthening trump 
lead, justified by the knowledge 
gained in the last trick. 

B 5 of H. 
C6 <c 
D3 " 



A and C win 4 by cards< 



VIII. 


A 4 ofH. 
B8 " 
*C A. " 
Dio " 


IX. 


C 7 of H. 
D Kn. of H. 
A 2 
*B Q. " 


X. B Q. of a. 

*C 9 of H. 

Remark. — Uses the last trump 
to bring in his diamonds. 

D Kn. of CL 

A 6 


XI. 

XII. 
XIII. 


*C oofDI. 
*C 10 " 
*C Kn. «« 



36 



WHIST. 



Example IV. 

The object of this h to illustrate the advantage of returning: the propel 
card of your partner's lead, as a means of conveying information. 

Hearts. A. 9, 3, 2. 
Spades. A. Q. 6, 2. 
Diamonds. Kg. 5, 4. 
Clubs. 6, 3. 



Hearts. 8, 5, 4. 

Spades. Kn. 5. 
Diamonds. A, Q. 

8,3. 
Clubs. A. Kg. 4« 



Kn. 



c 




Hearts Trumps. 


Hearts. Kn. 6. 


B D 


Spades. io, 9, 8, % 


(Dealer) 


Diamonds, 9, 6. 


6 turned up. 


Clubs. Q. io, 9, fe a. 


A 





Hearts. Kg. Q. 10, ^ 
Spades. Kg. 4, 3. 
Diamonds. 10, 7, 3. 



WHIST. 



37 



Trick. Play. 
I. A7ofH. 

Remark. — In this hand every 
plain suit is so bad to lead that the 
trump lead with such strength is 
^uite justifiable. 

B 4 of H. 
D6 M 



II. C201H. 

Rem ark. —From this card re- 
turned C must either have four or 
no more. 



D Kn. of H. 
*AQ. « 
B5 



III. *A 10 of H. 

Remark.— It is justifiable to take 
out another round of tramps, though 
two may fall for one ; partly to see 
how they lie, and partly to get a dis- 
card from some one as a guide for 
the next lead. Leading the 10 in- 
stead of the King is an additional 
assurance to your partner that you 
have still one left. 

B 8 of H. 

C3 " 

Remark. — This card shows that 
C, having returned his lowest in 
the last trick, had four at first, and 
has consequently now one remain- 
ing, which therefore you are careful 
not to draw, as the game will de- 
pend on the two being made sepa- 
rately. 

D 6 of Di. 



Trick. Play. 

IV. A 10 of Di. 

Remark.— For want of a bettei 
lead, you lead up to the suit that 
has been declared weak. 

B Kn. of Di. 
*C Kg. " 
D9 " 



V. 



C 2 of Sp. 
D7 " 
*A Kg. of Sp. 
B5 



VI. A4ofSp. 

Remark. — See remark, next 
trick. 

B Kn. of Sp. 
*C Q. " 
D 8 



VII. *C A. of Sp. 
Dq " 

A3 " 
Remark. — This shows that yon 
(A), having returned your highest, 
had not more than three spades 
originally, and consequently have 
no more left. Your partner (C), 
therefore, observing this, sees that 
by leading the losing spade he will 
enable you to make your trump 
separately from his, which will win 
the game. 

B 4 of CI. 



VIII. C 6ofSp. 
D 10 " 

*A Kg. of H. 

Remark. — You trump without 
hesitation, knowing your partner to 
hold the other trump. 

B 3 of Di. 



C makes the last trump, and A and C make 3 by cards aad 
2 by honors, winning a treble 



at 



WMIST. 



Example V. 

This example is given to show how singularly, under extreme circum- 
stances, the bringing in of a long suit may annihilate the most magnifi* 
cent cards. The hand is a very remarkable Whist curiosity: A and C 
hold all the honors in every plain suit, and two honors in trumps, and 
yet do not make a single trick 1 

Spades. Q. Kn. 

Diamonds. Kn. 10, 9, 8, 7, & 

Clubs. io, 9, 8, 7, 6. 



Hearts. A, Q* lo» 8. 
Spades. io> * 8» 7, 
6, 5, 4* 3» 2. 



Hearts Trumps. 

B D 

(Dealer) 

2 turned up. 

A 



Hearts. 6,5,4,3,2. 
Diamonds. 5, 4, 3, 3. 
Clubs. 5,4,3t3- 



Hearts. Kg. Kn. 9, 7. 
Spades. A. Kg. 
Diamonds. A. Kg. Q. 
Clubs. A Kg. Q. Kb. 



WHIST. 



& 



Trick. Play. 
I. A7ofH. 

Remark. — There can be no 
doubt about this being the proper 
lead. 

*B 8 of H. 
C 6 of a. 
D 2 of H- 



II. 



B 2 of Sp. 
C Kn. " 
*D 3 of H. 
A Kg. of Sp. 



III. »4ofH. 

Remark.— The propriety of this 
lead is often questioned ; but it is 
defended by the impolicy of leading" 
either of the extremely weak plain 
suits, and by the lead of trumps being 
up to a renouncing hand, and, there- 
fore, the most favorable possible. 
Also, by giving B the lead again, it 
enables him to continue the spade 
for D to make his small trumps 
upon. 

AgofH. 
*B io " 

c 7 of a. 



Trick. Play. 
IV. B 3 of Sp. 
CQ. - 
*D 5 of H. 
A A. of Sp. 



D 6 of H, 
A Kn. " 
*BQ. " 
C 8 of CI. 



VI. *B A. of H. 

A Kg. - 



VII. *B ioofSp. 

VIII. *B 9 " 

IX. *B 8 M 

X. *B 7 M 

XI. *B 6 " 

XII. *B 5 " 

XIII. *B 4 * 



B and D win every trick. 



4 o WHIST. 

RHYMING RULES, MNEMONIC MAXIMS, AND POCKET 

PRECEPTS. 

BEING SHORT MEMORANDA OF IMPORTANT POINTS. TO BE KEPT IN MIND 
BY THOSE WHO WOULD PRACTICE THE MODERN SCIENTIFIC GAME 
OF WHIST. 



If you the modern game of Whist would know f 
From this great principle its precepts flow : 
Treat your own hand as in your partner's joined, 
And play, not one alone, but both combined. 

Your first lead makes your partner understand 

What is the chief component of your hand ; 

And hence there is necessity the strongest 

That your first lead be from your suit thafs longest. 

In this, with ace and king, lead king, then ace ; 
With king and queen, king also has first place ; 
With ace, queen y knave, lead ace and then the queen; 
With ace, four small ones, ace should first be seen ; 
With queen, knave, ten, you let the queen precede ; 
In other cases, you the lowest lead. 
Ere you return your friend's your own suit play ; 
But trumps you must return without delay. 

When you return your partner's lead, take pains 
To lead him back the best your hand contains, 
If you received not mc^e than three at first ; 
If you had more, you may return the worst. 

But if you hold the master card, you're bound 
In most cases to play it second round. 

Whene'er you want a lead, 'tis seldom wrong" 
To lead up to the weak, or through the strong 

If second hand, your louest should be played. 
Unless you mean M trump signal " to be made ; 
Or if you've king and queen, or ace and king, 
Then one of these will be the proper thing. 



WHIST. 



41 



Mind well the rules for trumps, you'll often need them ; 
When you hold five, 'tis always right to lead them 
Or if the lead won't come in time to you, 
Then signal to your partner so to do. 

Watch also for your partner's trump request, 

To which, with less than four, play out your best* 

To lead through honors turned up is bad play, 
Unless you want the trump suit cleared away. 

When, second hand, a doubtful trick you see, 

DotCt trump it if you hold more trumps than threes 

But having three or less, trump fearlessly. 

When weak in trumps yourself, don't force your friend ; 
But always force the adverse strong trump hand. 

For sequences, stern custom has decreed 
The lowest you must play, if you don't lead. 
When you discard, weak suits you ought to choose, 
For strong ones are too valuable to lose. 



THE LAWS OF WHIST. 

ACCORDING TO POLE. 



the; rubber. 



i. The rubber is the best of three games. If the first two games 
be won by the same players, the third game is not played. 

SCORING. 
2. A game consists of five points. Each trick, above six, counts 

one point. 



42 WHIST. 

3. Honors, *. *., Ace, King, Queen, and Knave of trumps, are thus 
reckoned : 

If a player and his partner, either separately or conjointly, hold— 

1. The four honors, they score four points. 
II. Any three honors, they score two points, 
III. Only two honors, they do not score. 

(In the United States, it is getting: to be more and more the custom to 
ignore honors entirely, and not to count them. The odd tricks win and 
honors do not count. Whist then becomes more a game of skill than of 
chance. — Ed.) 

4. If, however, the game of counting honors is agreed upon if four is 
scored, honors do not count by those having four honors. 

5. The penalty for a revoke takes precedence of all other scores. Tricks 
score next. Honors last. 

6. Honors, unless claimed before the trump card of the following deal 
is turned up, cannot be scored. 

7. To score honors is not sufficient ; they must be called at the end ot 
the hand ; if so called, they may be scored at any time during the game. 

8. The winners gain— 

I. A treble, or game of three points, when their adversaries have 

not scored. 
II. A double, or game of two points, when their adversaries have 

scored less than three. 
III. A single, or game of one point, when their adversaries have 

scored three, or four. 

9. The winners of the rubber gain two points (commonly called the 
nibber points), in addition to the value of their games. 

10. Should the rubber have consisted of three games, the value of the 
losers' game is deducted from the gross number of points gained by their 
opponents. 

11. If an erroneous score be proved, such mistake can be corrected 
prior to the conclusion of the game in which it occurred, and such game 
is not concluded until the trump card of the following deal has been 
turned up. 

12. If an erroneous score, affecting the amount of the rubber, be 
proved, such mistake can be rectified at any time du™ng; the rubber. 



WHIST. 43 



CUTTING. 



iy, The ace is the lowest card. 

24. In all cases, every one must cut from the same pack. 

15. Should a player expose more than one card, he must cut 



FORMATION OF TABLE. 

16. It there are more than four candidates, the players are selected by 
cutting : those first in the room having the preference. The four who cut 
the lowest cards play first, and again cut to decide on partners ; the two 
lowest play against the two highest ; the lowest is the dealer, who has 
choice of cards and seats, and, having once made his selection, must 
abide by it. 

17. When there are more than six candidates, those who cut the two 
next lowest cards belong to the table, which is complete with six players ; 
on the retirement of one of those six players, the candidate who cut the 
next lowest card has a prior right to any aftercomer to enter the table. 

CUTTING CARDS OF EQUAL VALUE. 

18. Two players cutting cards of equal value, * unless such cards are 
the two highest, cut again ; should they be the two lowest, a fresh cut is 
necessary to decide which of those two deals. f 

19. Three players cutting cards of equal value cut again ; should the 
fourth (or remaining) card be the highest, the two lowest of the new cut 
are partners, the lower of those two the dealer ; should the fourth card 
be the lowest, the two highest are partners, the original lowest the dealer.}, 



* In cutting for partners. 

t Example. A three, two sixes, and a knave are cut. The two sixe? 
cut again, and the lowest plays with the three. Suppose at the second 
cut, the two sixes cut a king and a queen, the queen plays with thv 
three. 

If at the second cut a lower card than the three is cut, the three 
still retains its privileges as original low, and has the deal and choice 
of cards and seats. 

% Example. Three aces and a two are cut. The three aces cut again. 
The two is the original high, and plays with the highest of the next cut. 

Suppose at the second cut, two more twos and a king are drawn. 
The king plays with the original two, and the other pair of twos cut 
again for deal. 

Suppose, instead, the second cut to consist of an ace and two knaves. 
The two knaves cut again, and the highest plays with the two. 



44 



WHIST. 



CUTTING OUT. 



20. At the end of a rubber, should admission be claimed by any one, 
or by two candidates, he who has, or they who have, played a greater 
number of consecutive rubbers than the others is, or are, out ; but when 
all have played the same number, they must cut to decide upon the out- 
goers ; the highest are out. 

ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY. 

21. A candidate wishing to enter a table must declare such intention 
prior to any of the players having cut a card, either for the purpose of 
commencing a fresh rubber, or of cutting out. 

22. In the formation of fresh tables, those candidates who have neither 
belonged to nor played at any other table have the prior right of entry ; 
the others decide their right of admission by cutting. 

23. Any one quitting a table prior to the conclusion of a rubber, may, 
with consent of the other three players, appoint a substitute in his absence 
during that rubber. 

24. A player cutting into one table, whilst belonging to another, loses 
his right * of re-entry into that latter, and takes his chance of cutting in, 
as if he were a fresh candidate, t 

25. If any one break up a table, the remaining players have the prior 
right to him of entry into any other, and should there not be sufficient 
vacancies at such other table to admit all those candidates, they settle 
their precedence by cutting. 

SHUFFLING. 

26. The pack must neither be shuffled below the table ncsr so that the 
face of any card be seen. 

27. The pack must not be shuffled during the play of the hand. 

i 28. A pack, having been played with, must neither be shuffled, by 
dealing it into packets, nor across the table. 

29. Each player has a right to shuffle, once only, except as provided by 
Rule 32, prior to a deal, after a false cut, % or when a new deal § has 
occurred. 

30. The dealer's partner must collect the cards for the ensuing deal 
and has the first right to shuffle that pack. 

* i. e., his prior right. + And last in the room (vide Law io> 

t Vide Law 34. ft ^**« Law 37. 



WHIST, 



45 



31. Each player, after shuffling, must place the cards, properly collected 
md face downward, to the left of the player about to deal. 

32. The dealer has always the right to shuffle last ; but should a card 
or cards be seen during his shuffling or whilst giving the pack to be cut, 
he may be compelled to re-shuffle. 



THE DEAL. 

33. Each player deals in his turn ; the right of dealing goes to the left. 

34. The player on the dealer's right cuts the pack, and in dividing it, 
must not leave fewer than four cards in either packet ; if in cutting, or in 
replacing one of the two packets on the other, a card be exposed,* or if 
there be any confusion of the cards, or a doubt as to the exact place in 
which the pack was divided, there must be a fresh cut. 

35. When a player, whose duty it is to cut, has once separated the pack, 
he cannot alter his intention ; he can neither re- shuffle nor re-cut the 
cards. 

36. When the pack it cut, should the dealer shuffle the cards, he loses 
his deal. 

A NEW DEAL. 

37. There must be a new deal t — 

I. If, during a deal, or during the play of a hand, the pack be 

proved incorrect or imperfect. 
II. If any card, excepting the last, be faced in the pack. 

38. If, whilst dealing, a card be exposed by the dealer or his partner, 
should neither of the adversaries have touched the cards, the latter can 
claim a new deal ; a card exposed by either adversary gives that claim to 
the dealer, provided that his partner has not touched a card ; if a new 
deal does not take place, the exposed card cannot be called. 

39. If, during dealing, a player touch any of his cards, the adversaries 
may do the same, without losing their privilege of claiming a new deal, 
should chance give them such option. 

40. If, in dealing, one of the last cards be exposed, and the dealer turn 
up the trump before there is reasonable time for his adversaries to decide 
as to a fresh deal, they do not thereby lose their privilege. 

* After the two packets have been re- united. Law 38 comes into operation 
t i. #., the same dealer must deal again. Vide also Laws 47 and 50. 



c — ■ 



46 ' WHIST? 



41. If a player, whilst dealing, look at the trump card, his adversaries 
have a right to see it, and may exact a new deal. 

42. If a player take into the hand dealt to him a card belonging to the 
other pack, the adversaries, on discovery of the error, may decide whetho* 
they will have a fresh deal or not. 

A MISDEAL. 

43. A misdeal loses the deal.* 

44. It is a misdealt — 

I. Unless the cards are dealt into four packets, one at a time in 
regular rotation, beginning with the player to the dealer's 
left. 
II. Should the dealer place the last (**. <?., the trump) card, face 
downward, on his own, or any other pack. 

III. Should the trump card not come in its regular order to the 

dealer ; but he does not lose his deal if the pack be proved 
imperfect. 

IV. Should a player have fourteen \ cards, and either of the other 

three less than thirteen. § 
V. Should the dealer, under an impression that he has made a 
mistake, either count the cards on the table, or the remain- 
der of the pack. 
VI. Should the dealer deal two cards at once, or two cards to the 
same hand, and then deal a third ; but if, prior to dealing 
that third card, the dealer can, by altering the position of 
one card only, rectify such error, he may do so, except as 
provided by the second paragraph of this Law. 
VII. Should the dealer omit to have the pack cut to him, and the 
adversaries discover the error, prior to the trump card be- 
ing turned up, and before looking at their cards, but not 
after having done so. 

45. A misdeal does not lose the deal if, during the dealing, either of 
the adversaries touch the cards prior to the dealer's partner having done 
so; but should the latter have first interfered with the cards, notwith- 
standing either or both of the adversaries have subsequently done the 
same, the deal is lost. 

* Except as provided in Laws 45 and 50. t Vide also Law 36^ 

% Or mere. 5 The pack being perfect. Vid§ Law 47* 



WHIST. 



47 



46. Should three players have their right number of cards — the fourth 
have less than thirteen, and not discover such deficiency until he has 
played any of his cards,* the deal stands good ; should he have played, 
he is as answerable for any revoke he may have made as if the missing 
card, or cards, had been in his hand ;f he may search the other pack for 
it, or them. 

47. If a pack, during or after a rubber, be proved incorrect or imper- 
fect, such proof does not alter any past score, game, or rubber ; that 
hand in which the imperfection was detected is null and void ; the dealer 
deals again. 

48. Any one dealing out of turn, or with the adversary's cards, may 
be stopped before the trump card is turned up, after which the game must 
proceed as if no mistake had been made. 

49. A player can neither shuffle, cut, nor deal for his partner, without 
the permission of his opponents. 

50. If the adversaries interrupt a dealer whilst dealing, either by ques- 
tioning the score or asserting that it is not his deal, and fail to establish 
such claim, should a misdeal occur, he may deal again. 

51. Should a player take his partner's deal, and misdeal, the latter is 
liable to the usual penalty, and the adversary next in rotation to the 
player who ought to have dealt then deals. 

THE TRUMP CARD. 

52. The dealer, when it is his turn to play to the first trick, should take 
the trump card into his hand ; if left on the table after the first trick be 
turned and quitted, it is liable to be called \% his partner may at any 
time remind him of the liability. (This law is never enforced. — Ed.) 

53. After the dealer has taken the trump card into his hand, it cannot 
be asked for ;§ a player naming it at any time during the play of that 
hand is liable to have his highest or lowest trump called. | 

54. If the dealer take the trump card into his hand before it is his turn 
.0 play, he may be desired to lay it on the table ; should he show a wrong 
card, this card maybe called, as also a second, a third, etc., until the 
trump card can be produced. 

* i. e., until after he has played to the first trick 

t Vide also Law 70, and Law 44. 

% It is not usual to call the trump card if left on the taWc 

§ Any one may inquire what the trump suit is, at any 

. hk the manner described in Law. 



4 S WHIST. ' 

55. If the dealer declare himself unable to recollect the trump card, his 
highest or lowest trump may be called at any time during that hand, and, 
unless it cause him to revoke, must be played ; the call may be repeated^, 
feut not changed, t. e. } from highest to lowest, or vice versd t until such 
rard is played. 

CARDS LIABLE TO BE CALLED. 

56. All exposed cards are liable to be called, and must be left * on the 
table ; but a card is not an exposed card when dropped on the floor, or 
elsewhere below the table. 

The following are exposed f cards : 

I. Two or more cards played at once.J 
II. Any card dropped with its face upwards, or in any way ex- 
posed on or above the table, even though snatched up so 
quickly hat no one can name it. 

57. If any one play to an imperfect trick the best card on the table,§ or 
lead one which is a winning card as against his adversaries, and then 
lead againj or play several such winning cards, one after the other, with- 
out waiting for his partner to play, the latter may be called on to win, if 
he can, the first or any other of those tricks, and the other cards thus im- 
properly played are exposed cards. 

58. If a player, or players, under the impression that the game is lost 
—or won — or for other reasons — throw his or their cards on the table face 
upward, such cards are exposed, and liable to be called, each player's by 
the adversary ; but should one player alone retain his hand, he cannot be 
forced to abandon it. 

59. If all four players throw their cards on the table face upwards, the 
hands are abandoned ; and no one can again take up his cards. Should 
this general exhibition show that the game might have been saved or 
won, neither claim can be entertained, unless a revoke be established. 

* Face upwards. 

t Detached cards (/. *., cards taken out of the hand but not dropped) are not 
dable to be called unless named ; vide Law 60. It is important to distinguish 
between exposed and detached cards. 

% If two or more cards are played at once, the adversaries have a right to call 
which they please to the trick m course of play, and afterward to call th4 
others. 

% And then lead without waiting for his partner to play. 
I Without waiting for his partner t» 



WHIST. 49 

The revoking players are tfien liable to the following penalties : they can- 
not under any circumstances win the game by the result of that hand, 
and the adversaries may add three to their score, or deduct three from 
that of the revoking players. 

60. A card detached from the rest of the hand so as to be named is 
liable to be called ; but should the adversary name a wrong card, he is 
liable to have a suit called when he or his partner have the lead.* 

61. If a player, who has rendered himself liable to have the highest or 
lowest of a suit called, fail to play as desired, or if when called on to lead 
one suit, lead another, having in his hand one or more cards of that suit 
demanded, he incurs the penalty of a revoke. 

62. If any player lead out of turn, his adversaries may either call the 
card erroneously led— or may call a suit from him or his partner when it 
is next the turn of either of them f to lead. 

63. If any player lead out of turn, and the other three have followed 
him, the trick is complete, and the error cannot be rectified ; but if only 
the second, or the second and third, have played to the false lead, iheir 
cards, on discovery of the mistake, are taken back ; there is no penalty 
against any one, excepting the original offender, whose card may be 
called — or he, or his partner, when either of them % has next the lead t 
may be compelled to play any suit demanded by the adversaries. 

64. In no case can a player be compelled to play a card which would 
oblige him to revoke. 

65. The call of a card may be repeated § until such card has been 
played. 

66. If a player called on to lead a suit have none of it, the penalty is 
paid. 

CARDS PLAYED IN ERROR, OR NOT PLAYED TO 

A TRICK. 

(S7. If the third hand play before the second, the fourth hand may play 
before his partner. 

* /. e. % the first time that side obtains the lead. 

t i. *., the penalty of calling a suit must be exacted from whichever of them 
next first obtains the lead. It follows that if the player who leads out of turn 
is the partner of the peoson who ought to have led, and a suit is called, it must 
be called at once from the right leader. If he is allowed to play as he pleases^ 
the only penalty that remains is to call the card erroneously led. 

% /. *., whichever of them next first has the lead. 

I At every trick. 



50 WHIST. 

68. Should the third hand not have played, and the fourth play before 
his partner, the latter nay be called on to win, or not to win the trick. 

69. If any one omit playing to a former trick, and such error be not 
discovered until he has played to the next, the adversaries may claim a 
new deal ; should they decide that the deal stand good, the surplus card 
it the end of the hand is considered to have been played to the imperfect 
trick, but does not constitute a revoke therein. 

70. If any one play two cards to the same trick, or mix his trump, or 
other card, with a trick to which it does not properly belong, and the mis- 
take be not discovered until the hand is played out, he is answerable for 
all consequent revokes he may have made.* If, during the play of the 
hand, the error be detected, the tricks may be counted face downward, in 
order to ascertain whether there be among them a card too many : should 
this be the case, they may be searched, and the card restored ; the player 
is, however, liable for all revokes which he may have meanwhile made. 

THE REVOKE. 

71. Is when a player, holding one or more cards of the suit led, plays 
a card of a different suit.f 

72. The penalty for a revoke : — 

I. Is at the option of the adversaries, who at the end of the 

hand, may either take three tricks from the revoking player \ 

— or deduct three points from his score — or add three to 

their own score ; 

II. Can be claimed for as many revokes as occur during the hand ; 

III. Is applicable only to the score of the game in which it occurs ; 

IV. Cannot be divided, i. *?., a player cannot add one or two to his 

own score and deduct one or two from the revoking player ; 
V, Takes precedence of every othe* score, e. g. — The claimants 
two — their opponents nothing — the former add three to their 
score — and thereby win a treble game, even should the latter 
have made thirteen tricks, and held four honors. 

73. A revoke is established, if the trick in which it occur be turned and 
quitted, 2. e. t the hand removed from that trick after it has been turned 
face downward on the table — or if either the revoking player or his part- 
ner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, lead or play to the following 
trick. 

* Vide also Law 46. J Vide also Law 61. 

\ And add them to the» owu. 



WHIST. 



51 



74. A player may ask his partner whether he has not a card of the suit 
which he has renounced ; should the question be asked before the trick is 
turned and quitted, subsequent turning and quitting does not establish 
the revoke, and the error may be corrected, unless the question be an- 
swered in the negative, or unless the revoking player or his partner have 
led or played to the following trick. 

75. At the end of the hand, the claimants of a revoke may search all| 
the tricks.* 

76. If a player discover his mistake in time to save a revoke, the ad- 
versaries, whenever they think fit, may call the card thus played in error, 
or may require him to play his highest or lowest card to that trick in 
which he has renounced ; any player or players who have played after 
him may withdraw their cards and substitute others : the cards withdrawn 
are not liable to be called. 

77. If a revoke be claimed, and the accused player or his partner mix 
the cards before they have been sufficiently examined by the adversaries, 
the revoke is established. The mixing of the cards only renders the 
proof of a revoke difficult, but does not prevent the claim, and possible 
establishment, of the penalty. 

78. A revoke cannot be claimed after the cards have been cut for the 
following deal. 

79. The revoking player and his partner may, under all circumstances, 
require the hand in which the revoke has been detected to be played out. 

80. If a revoke occur, be claimed and proved, bets on the odd trick, or 
on amount of score, must be decided by the actual state of the latter, 
after the penalty is paid. 

81. Should the players on both sides subject themselves to the penalty 
of one or more revokes, neither can win the game ; each is punished at 
the discretion of his adversary, t 

82. In whatever way the penalty be enforced, under no circumstances 
can a player win the game by the result of the hand during which he ha? 
revoked ; he cannot score more than four. ( Vide Rule 61.) 



CALLING FOR NEW CARDS. 

83. Any player (on paying for them) before, but not after, the pack b^ 
tut for the deal, may call for fresh cards. He must call for two nevr 
packs, of which the dealer takes his choice. 

* Vide Law 77. t I n the manner prescribed in Law 72. 



52 WHIST, 



GENERAL RULES. 

84. Where a player and his partner have an option of exacting 
from their adversaries one of two penalties, they should agree who is to 
make the election, but must not consult with one another which of the 
two penalties it is advisable to exact ; if they do so consult they lose their 
right ;* and if either of them, with or without consent of his partner, de- 
mand a penalty to which he is entitled, such decision is final. 

This rule does not apply in exacting the penalties for a revoke ; 
partners have then a right to consult. 

85. Any one during the play of a trick, or after the four cards are 
played, and before, but 'not after, they are touched for the purpose of 
gathering them together, may demand that the cards be placed before 
their respective players. 

86. If any one, prior to his partner playing, should call attention to the 
trick — either by saying that it is his, or by naming his card, or, without 
being required so to do, by drawing it toward him — the adversaries may 
require that opponent's partner to play the highest or lowest of the suit 
then led, or to win or lose + the trick. 

87. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred, the offender is 
bound to give reasonable time for the decision of his adversaries. 

88. If a bystander make any remark which calls the attention of a 
player or players to an oversight affecting the score, he is liable to be 
called on, by the players only, to pay the stakes and all bets on that 
game or rubber. 

89. A bystander, by agreement among the players, may decide any 
question. 

90. A card or cards torn or marked must be either replaced by agree- 
ment, or new cards called at the expense of the table. 

91. Any player may demand to see the last trick turned, and no more. 
Under no circumstances can more than eight cards be seen during the 
play of the hand, viz. : the four cards on the table which have not been 
turned and quitted, and the last trick turned. 

ETIQUETTE OF WHIST. 

The following rules belong to the established Etiquette of Whist. 
They are not called laws, as it is difficult — in some cases impossible — to 

.,-• 

* To demand any penalty. t »• c., refrain from winning. 



WHIST. 



53 



apply any penalty to their infraction, and the only remedy is to cease to 
play with players who habitually disregard them. 

Two packs of cards are invariably used at Clubs : if possible, this 
should be adhered to. 

Any one having the lead and several winning cards to play, should not 
draw a second card out of his hand until his partner has played to the 
first trick, such act being a distinct intimation that the former has played 
a winning card. 

No intimation whatever, by word or gesture, should be given by a 
player as to the state of his hand, or of the game.* 

A player who desires the cards to be placed, or who demands to see the 
last trick, f should do it for his own information only, and not in order to 
invite the attention of his partner. 

No player should object to refer to a bystander who professes himself 
uninterested in the game, and able to decide any disputed question of 
facts ; as to who played any particular card — whether honors were claimed 
though not scored, or vice versa — etc., etc. 

It is unfair to revoke purposely ; having made a revoke, a player is not 
justified in making a second in order to conceal the first. 

Until the players have made such bets as they wish, bets should not 
be made with bystanders. 

Bystanders should make no remark, neither should they by word or 
gesture give any intimation of the state of the game until concluded and 
scored, nor should they walk round the table to look at the different 
hands. 

No one should look over the hand of a player against whom he is betting. 

Dummy is played by three players. 

One hand, called Dummy's, lies exposed on the table. 

The laws are the same as those of Whist, with the following excep- 
tions : 

I. Dummy deals at the commencement of each rubber. 

II. Dummy is not liable to the penalty for a revoke, as his adver- 
saries see his cards : should he \ revoke and the error not 
be discovered until the trick is turned and quitted, it stands 
good.§ 

* The question, M Who dealt? " is irregular, and if asked should not be an- 
swered. 

t Or who asks what the trump suit is. 

X i e. y Dummy's hand. If Dummy's partner revokes, he is liable tt> tht 
usbal penalties. 

§ And the hand proceeds as though the revoke had not been discovered* 



54 WHIST. 

III. Dummy being blind and deaf, his partner is not liable to any 
penalty for an error whence he can gain no advantage. 
Thus, he may expose some, or all of his cards, or may de- 
clare that he has the game or trick, etc., without incurring 
any penalty ; if, however, he lead from Dummy's hand 
when he should lead from his own, or vice versa, a suit may 
be called from the hand which ought to have led. 

DOUBLE Dummy is played by two players, each having a Dummy or 
exposed hand for his partner. The laws of the game do not differ from 
Dummy Whist, except in the following special law : There is no misdeal, 
as the deal is a disadvantage. 

How to Count. — Four counters are used. Before the game begins 
these are piled up. All the tricks over six are scored ; when the hand is 
concluded, the counters are placed in line on the table, one for each of the 
odd tricks. When four is scored in a game of five points, of course on* 
point more, which is the game, does not require counting. 

To Count a Game of Ten, the following is the method : 



One. 


Two. 


Three. 


Four. 


O 


o 





O 


Five. 


Six. 


Seven. 


Eight. 

















O 








Nine. 





























. 







o 

One more point which is not scored, makes ten. 



RULES FOR LEADING AT WHIST. 

BY CAVENDISH, 

The leads of Whist, as explained by Cavendish, are now presented. 
The careful student of the game will find that in some points he dif- 
fers from Pole. 



GENERAL RULES. 

LEADS FROM STRONG SUITS. 

i. Lead originally from your strongest suit. 

2. Strong suits are of two kinds : (a) suits in which you hold more than 
the average of high cards ; (f>) suits in which you hold more than the 
average number of cards. 

Example. — A suit containing more than one honor, but less than four 
cards, represents the first kind of strength. A suit of four or more small 
cards represents the second kind of strength. 

3. A suit which combines both kinds of strength is the most eligible for 
the original lead ; but 

4. Failing this, the second kind of strength is generally to be preferred. 

5. In the first round of your strong suit lead the lowest card (except as 
otherwise directed in the Table of Leads, pp. 00-00). 

Note. — With a suit of five or more cards, not headed by ace or by a sequence, 
the lowest but one should be led (see M Cavendish on Whist," 13th Ed., pp. 
257-266). 

LEADS FROM WEAK SUITS. 

6. A weak suit is only to be led from when the indications from the 
previous fall of the cards have shown that perseverance in your own 
or your partner's strong suit is not desirable. 

7. When obliged to open a suit which contains at most three cards, 

(55) 



56 WHIST 

lead the highest (except as otherwise directed in the Table of Leads). 

8. In choosing a weak suit to lead from (a) do not lead a suit from 
which your partner has thrown away (but see " Cavendish on Whist," pp. 
93, 94) ; (d) nor a suit from which your left-hand adversary has thrown 
away ; (c) nor a suit which your right-hand adversary has led or has 
abstained from throwing away. And 

9. Failing any such indication, lead your strongest weak suit. 

LEADS FROM SEQUENCES. 

70. Lead the highest of a sequence, if the sequence heads your suit ; 
the lowest if it does not (except as otherwise directed in the Table of 
Leads). 

Example. — A suit of knave, ten, nine, and small ones, is a specimen of 
a sequence heading a suit. From this, the highest of the sequence, the 
knave, should be led. A suit of king, knave, ten, nine, is a specimen of 
a sequence that does not head a suit. Here, the lowest of the sequence, 
the nine, should be led, not the knave. 

LEADS AFTER THE FIRST ROUND OF A SUIT. 

11. Avoid changing your lead from one suit to another ; and 

12. If you lose the lead and obtain it again after one or more trick? 
have been played, generally pursue your first lead. 

13. After the first round of a suit, lead the winning card if you have it ; 
and 

14. If you remain with the second and third best, lead the second best. 

15. In other cases continue with your lowest (except as otherwise 
directed in the Table of Leads). 

RETURNED LEADS. 

16. Return your partner's lead, unless you have a good suit of your 
own which combines both kinds of strength (see rule 2). 

17. When obliged to return your adversary's lead, choose a suit in 
which the fourth hand is weak, rather than one in which the second hand 
is strong. 

18. Return the highest if you have but two of the suit left in your 
hand ; the lowest, if more than two (subject however, to rules 13 and 14). 



WHIST. 



57 



TABLE OF LEADS. 



Note,— The leads given in the following table presuppose the score of love- 
all ; and in the case of strong suits, the original lead of the hand. In othei 
cases, the state of the score and the previous fall of the cards, may cause vari- 
ations which cannot be tabulated. 

Where two ways of opening a suit are stated, the author prefers the one first 
given. 

STRONG SUITS HEADED BY ACE. 



From 



<? 



CT 




Ace, king, queen, with or without small ones. Lead king, then queen. 
In trumps, queen, then king. 

From ace, king, queen, knave. Lead king, then knave. In trumps, 
knave, then ace. 



From 



Ace, king, with one or more small ones. Lead king, then acw. In 
trumps, lowest. Except, with more than six trumps, lead king, then ace. 
(For lead from ace, king only, see Weak Suits headed by Ace). 







fiJILI 


* 




* 


* 




liiili 


* 












* 




* 



From 




O 



Ace, king, knave, with or without small ones. Lead king, then ace. 
Sometimes king, then change the suit in order to finesse knave on return. 



Prom 





Ace, queen, knave, etc. Lead ace, then queen. With ace, queen, 
knave, five or more in suit, lead ace, then lowest of queen, knave, 
sequence. 



5« 



WHIST. 



From 



V 







2 S? 



Ace, queen, ten, nine, with small ones. Lead ace. In trumps, nine. 
Except, with more than six trumps, lead ace. If knave is turned up te 
your right, lead queen. 

From ace, queen, ten, nine, eight, with or without small ones. Lead 
ace. In trumps, eight. Except, with more than six trumps, lead ace. 

From ace, queen, ten, nine, without smali ones. Lead nine. Im 
trumps, if knave is turned up to your right, lead queen. 



From 




L* 



4- 

* 



Ace, queen, and two small ones. Lead lowest. (For lead from ace, 
queen, and one smaU one, see Weak Suits headed by Ace). 



From 






ofo 1 




o o 




0^0 




<>o° 




0<>0 











O 



Ace, knave, ten, nine, with small ones. Lead ace, then knave. 
From ace, knave, ten, nine, without small ones. Lead nine. Some- 
times ace, then knave. 



From 



& 




^Sfo 








* 



Ace, knave, ten, and one small one. Lead lowest. 



From 



<? 




V s? 




* <? 


V <? 






<? <?J 




p <?, 



Ace, knave, and two small ones. Lead lowest. (For lead frorr_ cc 
knave, and one small one, see Weak Suits headed by Ace). 



WHIST. 



59 



-B 



* 



Ace, and four or more small ones. Lead ace. In trumps, lowest. 
Except, with more than six trumps, lead ace. 



From 




















































Ace, and three small ones. Lead lowest. 

WEAK SUITS HEADED BY ACE. 



From 




Ace, king, only. Lead ace. (Compare the lead from ace, king, and 
on* or more small ones.) 



Fr«m 



Ace, queen, only, or ace, knave, only. Lead ace. (For lead from ace, 
queen, and one small, or from ace, knave, and one small, see Lead from 
A«» and two others.) 







^# 








<? 






or 
from 


S? 






F*wn 



* 



* 
* 



Ace and two others, one of the others not being the king. Lead lowest, 
Except partner has indicated strength in the suit, when lead ace, then 
next highest. 

From ace and one small one. Lead ace. Especially if partner has in- 
dicated strength in the suit. If two tricks must be made in the suit to 
win or save a particular point, lead lowest. 



00 



WHIST, 



STRONG SUITS HEADED BY KING. 



From 








King, queen, knave, ten, with or without small ones. Lead ten. 
then queen. 



From 






* 






King, queen, knave, and more than one small one. Lead knave, then 
queen. If knave does not win, some players continue with king. 



From 



King, queen, knave only, or with one small one. Lead king, then 
queen. 






9 


S? 


<? 


<? 


9 


<? 



From 



Wmk 




*]Kt 




*** 
*** 

*** 



* * 



* * 



. King, queen, ten, with one or more small ones. Lead king, If it 
wins, then lowest. 



From 



<?: 




5 ^ 



9 



King, queen, and two or more small ones. Lead king. If it wins, 
then lowest. In trumps, lead lowest, then king. Except, with more than 
six trumps, begin with kin£. 



WHIST. 



6l 



From 





**4- 



+ JL + 

♦ 4- 



King, knave, ten, nine, etc. Lead lowest of sequence. If it wins, 
then next in sequence. 

From king, knave, ten, with one or more small ones. Lead ten. 
If it wins, then lowest. 



From 



'■i-X > 




^MM& 








9 9 



King, knave, and two or more small ones. Lead lowest. In trumps, 
with king, knave, nine, etc., and ten turned up to your right, lead 
knave. 



From 









4. 4. 



King and three or more small ones. Lead lowest. 



WEAK SUITS HEADED BY KING, 



From 






King, queen, ten, only. Lead king:, then queen. 



From 





□ 



King, queen, and one small one. Lead king; if it wins, then lowest. 
Kxcept partner has indicated strength in the suit, when lead king, 
then queen. 



62 



WHIST. 



From 








King, knave, ten, only. Lead ten, then king. Except partner has » 
dicated strength in the suit, when lead king, then knave. 



From 




* * 






King and two others, one of the others not being the queen. Lead 
lowest. Except partner has indicated strength in the suit, when lead 
king, then next highest. 

From king and one other. Lead king. Especially if partner has indi- 
cated strength in the suit. 

STRONG SUITS HEADED BY QUEEN. 



From 






Queen, knave, ten, with or without small ones. Lead queen, the 
knave. With five or more in suit, lead queen, then lowest of sequeno*. 



From 



&ST1 




*Mkt 




* * 




* 








*** 






^EkS¥v 




PB&? 












_ ^3.6^1 




* * 




* 



Queen, knave, nine, and one or more small ones. Lead lowest. In 
trumps, the same, unless ten is turned up to your right, when lead queen. 



From 





9 <? 




<? S? 


V 9 






9 <p 




SL.2 



Quoen, knave, and two or more small ones. Lead 



WHIST. 



63 



From 







* * 






Queen and three or more small ones. Lead lowest. 



WEAK SUITS HEADED BY QUEEN. 



From 





1 

A 



o 

0°0 l 



Queen, knave, and one small one, or queen, knave, only. Lead 
queen. If it wins, then knave. 



From 







Queen and two small ones. Lead lowest. Except partner has indi- 
cated strength in the suit, when lead queen, then next highest. 
From queen and one small one. Lead queen. 



STRONG SUITS HEADED BY KNAVE. 



From 










9? 



Knave, ten, nine, with one or more small ones. Lead knave. With 
five or more in suit, lead knave, then lowest of sequence. 



From 






A A 



♦ ♦ 



* ♦ 



Knave, ten, eight, with one or more small ones. Lead lowest. In 
trumps, if nine is turned up to your right, lead knave. 



6 4 



From 






WHIST, 









Knave, ten, and two or more small ones. Lead lowest 



From 







4. * 






Knave and three or more small ones. Lead lowest. 



WEAK SUITS HEADED BY KNAVE. 



From 



[o~ ol 




S"~o 


0^0 






0<>0 















Knave, ten, and one other. Lead knave. 
From knave, ten, only. Lead knave. 



From 



112 











Knave and two small ones. Lead knave, then next highest. 
From knave and one small one. Lead knave. 



STRONG SUITS HEADED BY TEN. 



From 



t.J >t V 



WHIST. 



65 



i^rom 



[OOOO 


loooo 




$ 

00 


















Ten with nine and small ones; or, from ten, with three or more 
small ones. Lead lowest. 

WEAK SUITS HEADED BY TEN. 
Frein suits of two or three cards headed by ten, lead ten. 

SUITS HEADED BY A SMALL CARD. 

From suits headed by a card smaller than the ten, containing: four or 
more cards (strong suits, see Rule 23), in all cases lead the lowest. (But 
fee Rule 5.) 

From suits headed by a card smaller than the ten, containing at most 
three cards (weak suits, see Rule 2), in all cases lead the highest. 



PRACTICAL HINT& 

DEALING. 

Point the pack downward in dealing. 

SORTING THE CARDS. 
Sort your cards so as to give no clue to the contents of your hand. Do 
not get into the habit of putting your trumps always in the same place. 
Hold your hand well up, that it may not be overlooked. 
Before playing to the first trick, count your hand and look at the scon 
and at the turn-up card. 

PLAYING. 

Play without hesitation. Hesitation exposes the hand and directs the 
opponents. 

If your partner does not follow suit, ask him the usual question, and so 
shift the responsibility of a revoke. 

Play the game on recognized principles, that you may win the confi- 
dence of your partner. Do not play false cards. 

Be as careful in playing low cards as high ones. Do not throw 
away the three when you hold the two, and so on. Bad players al- 
ways err in this; they fancy it is a matter of indifference. 



66 WHIST. 

Keep your eye constantly on the table. Watch every card as it falls 
and draw your inferences at the time. As a beginner be content to ob 
serve the broad indications of the game. Do not attempt too much at 
first. Do not affect a brilliant game before you can play a sound one. 

Play for your partner's hand as well as for your own. Adapt your pJa> 
to the peculiarities of your partner. In order to do this you must observe 
attentively the systems of those with whom you play. 

Attend to the score, and play your game accordingly. 

SCORING. 

Mark the game before you discuss it. When you mark honors, at th* 
same time claim them audibly. 
Score to your right hand. Keep the counters not in use to your left 

hand. 

GENERAL.. 

Much is to be learnt by looking over good player?. Do not look over 
more than one hand at a time. Do not judge by consequences. The 
play, though correct on calculation, may nevertheless turn out unfortu- 
nate. Good play does not ensure success in every case. 

Bystanders should make no remark, nor by gesture intimate the state 
of the game ; and they should not walk round the table to look at the 
different hands. 

Avoid all impatient actions and remarks. Never throw down you; 
cards. Never talk while the hand is in progress. Never Secture you 
partner. 



POCKET GUIDE TO WHIST. 

GENERAL RULES. 



THE LEAD. 

i. Lead originally from your strongest suit. Do not open a suit of less 
than four cards. 
2. Ace, Kg., etc., lead Kg. Ace, Kg., On., lead Kg., then Qn. 

Kg., Qn., etc., lead Kg. Ace, Qn., Knv., lead Ace, then On. 

Qn., Knv., Ten, etc., lead Qn. Ace, and four small, lead Ace. 
Kg., Knv., Ten, etc,, lead Ten. Kg., Ru^., Ten, Nine, lead Nine. 
(See also " Pocket Rules for Leading at Whist.") 



WHIS7. 6; 

3- In other cases lead your lowest. (But see No. 7.) 

4. Return your partner's lead ; but, if you have a strong suit of youi 
own, lead that first. 

5. [Second round of a suit.] If you have only two of the suit left, re- 
turn the highest ; if more than two, the lowest. (But see No. 21.) 

6. [Leads late in a hand.] Avoid opening a fresh suit in which yoi 
are weak. If obliged to change your suit, lead through a strong suit ; 01. 
still better, up to a weak one. And 

7. If obliged to open a suit of only two cards, lead the highest. The 
same with a suit of three cards none higher than knave. 



SECOND HAND. 

8. Ace, King., play King. Ace, Kg., Qn., play Qn., and so on. 
King, Queen, play Queen' Kg., Qn., Knv,, play Knv., and so on. 
Qn., Knv., Ten, play Teii. Qn., Knv. and one small, play Knv. 

9. In other cases, play your lowest ; except 

10. PlJt Ace on King, Queen, or Knave ; and if you have not more than 
three of the suit, put King on Queen ; and King or Queen on Knave. 

n. [When not able to follow suit.] With four or more trumps do not 
trump unless certain that your partner cannot win the trick. But with 
less thai? four trumps, none higher than Knave, trump, unless certain 
that your partner has the best of the suit led. 

THIRD HAND. 

12. Ace, Queen, play Queen. Ace, Queen, Knave, play Knave. 

13. In other cases, play your highest. (But see No. 20.) 

MANAGEMENT OF TRUMPS. 

14. Having five or more trumps lead them, even if an honor is turneo 
ap fourth hand. 

15. Do not lead trumps merely for the purpose of leading through an 
honor turned up. 

16. If the adversary holds no card in your strong suit that can win a 
trick, lead from four trumps. Do not lead from less than four trumps. 

17. Return trumps at once if your partner leads them. (And see No. 5.) 

18. Do not lead a card for your partner to trump unless you have four 
or more trumps. But 



68 WHIST. 

19. Compel a strong trump hand of the adversary to trump wheneve 
you can. 

GENERAL. 

20. If not leading, always play the lowest of a sequence. 

21. In the second round of a suit play the winning card, if you have iL 

22. Lead out the winning cards of your partner's suit as soon as you 
can. Retain those of your opponent's suits as long as you can. 

23. When not able to follow suit throw away from your weakest suit. 
(But see No. n.) 

24. Always play a winning card when one trick wins or saves the game. 

25. Watch the cards as they are played, and try to infer from there 
where the others lie. 

26. Never throw down your cards. Never talk while a hand is in prog- 
ress. Never lecture your partner. 



EXPLANATION OF RULES. 

THE FIRST HAND OR LEAD— LEAD FROM YOUR 
STRONGEST SUIT. 

A strong suit is one that contains either a great number of cards, or 
several high cards. The suit containing the greatest number of csrds 
should generally be chosen for the first or original lead. 

Four cards of one suit are above the average number. Three cards 
are below the average. Hence, suits containing four cards or more are 
numerically strong or long suits ; those containing three cards or less ar& 
numerically weak. 

Examples. — Your hand consists of ace, king of spades ; five hearts, 
the ten the best ; king and three small clubs ; and queen and anothei 
trump. You should lead from the five hearts. 

You have ace, king, knave, and another spade ; five small hearts ; 
queen, knave, and another club ; and one trump. Here, your spade suit, 
being very strong in high cards, should be chosen. If, however, the 
spade suit contained only three cards, you should lead from the long suit 
of hearts. 

The object of leading from the strongest suit is to exhaust the cards of 
the suit from the other hands, remaining with the long cards in your own. 
These long cards are frequently of great service, and (when trumps are 
out) are certain tricks. On the other band, by opening a weak $uit, yow 



WHIST. 69 

run the rbk of exhausting such strength as your partner has, and of leav- 
ing the long cards in the possession of the adversaries . 

Some players are fond of opening a suit in which they hold only a 
single card ; another favorite lead is from ace and one small card. These 
and similar weak leads cannot be recommended. Now and then a trick 
or two is gained by playing a trumping game ; but the more probable 
result is to sacrifice your partner's hand, and to clear the suit for the ad- 
versaries. 

Having one suit of four very small cards, and all other suits of three 
cards, the best plan for beginners is to adhere to rule, and to open the 
four-card suit, even though it is trumps. There are exceptional cases 
when it is advisable to open the strongest three-card suit. No positive 
-ule can be laid down for such hands. 

You should generally lead the lowest card of your strong suit. Your 
partner will play his highest, and so assist to clear the suit. And by 
keeping high cards of your suit in your own hand, you stand the best 
chance of obtaining the lead when the suit is established. 

Exceptions. — When your suit contains a strong sequence, you should 
lead one of the sequence, lest the adversaries win the first trick with a 
very low card. Also : If you have a suit of ace and four or more small 
Dnes, begin with the ace, lest it should afterward be trumped. And : with 
experienced players, it is now usual with suits of five or more, from wnich 
a low card is led originally, to commence by leading the lowest but one 
(see " Cavendish on Whist "). 

RETURNED LEADS. 

You should return your partner's lead in order to assist in clearing 
his suit. But if you have a very strong suit of your own (for example, 
ace, king, and two small ones, or queen, knave, and three small ones), 
you are justified in opening that, as your suit is presumably better than 
your partner's. 

Return the Lowest of a Strong Suit, the Highest of a 
Weak Suit. — The number of cards in the suit is the test, unless you 
hold the winning card, when always lead it irrespective of number, lest it 
should be trumped, third round. Otherwise, with but two cards remain* 
ing after the first round, you are weak, and should return the highest, 
sacrificing yourself to support your partner. With more than two re* 
maining you should return the lowest ; for you are strong, and are, con- 
sequently, justified in holding back your high cards. 

It is important to observe that the rule holds, even in the case ot the 
smallest cards. Thus : Your partner leads a suit of which you hold ace* 



7o 



WHIST. 



three, and two. In returning his suit after winning with the ace, you 
are bound to return the three, not the two. When your two falls in the 
third round, he will know that you do not hold another. But suppose 
your cards to be ace, four, three, and two. In returning the suit you are 
bound to choose the two. After the third round, your partner will con- 
clude with certainty that you hold more of the suit. 

LEADS LATE IN A HAND. 

Avoid Changing Suits.— As a rule you should continue to lead your 
own or your partner's strong suit at every opportunity, in order to real- 
ize the advantages of leading from strength. But an untoward fall of 
the cards may compel you to have recourse to a weak suit. In such a 
case you choose a suit in which you suppose your right-hand adversary 
is weak, or, though this is less favorable, one in which your left-hand 
adversary is strong, by which you place your partner in an advantageous 
position. You should lead the highest of the weak suit, as you thereby 
do all in your power to support your partner's hand. 

THE SECOND HAND. 

[Observe. — The words " and so on " in Rule 8 refer to similar 
sequences. Thus : With king, queen, knave, and ten, the ten should be 
put on second hand.] 

Play your Lowest Card Second Hand, in order to husband 
such strength as you hold in the adversary's suit. You leave the chance 
of the first trick to your partner, trusting to his holding a better card than 
the third player. 

But, if you have a strong sequence, it is generally better to put on a 
high card second hand. You may thereby save your partner, while you 
still remain with a high card over the original leader. 

Example. — You, second player, have queen, knave, and one small 
card. You put on the knave. If your partner has ace, etc. , and the lead 
was from the king, you make the knave, and your partner keeps up the 
ace. If you had put on the small one second hand, your partner's ace 
might have been forced out the first round. Your partner may not hold 
the ace at all ; but in this case you do no harm by putting on the knave, 
as however you play you cannot win more than one trick in the suit. 

When the leader opens his suit with a high card, it is sometimes ad- 
visable for the second player to cover it. As a rule, you cannot make 
a better use of an ace than to win an honor with. With king or queen 
you should cover an honor if you have but three cards of the suit, be- 
cause then you are weak, and your sacrifice your good cards in hopes 



WHIST. 71 

of assisting your partner. But if you have four of the suit you are 
strong, and, with king or queen, you pass an honor, leaving to your 
partner the chance of helping you. 

When not able to follow suit second hand, you should not trump a 
suit of which your partner may hold the best if you have four or 
more trumps, but should trump with less than four. For with four 
trumps you are strong, with less than four you are weak. When weak 
in trumps, the best use you can put them to is to make tricks by 
trumping; but not when you are strong in trumps (see Management 
of Trumps). 



THE THIRD HAND. 

Play your highest card Third Hand. — In order to assist in clear 
ing your partner's suit. 

Exceptions. — With ace and queen you should put on your queen, tab 
ing the chance of the king's lying to your right. Also : if your partnei 
leads a high card, it is sometimes advisable not to cover it, as he may 
have led to support your hand. 

MANAGEMENT OF TRUMPS. 

Lead Trumps when very strong in them.— With five or more 
trumps you are very strong. You should lead them with the object of 
exhausting the adversaries' trumps. With five trumps your chance of 
succeeding in this and remaining with the long trumps is considerable, 
and you have an excellent prospect of bringing in any long suit which 
you or your partner may hold. 

Number being the principal element of strength, you should not be 
deterred from leading from five trumps simply because the fourth hand 
has turned up an honor. Nor should you lead from less than five 
trumps merely because an honor has been turned up second hand. 

If you are very strong in trumps (*". e., with a minimum of five trumps 
one being an honor, or four trumps two being honors), and have not the 
lead, you can ask for trumps {i. e., call on your partner to lead a trump)- 
by playing an unnecessarily high card before a low one. Thus, if your 
partner leads king, ace of a suit, and to the first round you play the three, 
to the second round the two, you have asked for trumps. Your partner 
is then bound to relinquish his game, and to lead trumps at once. If he 
has three trumps he should lead his highest, and then his next highest. 
If he has more than three trumps, his lowest, unless he has the ace, when 
he should lead that and then his lowest. 



72 



WHIST. 



If your partner leads trumps or asks for trumps, and you have four 
or more trumps, you should echo by asking at the first opportunity. 

You should lead from four trumps if you get the lead after the adver- 
saries' hands are cleared of your strong suit, or so far cleared that you 
command it. 

As a rule you should not lead from less than four trumps unless 

You have winning cards in every suit ; or 

The adversaries are both trumping ; or 

The game is hopeless unless your partner proves strong. 

You should at once return your partner's trump lead, because he, by 
leading trumps, declares a strong game, and it is your best policy to sec- 
ond him, even if by so doing you abandon your own plans. 

DO NOT FORCE YOUR PARTNER IF YOU ARE WEAK IN TRUMPS. — With 

less than four trumps you are weak. When weak yourself, you should 
not lead a card for your partner to trump ; for, by forcing, you weaken 
him and run the serious risk of leaving the command of trumps with the 
adversaries. 

Exceptions. — You may force your partner though yourself weak, 
If he has already been forced and has not afterward led a trump ; or 
If you know him to be weak in trumps, as by his having; trumped sec- 
ond hand ; or 
If you and he can each trump a different suit ; or 
When one trick from his hand wins or saves the game or a point. 
The same considerations which make it inexpedient to force your part- 
ner when you are weak, show that it is advantageous to force a strong 
trump hand of the adversary. 

GENERAL. 

Play the lowest of a sequence when not leading. — You 
naturally win a trick with the smallest card you can, or if you cannot win 
it you throw away the smallest you have. By adopting a uniform plan, 
you enable your partner to tell what cards you hold. And it is found by 
experience that this information is of more value to your partner than to 
the adversaries. 

Keep the Command of your Adversaries' Suit ; get rid of 
the Command of your Partner's Suit.— You assume that the suit 
chosen for the lead by each player is his strong suit. By leading the 
winning card of a suit you assist in clearing it. This, of course, is to 
your advantage so far as your partner's suit is concerned. But the reverse 
holds with regard to your opponents' suits. Here you want to obstruct 
the establishment of a suit as much as you can, and should therefore not 



WHIST. 



73 



only refrain from leading the commanding cards, but should keep second 
best and third best cards guarded with small ones, as long as you can. 

If, however, the adversaries continue their suit, you should, as a rule, 
play the winning card of it in the second round, as the chances are it will 
be trumped third round. 

This is the simplest rule for beginners. But there are various excep- 
tions. Thus, if you have best and third best of a suit, and have reason 
to suppose the second best is to your right you would play the third best 
In trumps also, if you are not desirous of stopping the trump lead at 
once, it is often right to pass the second round. 

Discard from your Weakest Suit. — When not able to follow 
suit you do no harm by throwing away from suits in which you are 
already weak ; but if you throw away from a strong suit you diminish its 
numerical power. 

The same rule applies as to trumping second hand. If weak in trumps, 
trump a doubtful card, but not if strong. 

There is one exception to the rule of discarding from the weakest suit. 
If the opponents declare great strength in trumps, as by leading or ask- 
ing for them, you have no reasonable chance of bringing in a long suit. 
In such cases you must play on the defence, and guard your weak suits, 
discarding from your best protected suit, which is generally your long 
sut. 

It follows, if your partner pursues this plan, that he will give you credit 
for weakness in the suit you first discard, when no great adverse strength 
in trumps has been shown, and he will refrain from subsequently leading 
that suit. But, if great adverse strength in trumps has been declared, he 
will assume you to be strong in the suit you first discard, and will lead 
that suit unless he has a very strong suit of his own. 

Play to the Score. — All general rules are subject to this one. Thus, 
if one trick saves or wins the game, make it at once. For example : The 
score is love-all ; you have four tricks ; the adversaries have shown two 
by honors ; your partner opens a fresh suit of which you have ace, queen. 
The general rule is to play the queen : but, as here one trick saves the 
game, you would generally be right to play the ace. 

The example is given for one trick ; but you should always keep in 
mind how many tricks are requisite to win or save the game, or even a 
point, and play accordingly. 

Watch the Fall op the Cards. — By observing the suits led by 
the different players, and the value of the cards played by each, and by 
counting the number of cards out in the various suits, especially in trumps, 
you will find that you will often know the position of all the important 



74 WHIST. 

cards remaining in ; and by means of this knowledge you will be enabled 
to play the hand, particularly toward its close, to the best advantage. 
You should begin by recording in your own mind the broad indications 
of the hand as it progresses ; you will gradually acquire the power of 
noting even the minor features without any great effort. 

You should draw your inferences at the ti?ne. Thus, if a king is led. 
originally and you have the ace of that suit, you should at once infer that 
the leader has the queen ; and so on for other combinations. 

The following table gives some of the more important inferences : 

Play. Inference. 

Original Leader. 

Suit led. Is his strongest. 

Small card led. Has not any combination from 

which a high card is led. 

Ace led. Has at least five in suit and has not 

king. 

Ace, then queen. Has knave. 

King led. Has ace or queen, or both. 

Queen led. Has not ace or king, but almost cer- 

tainly knave and ten. 

And so on through the whole list of leads. 

Plain suit led originally. Is not very strong in trumps. 

Leader, Second Rou?id of a Suit. 

Does not lead winning card. Has not got it. 

Leads the second best. Has the third best. 

Returns partner's lead with a low Has more. 

card ; afterward plays a higher 

one. 
Returns partner's lead with a high Has no more. 

card ; afterward plays a lower 

one. 

Second Hand. 

Plays a low card. His lowest,unless calling for trumps. 

Plays a high card. Has no more, or the next highest, 

or one of the combinations with 
which a high card is played sec- 
ond hand. 



WHIST. 



75 



Plays an honor on an honor. 



Does not play an honor on an hon- 
or, and afterward plays an honor 
in the suit. 



Has another honor, or only three at 
most of the suit, except he puts 
on ace, when he may have more. 

Has more than three and no second 
honor. 



Plays ace. 



Third Hand. 

Has neither king nor queen. 
Fourth Hand. 



Does not win the trick if against 

him. 
Wins with any card. 



Has no higher card than the one 

against him. 
Has no card between the one he 

plays and the one against him. 



Second^ Third, or Fourth Player. 



Any card. 

Does not cover or win the trick. 

Any suit discarded. 



Has not the one next below it. 

Card played is his lowest, unless he 
is asking for trumps. 

Is weak in that suit, except gFeat 
strength in trumps has been de- 
clared against him, when he is 
strong. 



Trumps. 



Leads to force his partner. 



Refrains from forcing his partner. 
Does not trump a winning card. 

Trumps a doubtful card. 

Does not trump a doubtful card. 

Plays unnecessarily a high card be- 
fore a low one in any suit. 



Is strong in trumps, unless partner 
has already been forced accident- 
ally and has not led trumps. 

Is weak in trumps. 

Has no trump or has four trumps 
and wants trumps led. 

Is weak in trumps. 

Is strong in trumps, or has no 
trump. 

Is calling for trumps. 



Illustrative Hand. — A, Y, B, Z are the four players. They sit round 
the table in the above order, A and B being partners against Y and Z. 
A has the first lead ; Z is the dealer. 

It must be remembered that, in actual play, each player can only see 



7 6 



WHIST. 



his own hand. The play will not therefore be that which evidently 01* 
inspection of the hands will turn out most successfully. 

The reader is advised to play through the hand with the cards before 
him. 

B*s Hand. 

Ace, 7, 4, 3 of spades. 
• King, 7, 3, 2 of hearts. 
Ace, 7, 6 of clubs. 
King, 3 of diamonds. 



Y's Hand. 

King, knave, 6 of spades. 
Knave, io, 9, 6 of hearts. 
King of clubs. 
Ace, queen, 10, 9, 5 of diamonds. 



2's Hand. 

Queen, 8, 5 of spades. 

Ace, 5, 4 of hearts. 

9, 8, 3 of clubs. 

Knave, 8, 6, 2 of diamonds. 



As Hand. 

10, 9, 2 of spades. 

Queen, 8 of hearts. 

Queen, knave, 10, 5, 4, 2 of clubs. 

7, 4 of diamonds. 

Score, love-all. Z turns up the four of hearts. 



THE PLAY. 

The cards in each trick are placed in the order in which they are 
played, the leader's card standing first. The capital letter in front of 
each card, shows by whom it is played. 



Trick I.— A leads. 





B 



Won by B. 



* 



A leads from his strongest suit. 

Z, being; unable to win the trick. Dlays his smallest card. 



WHIST. 



77 



Trick II.— B leads. 



B 



♦a* 

4. 4. 


Z 


4» 
4. 4. 

4» 
4.^4. 


A 


4. ^4. 

*** 

4»*4- 


Y 


9 <P 
9 9 






Won by Y. 







B returns his partner's lead. Having but two left he returns the best. 

This lead is badly judged by B. He should give his partner credit for 
knave, ten, etc., in clubs, and the suit is, therefore, established. Being 
himself strong in spades, and having some protection in diamonds, with 
four trumps to an honor, he should have led a trump, just the same as 
though the command of clubs had been in his own hand. 

Z and A play the lowest cards of their sequences. 

Z cannot hold knave of clubs or he would play it, consequently A has 
it. This, however, by a more experienced player than B, would have 
been taken for granted when the first card was led. 

Trick III.— Y leads. 



B 



















Z 




A 



















Won by Y. 







Y now obtains the lead for the first time, and opens his strongest suit 
Having five diamonds he leads the ace. 

Trick IV.— Y leads. 




B 




O 
O 

o 



Won by B. 




o 



Y continues his suit. 



78 



IVHTST. 



B 



S? 



Trick V.— B leads. 



9? <? 


A £;^pPj 

Hi 


Y 






Won by A. 





B leads a trump (see Remarks, Trick 2). 

Z plays his lowest card second hand. As a rule the trump card should 
not be played if the holder has another of equal value, in order to inform 
partner ; but when trumps are led by the adversary the information is 
generally more useful to him, and the trump card sh~''ld be played. 

A plays his highest card third hand. 






Trick VI.— A leadr 


9? <? 


B H 



Won by Z. 
A returns his partner's trump lead. 

Trick VII.— Z leads 

M 

Y 





B 



Won by B. 



Z continues his partner's suit. Knowing that the lead was from five 
diamonds (see Remark, Trick 3), he leads the knave in preference to the 
eight that he may not keep the command. 

A discards from his weakest suit. • 

Y wins the knave that he may go on with the diamond, h? case he finds 
B with the eight. There is nothing to show that the eight is in Z's hand'. 



WHIST. 



79 



Trick VIII.— B leads. 



B 



<v> 


S? 




? 


<? 


9 


9 


9 



9 


9 


9 




<? 


9 







Won by Y. 

It is clear that A has no more trumps, or he would have trumped tne 
knave of diamonds at Trick 7. It is also clear that Y cannot have the 
five of hearts, as he has played six, nine, and ten (which must be his low- 
est). It is also certain that Z has not the knave and the five of trumps, or he 
would have led the knave before going on with the diamond. Therefore 
the trumps must be divided in the adverse hands, and B draws them, so 
that, when he obtains the lead with the ace of spades, he may give his 
partner the club. 

Trick IX.— Y leads. 






B 




Z 




0% 






Won by Y. 








Y brings in the diamonds. 



Trick X.— Y leads. 





0^0 




B 
B 




Z 


*** 

* * 


A 
A 


* 
* 




Tric 


Won by Y. 
K XI.— Y le 


ads. 






© 


Z 




4. 4. 
* 4- 



Won by B. 

B puts on ace second hand that he may bring in his partner's clubs. 



8o 



WHIST 






A B win the odd trick. 





Won by A. 



THE WHIST PRIMER. 

Although we should strongly advise players who wish to become mas- 
ters of the game of whist to study the scientific treatise to which we have 
given ample space, it often happens that time is wantfng, and that at 
first only a fair conception of how to play whist is desirable. To such 
we present The Whist Primer ; here may be found in a concise form 
the rules and methods of play. After this has been understood the finer 
study of whist can be more readily mastered. 

GENERAL RULES. 

Whist is the game of silence. When talk begins, whist ceases. 

Deal to left, one card at a time, to each of four players until the pack is 
dealt. The last card is the trump,* and should be left face up on the 
table until the dealer plays to the first lead. He then takes it into his 
hand. The game is five points. Each trick above six counts one point. 

The Ace, King, Queen, and Jack of trumps are called Honors ; four 
held by player and partner, together or separately, count four points ; 
three Honors count two ; two Honors do not count. 

As often as not the Honors are not counted. The game of five points 
Is won by the odd tricks alone. This way of counting eliminates much 
of the element of chance of late years ; even in conservative England 
counting Honors has been abandoned. 

In case of a misdeal the dealer loses, and the deal passes to the left* 
In playing you are bound to follow suit if you have it. 

Sort your cards carefully, noting the number and value of each. It is 
well to adopt a uniform rule as to the position in your hand of youi 
trumps and your long suit. 



* Many American players cut the trump from a second pack during the deal ; 
Ihr play is for points and not games, and honors as such do not count. 



WHIST. 8 1 

Be careful in playing your small cards : for example, do not play the 
Five when you have the Four * 

Avoid leading from a suit which one adversary trumps, and the other 
discards to. Generally continue a suit to which your partner discards. 

Retain the commanding cards in your adversary's long suit as long as 
possible. Play out the commanding cards in your partner's long suit as 
speedily as possible. 

Discard from your shortest or weakest suit. To discard the highest 
card of a suit means that you have entire command of the suit ; to dis- 
card the second best means that you have no other card of the suit. 

Do not lead from a single card. When not leading, play lowest of 
sequences. Lead through strength on your left up to weakness on your 
right. 

Do not play false cards ; it is more important to avoid deceiving your 
partner than to seek to deceive your adversaries. False play is sure to 
deceive the former, And may not deceive the latter. 

It is generally unwise to finesse in your partner's long suit ; except 
when you hold Ace and Queen, third hand, play Queen. 

Above all things, remember that your partner's hand and your own are 
to be played together as one hand ; to mislead your partner by false 
play or a capricious variation from the established rules, is to render a 
union of the hands impossible, and will convert his play into a mere blind 
groping. For instance, if from Ace, King, and others, you lead Ace in- 
stead of King, while it will make no difference in taking that particular 
trick, it tells your partner a whist falsehood ; he thinks that your Ace 
lead is from Ace and Four, or from Ace, Queen, and Jack, and he will 
regulate his play accordingly. 

First Leads in Plain Suits. — Always lead from your long suit ; 
If you have more than one long suit of four or more, lead from the 
strongest. Avoid, if possible, a first lead from a suit of less than four. 

If you have five or more trumps, it is generally wise to lead them, un- 
less you are weak in all the plain suits. If very strong in all other suits, 
/JU may lead trumps from three to four. 

From plain suits, original leads, lead as follows. 

Lead Ace : 

(i) From Ace with four or more others without King. Follow with 
■nallest (or next to smallest, if you have five). 



• The " Call and Echo " when employed wiU vary thia rale. 

6 



82 WHIST. 

(2) From Ace, Queen, and Jack, with or without others. Follow witfc 
Queen, if holding not more than one small one. Otherwise lead Jack. 

These are the only two Ace leads from a long suit. 

Bear in mind that you should lead Ace from Ace and King, whea 
you have trumped another suit. 

Lead King : 

(1) From Ace, King, and two or more others. Follow with Ace, unless 
you hold Queen ; if so, play Queen. 

(2) From King, Queen, and two or more others without Jack ; or from 
King, Queen, Jack, and one other, not Ten ; follow with small one, un< 
less you hold Jack ; if so, play Queen. 

These are the only King leads from a long suit. 

Lead Quee?i : 

From Queen, Jack, and Ten, with or without others. Follow wfvK 
Jack, unless you have five or more ; if so, follow with lowest of sequence. 
This is the only Queen lead from a long suit. 

Lead Jack : 

(1) From King, Queen, Jack, and not less than two others (without 
Ten). Follow with King, if you have two small ones ; with Queen, if 
you hold more. 

(2) From Jack, Ten, and Nine, with or without others. Follow witJ) 
Ten if holding one card below Nine ; with more, lead Nine. 

These are the only Jack leads from a long suit. 

Lead Ten : 

(1) From King, Queen, Jack, and Ten, with or without others., Fol* 
tow with King, if you have no small card ; otherwise play Jack. 

(2) From King, Jack, and Ten, with or without others (not including 
Nine). Follow with small one if Ten takes the trick. 

(3) From Ten, Nine, Eight, Seven. 

These are the only Ten leads from a long suit. 

Lead Nine : 

From King, Jack, Ten, and Nine. 

This is the only Nine lead from a long suit. 

Lead small cards from all other hands not stated above ; lead lowest 
from four small cards, and next to lowest from five or more small ones. 

Forced Leads. — Forced leads are those leads from suits of three of 
less, where the exigencies of the game require a lead from such suits. 
Lead as follows : 



. WHIST. 83 

From Ace and two others (without King), King and two others, 
Queen and two others, lead highest, if you have good reason to think 
that your partner is strong in that suit. Otherwise, lead lowest. 

From Jack and two small ones, Ten and two small ones, Nine ami 
two small ones, lead highest. 

From the Ace and one, King and one, Queen and one, Jack and 
one, Ten and one, lead the highest. 

Lead Highest. — In returning your partner's long suit, when you 
originally held three of the suit. Always return its commanding card. 

If you have previously discarded one from the suit of four, play 
as if you originally held three. 

•Generally when compelled to lead from a suit of three; always if 
you feel sure that your partner is strong in the suit. 

From two cards, whatever they are. 

Lead Lowest. — In all cases not above mentioned. In returning 
your partner's lead when you originally held four of the suit. From 
an Ace and three small ones. From King and others, (without Queen). 
From Queen, Jack, and two or more small ones. Generally from an 
honor with three or more small ones. From four small ones. 

After Forced Leads. — After playing highest from Ace and two, 
King and two, Queen and two, Jack and two, Ten and two, if you 
take the trick play the highest left. 

Trumps. — It is generally wise to play a waiting game with a strong 
hand in trumps; as they are sure to take finally. Rules for plain suit 
leads generally hold good, with following variations: 

From Ace, King, and not more than five others, play small one. 
From Ace, King, and six small ones, play King and then Ace. 

From Ace, King, and Queen, lead Queen and then King. From 
Ace, King, Queen, and Jack, lead Jack. From Ace and four (with- 
out King), lead smallest but one. From Ace and six small ones, lead 
Ace. From King, Queen, and two or more small ones, lead small one 
unless you have more than five small ones; if so, lead King. 

Second Hand. — When a suit is led for the first time, play second 
hand below; except holding the Ace you put it on a king, on a Jack, 
and generally on a Queen. 

Second and third leads of same suit, you generally play to take the 
trick, second hand. The safest rule for a beginner to follow is to 
play the lowest, second hand. The following are the common ex- 
ceptions: 

Holding Ace and King, play King. 

Holding King and Queen, play Queen. 

Holding Ace, Queen, and Jack, play Jack. 



84 WHIST. 

Holding Ace, Queen, and Ten, play Queen, 

Also if you have two high cards of a sequence (as Queen and Jack, 
Jack and Ten), with only one other ; or if you have three high cards in 
sequence with any number, it is considered well to play the lowest of the 
sequence, second hand. With two high cards of a sequence and two 
or moi e others, play lowest. 

If an honor is led, you should generally put a higher one on it ; but 
if strong in suit you may play low. 

Do not trump a doubtful trick second hand, if strong in trumps (four 
or more) ; if weak, trump fearlessly. 

Bear in mind that the correct play, second hand, depends upon the 
state of the game, the cards played, and many other considerations ; it is 
impossible to foi^nulate any simple set of rules to govern the play second 
hand. Experience and observation alone will teach the best play.* 

Third Hand. — The safest rule for the beginner to adopt is to play the 
highest you have third hand, except when you cannot play a higher card 
than any played ; and in playing from sequences, play the lowest of the 
sequence third hand. Always watch the fall of the cards from your ad- 
versaries, so as not to waste high cards where smaller ones would answer 
the purpose. 

The variations from third hand high, arise from considerations usually 
belonging to fine play, depend on the state of the game, and cannot be 
formulated into rules. But when you hold Ace and Queen third hand, 
play Queen. 

Fourth Hand. — Play to take the trick as cheaply as possible. If you 
cannot take it, play the lowest you have. Sometimes it is necessary to 
take a trick (especially near the end of the hand ) which is already your 
partner's ; as, for example, to get high cards out of the way, or to get the 
lead, or to enable you to lead up to a weak hand. It is sometimes nec- 
essary to lose the trick fourth hand. All this is a matter of skill and 
judgment, and must depend on the player. 

American Leads. — The following are the principal American leads, 
which differ from those heretofore given, and about the wisdom of which 
there has been some dispute among European players : 

Lead Ace : 
From Ace, Jack, Ten, and others ; follow with Ten. 

* Prof. Proctor in " How to Play Whist" has formulated rules for second 
hand which the student will find useful for a more thorough knowledge of 
play second hand. ^. 



WHIST. 85 



Lead King : 
From King, Queen, Jack, Ten ; follow with Ten. 

Lead Queen : 
From Queen, Jack, Nine, and two others. 

Never lead the Nine from head of sequence, or from suit containing 
either Ace or Queen. Always lead the Nine in opening from King, Jack, 
and others. 

When you open a strong suit with a low card, lead your fourth best. 
When you open a strong suit with a high card follow with your original 
fourth best. 

American players, and skilful ones too, are very prone to play their 
own hand, without regard to their partner's hand. This "going it 
alone " is a distinctively American trait ; it is opposed to the theory and 
philosophy of Whist, which is based upon a combination of the two 
hands ; and it should be avoided. 

General Observations. — Always return your partner's trump lead 
at the very first opportunity. Return highest of two, and lowest of three 
or more. Before returning your partner's long-suit lead, it is generally 
wise to lead your own. Always do so if your long suit is strong. But 
if you hold the commanding card in your partner's long suit, you must 
return it before leading from your own long suit. 

Bear in mind that sound play will not always succeed ; that there are 
few, if any, invariable rules of whist ; that many of them may seem with- 
out reason, which really are founded on the experience of the ablest 
European players. 

No allusion has been made to ttie "Call for trumps," and the 
" Echo"; first, because out of place in an elementary treatment of the 
game ; and, second, because in the writer's experience they are falling into 
disuse, especially among American players. A full explanation of them, 
with instructions as to how and when they should be employed, will be 
found in the works of Pole, Clay, Proctor, or Cavendish. They belong, 
however, to fine play. 

Do not attempt to remember the fall of every card. First, keep accu- 
rate run of the trumps ; of your own, of your partner's and your adver- 
saries' long suits, and the fall of the commanding cards in each. Little 
by little, almost intuitively, the fall of the cards will be retained in the 
memory. Watch the play, and do not watch your cards. 

Do not assume to be your partner's critic or instructor except by re- 
quest. It is not only annoying to the other players, but it is worse than 



86 WHIST. 

useless to say to your partner, " What did you play that eight spot foi 
when clubs led ?" etc., etc. That particular case will not occur again in 
the lifetime of the players ; the learner will learn little or nothing from 
special plays. Confine your instruction to the imparting of general 
rules; as, for instance, " play second hand low"; "always return your 
partner's trump lead," etc., etc. But to manifest impatience, or to scold 
your partner, besides being in the worst possible taste, leads to no good, 
teaches no lesson, and too often results in self-distrust and timidity on 
the part of the player, especially if it be a lady ; she is deterred from 
playing as well as she might through dread of incurring this impatient, 
unkind, and unwise criticism of her play. 

Keep your temper ; keep your patience ; keep the run of the game, 
and shuffle the cards. Bear success or failure with an equal mind. 

WHIST SIGNALLING. 

Of late years the game of Whist has undergone a remarkable develop- 
ment, rather in practice than in theory. To-day is the era of • ■ Signal- 
ling." Whereas, twenty-five years ago, to lead a suit was perfectly un- 
derstood as requiring a partner's return of the suit ; such signalling has 
been to-day very much amplified. This signalling by the peculiar method 
of playing a sequence, has been decried by many old-fashioned whist 
players and called unfair, it might be called unfair, if certain methods of 
play were agreed upon by two persons, the rest of the players being 
kept in ignorance of this signalling. But the methods are well known, or 
supposed to be known by all players, and the opposing parties ca.n make 
use of this signalling if it pleases them, so what is fair for one is fair 
for all. 

Askin3 for Trumps, and the Echo. — During many years there has 
been a system arranged, termed " asking for trumps," " the. signal," and 
"the blue Peter," which indicates that you are strong in trumps and 
that you hold either five trumps or four trumps and two honors, 
and that it is most advantageous to your hand that your partner 
/ead you trumps at the first opportunity. This "ask "is indicated by 
your playing an unnecessarily high card, that is, on a trick won by Ace, 
third in hand, you as fourth player throw the Six, and next round play 
the Two, or as second player, play the Four, and then next round, drop 
the Two or Three. Thus, asking for trumps means playing a totally un- 
necessarily high card, when by subseqent play you show you could have 
played a lower card. You must be careful to distinguish between a 
totally unnecessarily high card, and a card played to cover another card, 



WHIST. 87 

or to protect your partner. If you hold Knave, Ten, and Two of a suit, 
as second player, you play your Ten, on next round you would play your 
Two, if this trick was won by a card higher than your Knave. Your 
•partner must not assume, from the fall of the Two, that you have asked 
lor trumps ; you have simply played the proper card. If you wished to 
ask for trumps, with this hand you should play your Knave on the first 
card led. But your partner cannot tell until the third round of the suitj 
whether you have or have not asked for trumps under the above con- 
ditions. Thus the play of the second hand must be watched carefully to 
note whether the card played is, or is not, a protecting card, and not ai* 
"ask." With fourth player there is less chance of mistake, for if the 
trick be already won, and he throws a Five or any other higher card, ana 
next round plays the Two or Three, it must be an ask. If the card lee* 
by the original leader be a high card, such as King or Ace, then the pla> 
of second player is not liable to be misunderstood. No player can ask 
for trumps by his lead. 

Third player may w\x> with King when he holds Queen, or with Ace 
when he holds King, and so indicate his signal. 

It may often happen that a player with a strong hand of trumps 
wishes them to be led to him for two reasons : First, that by the card 
his partner leads him he may ascertain or estimate his partner's strength ; 
second, because the card turned to his right may enable him to safely 
Snesse. Thus with Ace, Queen, Knave, and one other trump and King 
curned up to the right, it is advantageous that trumps should be led to 
this hand through the King ; whereas if this hand led trumps, the King 
must make, unless Ace be led and the King is unguarded. Thus if one 
partner ask for trumps, the other partner should lead him the highest if 
he hold three, and the lowest if he hold four trumps, unless his partner 
hold the Ace, when he should lead Ace, then lowest of the three re- 
maining. 

Those players who note carefully the fall of every card will scarcely 
ever fail to see the call, whether made by their partner or adversaries. 
Bad players sometimes excuse themselves, when they have omitted to 
notice the fall of the cards, by saying they were not looking out for it. 
Such a remark is a confession to the effect that the fall of the cards is not 
noticed, except probably the fall of Aces, Kings, and Queens. 

To attempt to play Whist when you omit to notice the call for trumps 
is to play at an immense disadvantage. Nearly every moderate player 
now understands the call for trumps, so that if one player out of the four 
dees not do so, he is overmatched by those who do. 

There are certain conditions of a game when one player, judging from 



88 WHIST. 

the cards in his hand, may see after a few rounds that the only way of 
saving the game is to obtain a trump lead from his partner. Under such 
circumstances he would be justified in asking for trumps, although he 
may not possess the strength indicated as that justifying an original call. 
You should therefore note the cards carefully that are played throughout 
the hand, for your partner may not have called early in the game, but 
may do so after half the cards have been played. 

The Echo. — As a sequel to the " ask for trumps," another system ©f 
play has been for some time adopted, by which if your partner ask for 
trumps, you can inform him whether you hold four, or more or less than 
four trumps ; that is, either to " ask " in trumps when they are led, or 
ask in some other suit after your partner has asked. This echo is a most 
powerful aid, as it is almost certain to enable you to wki an extra trick. 
The following may serve as an example : 

Your partner holds Ace, King, Queen, and Ten of trumps ; you hold 
Nine, Five, Three, and Two. Your partner has asked for trumps, and 
immediately after leads the Queen. On this you play your Three. He 
then leads King ; on this you play your Two. He then knows you hold 
four trumps. He then leads Ace, on which you play your Five, and 
Knave falls from one adversary. Your partner now holds best trump, 
and could draw the remaining trump if it were in the adversary's hand ; 
but you by the echo have told him it is in your hand, so he will not draw 
it, and you probably make it by ruffing a losing card. Had you not 
echoed, your partner would draw this trump, as he would conclude it was 
held by the adversaries. 

Those players who do not play the echo, must play at a disadvantage 
against those who do play it. It may sometimes occur that when in the 
first lead you have decided to ask for trumps, the fall of the cards show 
that a trump lead is not desirable. For example : King of Hearts is led 
by your right-hand adversary. You hold five trumps, with Ace ; Knave, 
and four small Hearts, and no winning cards ; you, however, commence, 
and ask in trumps. To the King of Hearts your partner plays the 
Knave ; original leader follows with Ace. You now know that your part- 
ner can hold only Queen of Hearts, and may hold no more ; so the whole 
Heart suit is against you, and your partner's trumps can be well employed 
in winning tricks on Hearts ; also the adversaries will probably lead 
trumps up to or through you. Instead, therefore, of completing your 
ask, you throw a higher card than the one you played originally, and thus 
conceal your original intention. 

Many very good players are of opinion that the conventional ask fot 
trumps has to a great extent interfered with the high art of Whist. Tbey 



WHIST. 



89 



argue that formerly, when the ask was not adopted a fine player would 
almost instinctively know when a trump was desirable, and would act ac- 
cordingly. Now say these objectors, the matter is made so plain by 
the ask that any common observer sees it. There may be some reasons 
for these objections ; but whether or not the objections are sound, yet the 
system is played, and unless you also adopt it you will play to disadvan- 
tage with those who practice it. 

It may be urged, however, that some players very often omit to notice 
the call, and therefore a certain amount of observation is necessary in 
order never to omit noticing the call when either your partner or adver« 
saries give it. 

If you hold five trumps, you may echo with the lowest but two, if this 
card is a low one, and then play your lowest to next round ; your partner 
missing the intermediate card, places five in your hand. 

For and Against Signalling. — Arguments for and against signal- 
ling are being constantly advanced, and we present, first, the one favor- 
ing signalling : 

An Advocate of Signalling.— Objections may be classed under 
two heads. 

I. It is said that the game has been changed from a pleasant family 
amusement into a difficult and complicated study, requiring much pa- 
tience and skill to master its intricacies ; and, as a corollary to the above, 
that playere of the developed game have an unfair advantage over others, 
when they sit down to play together. 

II. It is described as an act of questionable honesty to play a card with 
any other object than the winning of th& trick in progress, or the getting 
rid of a worthless card ; and to play one card in preference to another for 
the purpose of giving information to a partner is said to be a violation of 
the rule which forbids communication between the partners. 

Now with regard to the former objection, it may surely be assumed to 
be clearly understood beforehand, when persons sit down to a game of 
skill, that a keen trial of intellectual strength is the very object aimed at ; 
and that by mutual consent all feelings of forbearance are for a time to 
be laid aside, and every advantage taken which the rules of the game per- 
mit. It may be very reprehensible under ordinary circumstances to knock 
a man down ; but if he puts on the gloves, and stands up to you for a 
trial of skill in boxing, you should certainly knock him down, if you can 
do so consistently with the recognized rules of fair hitting.- To turn the 
other cheek to the smiter may be a rule of Christian perfection ; but 
those who think, that this rule may not be laid aside for a time by mutual 
consent must not amuse themselves with boxing. Precisely in the same 



90 



WHIST. 



way it is wrong in general to entrap your neighbor by offering him 
some slight advantage in order that you may gain a greater advantage 
over him afterward; but if he sits down to play chess with you, is it 
therefore wrong to offer him the King's Gambit, or any other form 
of '"trap" by which you hope to entice him into an unwise move? 

It may be said that all this is self-evident, and so it is. But then, what 
becomes of the objection to skilful play at whist, or to the fairness of any 
advantage gained thereby ? Indeed I should hardly have thought the ob 
jection worthy of notice ha.d I not more than once met with it in quar- 
ters where I should have expected something very different. 

With regard to the second objection we must, as a preliminary, lay 
down in distinct terms the axiom, that a method of play which is adopted 
in all Whist Clubs, and recommended in books on Whist accessible to all 
players, cannot be in any proper sense of the term dishonest or dishonor- 
able. It may be different *o the method in vogue among certain players, 
and it may be occasionally advantageous to those who adopt it ; but if so, 
the advantage is a lawful one — as lawful as that which a knowledge of 
the openings gives to a chess player, or a knowledge of the "cuts and 
guards " to a fencer. If any one chooses to think that family whist, ox 
" Bumblepuppy," is preferable to scientific whist, he has a right to his 
ooinion ; few good players will agree with him, and there the matter may 
rest. But to call in question the honesty of a method of play which is 
not forbidden by any rule of the game, and is practiced by all good 
players, is to use terms in a sense in which they are not commonly under- 
stood. 

While, however, such play is unquestionably honest, it is at least con* 
ceivable that it may be injurious to the interests of the game. If the 
great majority of whist players were to find themselves hopelessly beaten 
whenever they sat down to play with those of the advanced school ; if 
they found also that the modern developments of the game were so many 
and so difficult, that it was impossible for ordinary people to master them, 
then indeed we might have some reason to fear for the continued pop- 
ularity of that which would cease to be a recreation. But such is noi 
the case. 

Of course if any four persons like to take a pack of cards, and ptay 
with them a game bearing about as much resemblance to whist as skittles 
to chess, there can be no reason why they should not do so ; and this is 
what they must do if they try to play whist without "signalling." If 
there is any truth in the argument against whist signalling, it goes toG 
far ; much farther than those who bring it forward probably intend. Al- 
most every card played in the game is a signal ; that is to say, a skilful 



WHIST. 91 

partner will draw some inference as to the number or value of the 
cards remaining in the hand of the player. And this is inevitable. It 
can only be from certain combinations of cards that the one played is 
the proper one to play; and if the partner has any confidence in the 
player, he will credit him with holding one of these combinations. 
A glance at the cards in his own hand may perhaps reduce this in- 
formation to a more precise shape. 

Possibly, however, an objector to signalling may say that there is no 
harm in playing so as to give information to a partner, provided the card 
played is the one which would be played independently of any such 
motive ; but that it becomes dishonest, or at any rate questionable, when 
one card is played in preference to another for that purpose. Who then 
is to judge what was the motive of the player ? I doubt whether he 
could always do so himself. He has to form a rapid judgment between 
various, and sometimes conflicting motives ; and if rules are to be made 
restricting his liberty to play this or that card under particular circum* 
stances, the game will soon cease to be a game at all. 

Every improvement is questioned and attackeo vvhen first suggested ; 
so of course the modern developments of whist have had to stan<? 
much criticism. I only ask that they may be fairly criticised on thei? 
merits ; and not condemned by those who have not mastered them, and 
not given them a fair trial. Let any tolerably good whist player learn the 
American leads, and practice them, whether those with whom he plays 
know them or not. I can promise him that he will soon learn to appre« 
ciate them, and that his liking for the best of all games will be greatei 
than it was before. 

But while I have endeavored to defend these conventional methods 
of play simply on their intrinsic merits, and to show that they ought 
not to be regarded as arbitrary signals to a partner, I by no means 
admit that such a defence is in any way necessary to their justification. 
All writers on Whist, from Hoyle to Cavendish, have recommended 
this or that method of play simply because it gives information to a 
partner, either not dreaming that the fairness of such a course could 
be called in question, or mentioning the notion only to scout it. All 
good whist players adopt such recommendations for this very reason; 
and so long as the "signal" is given simply by the exercise of the 
player's undoubted right to select one card of a suit in preference to 
another — so long as no private understanding with a partner has been 
entered into — for so long, but no longer, must I hold the signal to 
be unquestionably lawful: and if any one is still inclined to raise 
objections, I reply, "Play Whist without signals if you can," 



9 2 



WHIST. 



Opposed to Signalling. —Signals are arbitrary, and are as unfair as 

coughing, sneezing, or drumming on the table, used for signalling, 
would admittedly be. If they are actual developments of strategic prin- 
ciples, they are, of course, perfectly fair. 

In the first place it should be remembered that the finest whist players 
yet known knew nothing of our signals. It would probably have sur- 
prised Deschapelles had he been told that the time would come when 
persons calling themselves whist players would think more of a number 
of arbitrary signals, taxing only the attention, than of all the points of 
strategy which he and his contemporaries regarded as the essence of the 
game. Clay used to say that he had never played with any one who 
came near Deschapelles for rapidity in recognizing when there would 
arise occasion for playing the grand coup (that is, undertrumping his 
partner or throwing away a winning card to avoid the lead when leading 
would involve the loss of a trick out of two which might both be made 
if the coup player were led up to). This is whist. It is strategy of this 
sort which alone makes the game worth playing by intelligent persons, 
who need something more than mere pip- counting to get enjoyment out 
of a card game. But how many of the modern whist players, whose 
whole attention is directed to watching for Peters, Echoes, Penultimates, 
and for opportunities for displaying these signals, ever see the occasion 
for the coup ) even when it stares them in the face ? As for seeing it four 
or five tricks ahead, not one of them ever does. Even the great high- 
priest of the signalling system knows so little in actual practice of the 
gra?id coup, that a dozen editions of his book on whist contained, as an 
example of this stroke of strategy, a hand in which he himself had done 
his best to throw away a certain game by resorting to the coup unneces- 
sarily. In his Essays, Cavendish refers to this particular hand as a 
triumph of whist strategy ; and it was not until Mogul, the arch-enemy 
of conventional whist, pointed out the rottenness of the play, that this 
triumphant example of the grand coup was finally dismissed to its appro- 
priate limbo. One wonders what Deschapelles would have thought of 
this. If he could study the game just as Cavendish played it, having also 
had the signals explained to him, for they come in to make Cavendish's 
mistakes less excusable, he would probably have spoken somewhat as 
follows: "Aha! I see this system is excellent— -for your adversaries. 
This chief teacher of yours is carefully shown by his adversary, on the 
left, that he has five diamonds. My adversaries were not so accommo- 
dating. And then, having considerately exhausted his mind in looking 
out for this signal, he forthwith proceeds to avoid two obvious paths to 
victory, in order to adopt a course which gives five chances to one against 



WHIST. 93 



against success. Or peut-etre, in this new whist, which is, I perceive, 
somewhat conventional, there is a certain satisfaction in playing the 
grand coup, even when it is more likely to do harm than good. We 
were so simple (you may hardly credit it) that positively we thought 
more of winning or saving the game than we did of playing coups. 
Of the signals we knew nothing, and so could give our adversaries 
none of the information you considerately supply them with." 

This would not be simply persiflage. There is a truth well worth 
considering by whist players, underlying it all. Here is the most 
accomplished whist player of the day, not only failing utterly in a 
point of whist strategy in actual play, but actually failing to see his 
mistakes when studying the game through at his leisure. None of the 
signal-lovers who study his book note the mistakes affecting their 
master's play. Content to observe that all the signals are duly 
hoisted throughout the game, they find nothing wrong in the strategy. 
It is only when the game comes to be looked over by one who cares 
more for whist strategy than for counting with the signallers, that 
the mistakes are found out. 

Does not this look as though modern signalling whist were alto- 
gether inferior to the old-fashioned scientific, that is to say strategic, 
game? 

One of the most remarkable results of the signalling system, when 
thoroughly brought into vogue in a company of players of no excep- 
tional strength, is the signular disproportion between the ability dis- 
played in signalling and the power to make use of the knowledge ob- 
tained from signals. Your convential player signals and counter- 
signals like Harlequin; but he is generally as helpless as Pantaloon 
to get any good from the knowledge he thus obtains. When I asked 
a player, who thinks a good deal of his skill, why he signalled when 
strong in trumps, he answered readily, and rightly enough (though 
only parrot-like), "Because I want my partner to know that I am 
strong in trumps, and that we ought to play a forward game." When 
I asked, however, what he meant by a forward game, and what he 
considered the proper method of playing such a game, it appeared that 
his ideas were confused in the extreme. "Oh, of course one knows 
what a forward game is; it means a game in which one tries to make 
a large number of tricks; my partner knows I have plenty of trumps, 
so that I can probably ruff one of the plain suits, if not two, and get 
extra tricks that way; or we may get a cross ruff;or — or — bring in a 
long suit — in fine, we may take advantage of our strength generally." 
Is this too absurd to be believed? Ask ten players who fancy their 
whist, and are proud in their knowledge of all the signals, what is the 
proper way of utilizing the information given by the signal, and 
seven out of the ten will talk just such nonsense. Nine out of ten 



94 WHIST. 

who regard the Peter, the Echo, and the Penultimate (or original fourtfcv 
as the soul of the scientific game, show in actual practice Miat they think 
they have done all they need do when in response to the signal they have 
led trumps. Not quite so many, but at least one-half of the ten are quite 
capable of the enormity of forcing their partner, trumps having been 
played for a round or two, after it has become clear that one of the enemy 
matches him in trump strength. Watching a game which presented fine 
opportunities for strategy, the following almost incredible proceedings 
came to pass : — A had responded to a Peter by his partner B, the round 
in which the signal was completed establishing A's suit originally a five- 
card one. Three rounds of trumps showed Z to be ©f equal trump 
strength numerically with B the signaller, each now retaining one trump, 
Z's the higher. Y led from a long suit, in which, after two rounds, it ap- 
peared that all the remaining strength lay between him and Z, who had 
three cards left in it, B having none. A had taken the last round in this 
suit, and now had to lead. If he had only led from his established suit, 
forcing Z, it was all up with Y-Z, whether Z yielded to the force at once 
or not. If Z would not yield to the force at all, three tricks went to A. 
who could then lead his partner's suit, which must be very strong, since 
he had signalled and shown weakness in the two other plain suits. If Z 
yielded to the force, then either he must lead Y's suit or B's. If the for- 
mer, B trumps, and A-B make all the remaining tricks ; if the latter, A-B 
equally make all the remaining tricks. A-B would thus have made foui 
by cards, and (as it chanced) the game, for they stood at i to love. What 
A actually did, showed that the most marked skill in regard to whist con- 
ventions may be accompanied by utter ineptitude — one might almost say 
imbecility— in regard to whist strategy. He deliberately forced his part- 
ner by leading Y's suit ! B had no choice but to yield to the fatal stroke 
of his partner, howsoever he may have wailed, Et tuB?ute, in his heart. 
For, if he had resisted, Y would have taken the trick, very properly play- 
ing his best in order to get out of Z's way, who, it appeared, had origin- 
ally held five in that suit. Y would have led the suit again, and if B 
again passed the trick, Z would have taken it, drawn B's last trump, 
made another trick in his long suit, and the same evil would have resulted 
which actually befel A-B. B trumped then, and led his own suit, making 
two tricks in it ; but then Z ruffed, led Y's suit, and though the hand did 
not result in Y-Z's favor, A-B's strength being overwhelming, A-B made 
only two by cards, instead of four, as they would had A played correctly. 
When B remonstrated with his partner, A replied in a way which even 
more clearly indicated his ignorance of whist strategy than his bad play 
itself. (For a man may play badly through carelessness ; defended bad 



WHIST. 95 

play is much more significant.) "I saw your trump would fall to Z's," 
he was good enough to explain, " unless I gave you a chance of making 
it ; so I led a suit which I knew you could ruff." To enable B to make 
that one trick, A had spoiled the whole of B's strategy, and enabled Y-Z 
to save a lost game. , 

. With the signalling system, the weaker players are not only engaged 
in a more difficult game because of the approximation of the game to 
double dummy, but that this difficulty is enhanced by a heavy tax on the 
memory and attention, it will be admitted that they are more heavily 
handicapped now, when opposed to really fine players, than they were 
when the older game was played. 

It is practically certain that the signalling system will not be checked 
by any rules (of etiquette, for no laws can be passed against it) making 
signalling an offense against whist manners. It is too profitable to the 
strong players ; and whether playing for money or for love, the strong 
players will forego no advantage which may enhance their superiority. 
But the weaker players, and those among the strong who are generously 
disposed, are not without the means of checking the evil. Let them 
thoroughly master the signalling system (all but the " echo in plain suits " 
which is simply chaotic), let them fall into the constant habit of noting 
*t as played by the enemy (they will find this always useful, and learn 
rather to despise a method which helps their own play so much) ; but let 
them refrain from signalling themselves and constantly inform each 
partner they may play with, that should he signal, he will only be 
enlightening the enemy, not advancing his or their game. This is a 
course by which players of moderate strength may deprive the signalling 
system of more than half its mischievous effects, and yet enjoy their 
recreational rubber. For strong players matched against players of their 
own calibre, there is perhaps no other resource but to play the signalling 
system, difficult and wearisome though it may have made the game. ft 
is not four-handed whist, as known to the finest players of old times, 
which is thus played, however, but an entirely different and much les 
attractive fame. 

AMERICAN WHIST LEAGUE. 

The following rules are the latest additions to the game of whist, 
and have been generally accepted by all whist clubs in the United 
States. The points of variance fro mthe older rules are not salient, 
still in some cases, where questions arose as to certain technical 
points, the rules of the Whist League cover these. As these American 



96 



WHIST. 



rules are concise and plain, we deem them worthy of adoption by all 
whist players in this country. 

THE LAWS OF WHIST — SCORING. 

1. A game consists of seven points, each trick above six counting 
one. The value of the game is determined by deducting the loser's 
score from seven. 

FORMATION OF THE TABLE. 

2. Those first in the room have the preference. If by reason of two 01 
more arriving at the same time more than four assemble, the preference 
among the last comers is determined by cutting a lower cut giving the 
preference over all cutting higher. A complete table consists of six. The 
four having the preference play. 

3. If two players cut intermediate cards of equal value they cut again, 
and the lower of the new cut plays with the original lowest. 

4. If three players cut cards of equal value they cut again. If the 
fourth has cut the highest card the lowest two of the new cut are partners, 
and the lowest deals. If the fourth has cut the lowest card he deals, and 
the highest two of the new cut are partners. 

5. At the end of the game, if there are more than four belonging 
to the table, a sufficient number of the players retire to admit those 
awaiting their turn to play. In determining which players remain in, 
those who have played a less number of consecutive games have the 
preference over all who have played a greater number; between two or 
more who have played an equal number the preference is determined 
by cutting, a lower cut having the preference over all cutting higher. 

To entitle one to enter a table he must declare his intention to 
do so before any one of the players has cut for the purpose of com- 
mencing a new game or of cutting out. 

CUTTING. 

7. In cutting, the ace is the lowest card. All must cut from the 
same pack. If the player exposes more than one card he must cut 
again. Drawing cards from the outspread pack may be resorted to 
in place of cutting. 

SHUFFLING. 

8. Before every deal the cards must be shuffled. When two packs 
are used the dealer's partner must collect and shuffle the cards for 
the ensuing deal and place them at his right hand. In all cases the 
dealer may shuffle last. 

9. The pack must not be shuffled during the play of the hand, nor 
so as to expose the face of any card. 



WHIST. 97 

CUTTING TO THE DEALER, 
io. The dealer must present the pack to his right hand adversary 
to be cut; the adversary must take a portion from the top of the 
pack and place it toward the centre of the table; at least four cards 
must be left in each packet; the dealer must reunite the packets by 
placing the one not removed in cutting upon the other. 

ii. If in cutting or reuniting the separate packets a card is exposed, 
the pack must be reshuffled and cut; if there is any confusion of the 
cards or doubt as to the place where the pack was separated, there 
must be a new cut. 

.12. If the dealer reshuffles the cards after they have been properly 
cut he loses his deal. 

DEALING. 

When the pack has been properly cut and reunited the dealer 
must distribute the cards one at a time to each player in regular 
rotation, beginning at his left. The last, which is the trump card, 
must be turned up before the dealer. At the end of the hand, or 
when the deal is lost, the dela passes to the player next to the dealer 
<-n his left, and so on to each in turn. 

14. There must be a new deal by the same dealer — 

I. If any card except the last is faced in the pack. 

II. If during the deal or during the play of the hand the pack is 
proved incorrect Or imperfect, but any prior score made with that 
pack shall stand. 

15. If, during the deal, a card is exposed, the side not in fault may 
demand a new deal, provided neither of that side has touched a card. 
If a new deal does not take place the exposed card cannot be called. 

16. Any one dealing out of turn or with his adversaries' cards may 
be stopped before the trump card is turned, after which the deal is 
valid and the cards, if changed, so remain. 

MISDEALING. 

17. It is a misdeal — 

I. If the dealer omits to have the pack cut and his adversaries dis- 
cover the error before the trump card is turned and before looking 
at any of their cards. 

II. If he deals a card incorrectly and fails to correct the error be- 
fore dealing another. 

IIT. If he counts the cards on the table or in the remainder of 
the pack. 

IV. If, having a perfect pack, he does not deal to each player the 
proper number of cards and idle error is discovered before all have 
played to the first trick. 



9 8 



WHIST. 



V. If he looks at the trump card before the deal is completed. 

VI. If he places the trump card face downward upon his own or an? 
other player's cards. 

A misdeal loses the deal unless during the deal either of the adversaries 
•ouch the cards, or in any other manner interrupt the dealer. 

THE TRUMP CARD. 

18. The dealer must leave the trump card face upward on the table un- 
til it is his turn to play to the first trick. If left on the table until after 
the second trick has been turned and quitted, it becomes an exposed card. 
After it has been lawfully taken up it must not be named, and any player 
naming; it is liable to have his highest or his lowest trump called by either 
adversary. A player may, however, ask what the trump suit is. 

10. If at any time after all have played to the first trick, the pack being 
perfect, a player is found to have either more or less than his correct num- 
ber of cards, and his adversaries have their right number, the latter, upon 
the discovery of such surplus or deficiency, may consult, and shall have 
the choice — 

I. To have a new deal ; or 

11. To have the hand played out ; in which case the surplus or missing 
card or cards are not taken into account. 

III. If either of the adversaries also has more or less than his correct 
number there must be a new deal. If any player has a surplus card by 
reason of an omission to play to a trick, his adversaries can exercise the 
foregoing privilege only after he has played to the trick following the one 
in which such omission occurred. 

EXPOSED CARDS. 

20. The following are exposed cards : 

I. Every card faced upon the table otherwise than ii* the regular course 
of play, but not including a card led out of turn. 

II. Every card thrown with the one led or played to the current trick. 
The player must indicate the one led or played. 

III. Every card so held by a player that his partner admits he had seen 
any portion of its face. 

IV. All the cards in a hand so lowered or held by a player that his 
partner admits that he has seen the hand. 

V. Every card named by the player holding it. 

21. All exposed cards are liable to be called by either adversary, must 
be left face upward on the table, and must not be taken into the player's 
band again. A player must lead or play them when they are called, pro- 



WHIST. 99 



vided he can do so without revoking. The call may be repeated 
until the card is played. A player cannot be prevented from lead- 
ing or playing a card liable to be called; if he can get rid of it in 
the course of play no penalty remains. 

22. If a player leads a card better than any his adversaries hold of 
the suit, and then leads one or more other cards without waiting for 
his partner to play, the latter may be called upon by either adversary 
to take the first trick, and the other cards thus improperly played are 
exposed cards; it makes no difference whether he plays them one 
after the other or throws them all on the table together; after the 
first card is played the others are exposed. 

23. A player having an exposed card must not play until the adver- 
sary having the right to call it has stated whether or not he wishes 
to do so. If he plays another card without so waiting, such card 
also is an exposed card. 



LEADING OUT OF TURN. 

24. If any player leads out of turn or before the preceding trick 
has been turned and quitted, a suit may be called from him or his 
partner when it is next the turn of either of them to lead. The 
penalty can be enforced only by the adversary on the right of the 
player from whom a suit can lawfully be called. 

If a player so called on to lead a suit has none of it, or if all have 
played to the false lead, no penalty can be enforced. If all have not 
played to the trick, the cards erroneously played to such false lead 
cannot be called, and must be taken back. 



PLAYING OUT OF TURN. 

25. If the third hand plays before the second, the fourth hand may 
also play before the second. 

26. If the third hand has not played and the fourth hand plays be- 
fore the second, the latter may be called upon by the third hand to 
play his highest or lowest card of the suit led, or if he has none, to 
trump or not to trump the trick. 



REVOKING. 

27. A revoke is a renounce in error, not corrected in time. A 
player renounces in error when, holding one or more cards of the 
suit led, he plays a card of a different suit. 

28. A renounce in error may be corrected by the player making it 
before the trick in which it occurs has been turned and quitted un- 
less either he or his partner, whether in his right turn or otherwise, 
has led or played to the following trick, or unless his partner has 
asked whether or not he has any of the suit renounced. 



IOO WHIST. 

29. If a player corrects his mistake in time to save a, revoke the card 
improperly played by him becomes an exposed card. Any player or play- 
ers who have played after him may withdraw their cards and substitute 
others ; the cards so withdrawn are not liable to be called. 

30 The penalty for revoking is the transfer of two tricks from the re- 
voking: s ^e to their adversaries. It can be claimed for as many revokes 
as occur during the hand. The revoking side cannot win the game in 
that hand ; if both sides revoke neither can win the game in that hand. 

31. The revoking player and his partner may require the hand in which 
the revoke has been made to be played out, if the revoke loses them the 
game ; they nevertheless score all points made by them up to the score 
of 6. 

32. At the end of a hand the claimants of a revoke may search all the 
tricks. If the cards have been mixed the claim may be urged and proved 
if possible ; but no proof is necessary and the revoke is established if after 
it has been claimed the accused player or his partner mixes the cards be- 
fore they have been examined to the satisfaction of the adversaries. 

33. The revoke can be claimed at any time before the cards have been 
presented and cut for the following deal, but not thereafter. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

34. If a player is lawfully called upon to play the highest or lowest 
of a suit or to trump or not to trump a trick or to lead a suit and 
unnecessarily fails to comply, he is liahle to the same penalty as if he 
had revoked. 

35. Any one during the play of a trick and before the cards have 
been touched for the purpose of gathering them together, may de- 
mand that the players draw their cards. 

36. If any one, prior to his partner playing, calls attention in any 
manner to the trick or to the score, the adversary last to play to the 
trick may require the offender's partner to play his highest or lowest 
of the suit led, or, if he has none, to trump or not to trump the trick. 

37. In all cases where a penalty has been incurred the offender 
must await the decision of the player entitled to exact it. If the 
wrong player demands a penalty, or a wrong penalty is demanded, 
none can be enforced. 

38. When a trick has been turned and quitted it must not again be 
seen until after the hand lias been played. A violation of this law 
subjects the offender's side to the same penalty as in case of a lead 
out of turn. 

39. If any player says "I can win the rest," "The rest are ours," 
"We have the game/' or words to that effect, his partner's hand 
must he laid upon the table and treated as exposed cards, 



DUPLICATE WHIST. 101 

40. League clubs may adopt any rule requiring or permitting methods 
of scoring or of forming the table different from those above described. 

CONCLUSION OF WHTST. 

11 The game consists 0/ ten points." See Pole's Rules. The old-fash« 
loned method of counting ten points is out of use. In the United States 
a game of five points is common, and so is the game of seven points. 
Honors do not count, only tricks. To score points with honors is, to-day, 
then, exceptional in the United States. In remote parts of England only 
are honors scored. 

As to whether five or seven should constitute a game, we incline toward 
the game of seven points, for the reason that this game being the longer, 
the better are the chances of the cards being equalized. Good play then 
comes more conspicuously to the front. 

As to the trump card. The last card of the dealer, the fifty-second 
card, is turned, and is the trump. This is the rule, and should never be 
deviated from. Sometimes the trump is made in France and Germany 
on cutting a card in an additional pack, Whist, for convenience, being 
played with two packs, and the card thus cut in the other pack is made 
trump. This is not Whist, and is contrary to all the rules of the game. 
Much fine play is often made depending on the trump card turned. Tc 
make a trump, not in the dealer's hand, must then never be permitted. 
It is a bastard whist. It may be remarked that Solo Whist, though a 
^ood game, is not whist. 



DUPLICATE WHIST. 

This game is sometimes called "Retrospective Whist." Having 
dealt the cards as usual, you play them according to the existing 
rules; but then, when the game is over, instead of dealing the cards 
afresh, the same hands which have just been played are again taken 
by the four players: A and C, however, now having the cards 
which B and 1) held, while B and D take the hand just played by A 
and C. Thus the same hands are played out a second time, and a 
score is kept so that it may be seen which pair of partners has 
made the most of the cards they have successfully held. And this 
process being repeated with every game, the rubber is finally said to 
be won by the two players who, under the above conditions, have 
shown the greater skill. Skill, in short, alone tells in Duplicate Whist, 
chance having nothing whatever to do with the result: for if one 



102 



DUPLICATE WHIST. 



pair of partners get all four honors in their hands in the first game, thett 

rivals will hold them, as a matter of course, in the next. 

A few technical details are necessary, in order to explain how the record 

of the cards dealt to the four players may be kept, also of the play, so 

that the game may be duplicated. 

Procure a pack of blank business cards, 5x3 inches, and fill them up, 

or have them printed, as shown by the diagram A. You have here the 
4 suits, S. spades, H. hearts, C. clubs, D. dia- 
monds. As soon as the cards are dealt, some 
on* designated beforehand, looks at the hands* 
and marks them down on the blank cards, A 
standing for an Ace. K for a King, Q for a 
Queen, and J for a Jack. The other cards are 
designatedas to numbers, as "1" fora deuce, "9" 
for a nine, etc. On the blank space on top of the 
four cards, one for each player, is written " First 
Round," and the partners are designated as A 
and B, Y and Z. At the bottom of the card is 
written "Dealer" on the card of the person 
who deals, and the trump is designated not only 
as to suit, but the exact card turned. It is found 
to be convenient, to have a piece of pasteboard 
on which these cards are kept in their places by 

means of elastic straps. The scorer is provided with another card, which 

gives the results. This is known as the " Result Card," and it is made 

in this way: 



I. • 


S. H. C. D. 


2. . 




3-. 
4-- 

5.. 




6.. 




7. . 




8.. 




0. . 




10. . 




II.. 




12.. 




13 • 

I 


)iagram A. 



TQt hand 


A. B. 


Resu 


LT. 

ist hand . 

2 " .. 

3 " • 

4 w •- 


Y. Z 




2 «' 






■, •< 


3 u .............. 




...... i 


s " " 






5 " 

6 " 


6 " 


7 " 


7 " 


/ •• 











On this Result Card, the tricks taken over six, are recorded, with 
the names of the players. 

If it be thought worth while to follow out the exact game, a score 
of whist can be kept in this way, which is taken from actual play: 



DUPLICATE WHIST. 



103 







A 




Y 




B 






Z 




S. 


H. C. 


D. 


S. 


H. C. D. 


s. 


H. C. 


D. 


S. 


H. 


C. D. 


I.. 

2. . 
1» • 


6 
K 






A 

J 
2 

Q 

5 

8* 

• • 




4 
9 






3 

7 




















K 
2 

3 

*6 
A 
9 




4 


3 

6 

A 
8 


A. 5 

• • • • 

J:: 

.. 7 

!! *8 

.. Q 


4.. 

5-. 

6.. 


• • 


.. K 
5 .. 


.. 6 .. 




• • 4 


K .. .. 




2 .. 


.*; 8 v. 


10 


7.. 
8.. 

Q.. 




.. 2 

.. 5 


.0 7 
.. 10 


10 
J 




4 . . .. 




9 .. 
.. 2 


10.. 
11. . 




.. 9 






10 . . 




Q .. 


12. . 






7 .... 




1* . 






j .. .. 





















The first hand A dealt, and diamonds were trumps, the ace having 
been turned. You read it a line at a time. A played 6 of spades, Y the 
ace, B the 4, Z the 3 of spades. 

Sometimes results are given on the same cards as those used to show 
what are the hands of each player ; but this is likely to lead to confusion. 
There are many ingenious methods of showing what are the exact cards 
dealt, but these are more or less cumbersome. The one above explained 
seems to be the simplest, the most accurate, and most readily obtainable. 

In all cases where Duplicate Whist is played, there should be some one, 
well acquainted with whist, who must keep the tally cards, otherwise there 
is confusion. You never can play Duplicate Whist in a rapid way, for it 
takes time to write down what are the cards. This may be said in its fa- 
vor, that it is the only method, by means of which good play can be dis- 
tinguished from poor play, and on that account, Duplicate Whist should 
be played by all whist clubs. 

The real test of Duplicate Whist, is to allow several days to in*— - 
vene, between a game, and the playing of it a second time. 

The game can be played without the whist trays. By playing at 
two tables eight persons can enjoy the game with two decks of cards. 
When the two games have been completed, the players change tables 
and positions. This method is obvious without further explanation. 

A patent deck of cards made of celluloid, with dials between the 
back and front of the cards, also enables one to play the game with 
but one pack of cards, 



!04 DUMMY WHIST. 

DUMMY WHIST. 

Three players play this game. Four hands are dealt, but the extra hand 
is thrown upon the table, face upward, and is known as "Dummy." With 
the following exceptions the rules of Whist govern this game : 

Dummy deals at the beginning of each rubber and is not punished for 
revoking, as his adversaries see his cards. If the hand is turned before 
the revoke is discovered the play stands. If Dummy's partner revokes 
he is liable to the usual penalties. 

As Dummy is blind and deaf, his partner is not penalized for exposing 
cards or for saying that he would take a certain trick. If, however, lie 
leads from Dummy when he should lead himself, or vice versa, a suit may 
be called from the hand which should have led. 

The policy of the game is obvious. It shows the expediency of leading 
a card that strengthens your partner; the benefit of pursuing an old suit 
rather than introducing a fresh weak one, etc. 

DOUBLE DUMMY. 

This game is played by two players, who each play a Dummy. The 
laws are the same as in Dummy Whist, except that there is no misdeal, 
as the deal is a disadvantage. 

The players and the Dummies deal in turn. Double Dummy is the 
favorite game with expert whist player.-.. It is the very best method by 
which the beginner can study the great game Whist. 



SOLO WHIST. I05 



SOLO WHIST. 

Solo Whist can be played by four and five, or three and four 
persons. When five play, the fifth comes in for four games, and 
stays out one game, as in Skat (see Skat, page 2> 2 Zi for four players). 
In the same way, when there are four, three play, and the fourth 
stays out, as in Skat. 

Solo Whist is, however, a game of four. When played with four 
an entire pack is used. 

The deal is cut for as in Whist. Cards are given three at a time, 
until the fourth round, when one card is given at a time, until each 
player 'has thirteen cards. The last card is turned, is the trump 
card, and belongs to the dealer, as in Whist. 

Cards have the same value as in Whist. The ace is the highest, 
then king, queen, knave, the deuce being the lowest. 

There are various games to be made in Solo, which a Boston 
player will at once understand. 

The games are: (i), Proposition, or Proposal, which calls on the 
part of another player for an Acceptance; (2), The Solo; (3), The 
Misery; (4), The Abundance; (5), Misery on the Table ; (6), 
Abundance Declared. 

The lowest call is the Proposition and Acceptance, the highest 
Abundance Declared. 

When all pass, or there is no declare, according to prior arrange- 
ment, a new deal may be in order, the deal passing, or a general 
Misery may be played. The person making the most tricks, then 
passes the other players three counters each. Sometimes the player 
taking the last trick is mulcted two counters, to be paid to each of 
the other players. 

Different from Whist, there are no fixed partnerships. A partner 
is asked for, and help is given or not, at the option of the players. 
It may so happen that a player proposing may find a partner to his 
immediate right or to his left or as his vis-a-vis. When a Proposition 
is made and accepted by some one, the two players associated are to 
make eight tricks between them. The other two players try to pre- 
vent the making of the eight tricks. 

A, B, C, D are playing Solo Whist. A has B to his left, then C 
is opposite to A, and D to A's right. A is after D, the dealer, and 
has the first call, and passes, and says "I pass." B, C or D may call 
for a partner in Proposition. A can become his partner. The act 
of passing does not prevent his (A's) partnership, but in no other 
position has a player who has once passed, the option of passing. 



106 SOLO WHIST. 

Trumps are used precisely as in Whist. You must follow suit. If 
you have not the suit, you may trump, or over trump, or not trump, 
at pleasure. In Proposition the trump card turned remains the trump. 

The Solo, is when a player declares he will take five tricks with- 
out assistance. He plays alone. The three others are against him. 
The trump card turned remains trumps. 

The Misery, is when a player declares he will take no trick. The 
other players try to make him take a trick. He loses if he takes a 
trick. 

The Abundance, is when a caller proposes to make alone nine 
tricks. He may make it in any suit he pleases, indifferent to the 
trump card turned. Another player may, however, call Abundance 
in the trump color turned, then the Abundance in the trump suit is 
better, being counted the higher, and he has the preference. A 
caller in Abundance must at once designate the suit, as "I call an 
Abundance in diamonds, or in trumps." 

Misery on the Table, is when a player lays his cards on the table, 
face upwards, and is to take no tricks at all. As in Boston and Skat, 
there is no trump. The cards have the same value as before. 

Abundance Declared, is to make all the thirteen tricks. Any trump 
may be selected. He has this advantage, he takes the lead. An 
Abundance Declared in the turned trump is the highest, as it is in 
simple Abundance. If the player of this Abundance Declared loses 
a trick, he does not win. 



STAKES. 

For a Proposition Accepted, six counters. 

Solo, six counters. 

Misery, twelve counters. 

Abundance, eighteen counters. 

Misery on the Table, twenty-four counters. 

Abundance Declared, thirty-six counters. 

There are several methods of increasing the penalties in Proposi- 
tion, Solo, and Abundance. One counter is added for every trick 
made over the declare, or one counter for every trick less. Thus a 
Proposition with one more trick, or nine tricks, the stakes received 
would be seven counters. If Proposition fall short one, or only 
seven tricks were made, it would be seven. This method holds good 
in all cases, but not for the Miseries or for Abundance Declared. It 
may be wise to increase penalties in this way, as it prevents wild play. 
If four play, A, B, C, D, and A makes or loses a call, he pays B, 
C, D, or if he win, B, C, and D play A. Say A plays a Solo, the 



THREE-HANDED SOLO WHIST. j J 

penalty of which is six, and wins. He receives eighteen chips, or if 
he lose, he pays eighteen chips, or more according to loss of tricks. 
If there be a fifth playing, he is payed, or the extra man pays, as 
the case may be. 

A player calling Proposition and finding no response, need not 
play. Ke can pass if no reply comes. A player can always augment 
his call. He might call a Proposition, and if no response" came, then 
make it Solo. But if one Proposition is accepted, he is bound to it. 

Calling goes round the table as the cards are dealt. 

Solo Whist is a game, the rules of which are not difficult to ac- 
quire, but it requires a good deal of skill to play it properly. 

The penalties for a revoke are stringent. A player revoking can- 
not win. He has to pay twice the penalty. If a partner make a 
revoke, his fault is imposed on his associate or associates. If in 
Proposition and acceptance a revoke is made by either side, two pay 
the other two double. If one player, trying to make a Solo, re- 
vokes, he pays the other three double, or the reverse is carried out. 
Trie rule works both ways. 



THREE-HANDED SOLO 
WHIST. 

This game is like the four-handed Solo Whist, only it is played 
with forty, or with thirty-nine cards. 

In playing with forty cards, all the twos, threes, and fours are 
discarded, which leaves forty cards. Thirteen cards are given to 
each of the three players, and that makes thirty-nine, and there is 
one card, the fortieth, over. This is turned and is the trump, but is 
not taken into the hands. The other way is to take out one suit, gen- 
erally diamonds. This leaves thirty-nine cards, or each player re- 
ceives thirteen cards. The last card is turned and is trump, and be- 
longs to the dealer. The taking out of the twos, threes, and fours, 
makes the more amusing game of the two. 

There are no Propositions permitted in the three-handed game. 
All the other calls are the same as in four-handed Solo Whist. 

A fourth player may be taken as in Skat (see page 323). 

Both these games have been sometimes called Ghent Whist, and 
have some features of Boston. A good Whist player can at once 
seize on the leading methods of playing this interesting game. 



io8 



BRIDGE WHIST. 



BRIDGE WHIST. 

(Rules compiled from Best Authorities.) 

Bridge Whist, after an existence of forty years, has come info such 
favor that the great game poker is second to it. In Turkey, Egypt, 
and the Riviera it has been played as khedive. Holland has had a 
variation, and in Russia the game has been played under the name 
yeralash. 

In May, 1903, the clubs of Paris and London passed laws that no 
member could lose more than a stipulated sum in any one month. 
These rules were made because several members of prominent clubs 
had ruined themselves at play. 

To-day in n» two countries are the rules of play the same. The 
rules given here are compiled from the best authorities in different 
countries. 

THE RULES. 

A full pack of 52 cards, which rank as in Whist, are used. Four per- 
sons play as a rule, but five or six may do so. With more than four the 
four who shall play the first rubber are selected by cutting. The four 
thus selected cut for partners, choice of seats and cards. 

The proper method of cutting for cards is to spread them upon the 
table, face downward. Each player selects a card and turns it face up- 
ward. The four drawing the lowest cards play the first rubber. Then 
the four cut for partners in the same manner, the two cutting the lowest 
cards playing against the other pair. The partner cutting the lowest 
card deals. All ties are decided by the tying players cutting again. 

POSITION AT THE TABLE. 

Partners sit opposite to one another and are designated by their posi- 
tions in the first trick of the deal. The dealer's partner is the dummy. 
The leader or eldest hand sits on the dealer's left, and his partner, known 
as the pone, sits opposite, as in the following diagram: 

Dummy. 



Reader. 




Pone* 



Dealer 



BRIDGE WHIST. 



109 



In hands used to illustrate games the letters used in the diagram 
are placed at the head of columns to indicate the leader and the 
other players on the first trick. 

DEALING. 

Two packs should be used. While the dealer is shuffling and pass- 
ing the cards to the pone to be cut, the dummy shuffles the second 
deck and places them on his right hand ready for the next deal. The 
dealer distributes the cards one at a time to each player until the 
pack is exhausted. There are no misdeals in Bridge, as the deal is 
3 disadvantage, and no trumps are turned. Whenever there are ir- 
regularities in the deal the same dealer again deals. 

If the dealer or his partner expose a card his adversaries can demand a 
new deal, and vice versa. Anything is an irregularity that would be ir- 
regular in a Whist deal, exposed cards, reversed cards in the deck, etc. 

If a player has less than 13 cards and plays, the deal stands; if a player 
deals out of turn or with the wrong cards, unless the error is corrected 
before the first card is led, it stands; no player can cut nor shuffle nor 
deal for his partner without his opponents' consent. If the pack is dis- 
covered to be imperfect or incorrect there must be a new deal with a 
new pack, but all scores made with the imperfect pack stand. 

SCORING. 

The score is kept on a sheet of paper. The common form in use 
follows : 



WE. 


THEY. 


Points. 


Honors. 


Points. 


Honors. 



The score should be kept with a heavy red, blue, or green pencil, and 
should be in such a position that each player can see always the state of 
the game. The honor point? are placed in one column and the trick 
points in another. 



no BRIDGE WHIST. 

Although two separate scores are played for, the points made by tricks 
only win the game. Trick points are made by fixing a value to each 
trick above six which two partners capture. Every trick beyond six on the 
book counts points according to the suit which on that hand is trumps. 
Thirty points is the game, but if a player has 28 points and makes 60 on 
hand he is credited with 88 points, and a line is drawn beneath the score 
to indicate that the game has been won. At the end of the hand the 
side winning the most tricks announces the number, as "One by cards," 
or "Two by cards," etc. 

Three games of thirty or more points count a rubber. If the same 
partners win the first two games the third is not played. The side that 
wins the rubber gets a bonus of 100 points, which is added to its score. 
The total number of trick points and honor points are then added up and 
the lower score is deducted from the higher, and the difference is the 
value of the rubber in points. 

MAKING THE TRUMP. 

After the deal the dealer examines his hand and then announces the 
suit that shall be trumps, or he elects to play without a trump suit. He 
is guided fn this by the value of tricks when certain suits are trumps. 
The table of trick values follows: 

When there is no trump each trick counts 12; when hearts are trumps 
each counts 8; diamonds trumps, each count:? 6; with clubs trumps each 
trick counts 4, and when spades are trumps each trick counts 2 points. 

With the game 30 points, three tricks at no trumps, four tricks in 
hearts, and so through the suits, are necessary to win. 

Another thing that must be considered is the value of the honors the 
hand contains. The honors in Bridge are the ace, king, queen, jack 
and ten of the trump suit. When there is no trump the four aces are the 
only honors. 

Three out of five honors, simple honors, is in value equal to two tricks 
in that suit, while four honors held by partners is equal to four trick-, 
and five held in one hand is equal to five tricks. The honor valuer, 
tabulated for convenience, follow: 

If the trump suit is 

Three honors count 

Tour honors count 

Five honors count 

Four in one hand count 

Four in one hand, one in partner's 

luve in one hand 



pades. 


Clubs. 


Diamonds. 


Hearts. 


4 


8 


12 


16 


8 


16 


24 


32 


10 


20 


30 


40 


16 


3* 


48 


64 


18 


36 


54 


72 


20 


40 


60 


80 



BRIDGE WHIST. riI 

To remember these values is easy if the value of the spav> suit is 
learned. Clubs are twice as valuable as spades, diamonds three 
times as valuable, and hearts are worth four times spades. 

With no trump suit: Three aces between partners are worth 30, four 
worth 40, while four aces in one hand are worth 100. 

The score by honors does not help to win or lose the game, but it has 
a great deal to do with the ultimate value of the rubber. It happens at 
times that the side losing the game by tricks has such a large honor score 
that, in spite of the bonus of 100 given to the winner of this side, it has 
a majority of the points. This happening, however, is obviously rare, as 
the 100-point bonus generally prevents such occurrences. 

Little Slam,, the winning of twelve tricks by one side, counts 20 
points by honors, while Grand Slam, the taking of thirteen tricks, gives 
40 points in the honor column. 

Chicane is when a player has no trump in his hand. This adds to his 
partner's honor column and reduces the sum of the opponents' honor 
sccre by the amount of simple honors. Going over, or doubling, never 
affects the scores that go in the honor column. 

When the dealer is not strong enough near the end of the game to 
feel certain of winning on the deal, he will rarely make it a black trump. 
He can then leave it to his partner, saying: "You may make it, partner." 
The partner then has to make it whether he wishes to or not. If he is 
weak he will make it spades. Neither side must make any declarations. 
If the dummy names a trump without being requested to, either of his 
adversaries may demand that it stand or may insist on a new deal. If 
either adversary make a declaration, the dealer can demand a new deal 
or play, as he thinks best. 

DOUBLING. 

After the trump is made it cannot be changed, but the adversary can 
double. He will always do this if he thinks he can make the odd trick. 
He doubles by announcing, "I go over." The dealer may have made it 
hearts, then the value of the odd trick, instead of being 8, becomes 16. 
The same if "no trumps" are declared. The odd trick is worth 24 in- 
stead of 12. 

The eldest hand has the first say. If he does not wish to go over he 
says, "Shall I play?" If his partner wishes to double he can then so de- 
clare. If the eldest hand plays without this question, the pone cannot 
double. 

If the eldest hand or the pone doubles, the player who named the 
trump can double again by simply saying, "I go back." If he does not 
wish to do this he simply says, "Enough." Going back can be continued 



112 



BRIDGE WHIST. 



indefinitely, buti in some clubs a rule has been made which limits the 
doubling to eight times the original value of the tricks. 

If the pone doubles out of turn, the player who made the trump can 
let it stand or not as he pleases. If the pone indicates that he will not 
double out of his turn, his partner cannot double. If a player goes over 
or goes back out of his turn, it is for the adversary who made the last 
declaration to say whether the irregular declaration shall stand. 

After the trump suit is announced the eldest hand leads, and as soon as 
the cards are on the table the dummy places his hand on the table, face 
upward, and he cannot make a suggestion or touch a card unless requested 
to by his partner. Should the dealer renounce to any suit, the dummy 
can call his attention to it by asking, "No clubs, partner?" This saves 
the revoke, if one has been made. He should also call, attention to a 
lead from the wrong hand by the dealer. If, however, the dummy calls 
the dealer's attention to any penalty that he is entitled to, the dealer 
cannot exact that penalty. 

The rules of play are the same as in Whist. There is no penalty if 
the dealer exposes cards, but if his adversaries expose any, lead out of 
turn, play two cards to one trick, the exposed card must lie on the table 
and the dealer can call it at any time, unless the play of the card neces- 
sitates a revoke. There is no penalty if the dealer lead out of the wrong 
hand. If this error is not discovered before all four have played, it can- 
not be corrected. If the adversary leads out of turn the dealer may call 
a suit from the one that should have led, or if it was neither's turn to 
lead he can call it from the first who obtains the lead. If the dealer 
takes his hand from a card it cannot be changed. If the third hand 
plays ahead of the second, the fourth may play before his partner. If the 
fourth plays before his partner, the dealer or dummy can call upon the 
second hand to win or not to win the trick. 

If a player, except dummy, forgets to play and the error is not dis 
covered until the next trick, a new deal can be called for. A player 
rutting two cards on a trick is liable for any revokes, even though he 
discovers his error and the tricks are searched and the superfluous card 
returned to him. If two or more cards are played at once, the dealer can 
designate the one he wishes played. A revoke can be corrected at any 
time before the trick is turned. If the player making the correction is an 
adversary of the leader, the leader can call on him to play the highest or 
lowest card of the suit, or he can require that the card be permitted to lie 
exposed upon the table. There is no penalty if dummy revokes nor if 
the dealer corrects his revoke in time. The penalty of a revoke is the 
loss of three tricks for every revoke. The revoking side cannot go game 



BRIDGE WHIST. 113 



on the hand, but must stop at 28, while tricks taken for the revoke pen- 
alty do not count toward slams. 

If the dealer mistakenly says, "I take the rest," and his adversaries 
throw down their hands, their cards cannot be called, as they can if they 
should do so otherwise. 

After the hand is finished the points and honors are scored. If the 
trump was hearts and the dealer made three tricks, his side scores in the 
WE side, under points, 24 points. If he and his partner had three 
honors, he counts in the honor column 48. Another hand is played then, 
and if the same side win and make 30 tricks the game is won and the 
rubber is not played. 

THE PLAY. 

The first lead is made blindly, as the dummy does not expose his hand 
until the card is on the table. This lead should never be a trump unless 
ten-ac«s or guarded kings are held in all outside suits. Always lead a 
card that will permit you to hoM the lead until you see dummy's hand. 

Whenever you hold the king and the queen, or king ace, or ace, king, 
queen, lead the king. The rules as to leads are as numerous as those in 
Whist and in many cases are like those in Whist. 

A trump signal is never used. If you get the lead, return your 
partner's suit. Lead the highest of two and the lowest of three. 

ADVICE TO BEGINNERS. 

With four aces always make no trump. With three aces the hand 
should be no-trumper, unless the hand is remarkable in the red suits. 

With two aces and protection in a third suit there should be no trump, 
as protection in a suit is almost a certain trick. 

With only one ace a no-trumper should never be made, unless there 
is exceptional strength in all the other suits. 

Without an ace a no-trumper should never be made, unless the player 
lias a phenomenal hand in court cards. 

With a suit missing, a no-trumper may be risked generally, but you 
>tand a chance to lose the odd trick. 

With two missing suits a no-trumper should never bq risked, unless 
the player has six or seven tricks in his hand. 

After considering the chances of a no-trumper, the chances of hearts 
ac trumps are considered and then diamonds and so to spades. The mak- 
ing of spades is always an acknowledgment of weakness. 

For making hearts five trumps with two honors should be the minimum. 
Kven then, unless you have ace and king, it is not safe if you have noth- 
ing as good as queen in other suits. 



II4 BRIDGE WHIST. 

Five hearts and one honor is not safe, unless you have protection in 
two other suits. 

With the ace, king, queen, and jack of hearts you should make it 
hearts. Even if you lose by tricks you make 64 in honors. 

With four hearts and three honors hearts can be made. The 
honors count so high in hearts that they are worth playing for. 

In considering other trumps the same factors guide except in 
diamonds. Even with five trumps diamonds should not be made 
without an honor in the hand. 

To consider each suit would take a whole book, which is not pos- 
sible in an elementary treatise of this kind. A player soon learnt 
what is safe and what is not. 

In discarding always discard your strong suit. 

DUPLICATE BRIDGE. 

In this variation of Bridge the trays Used in regular Duplicate Whist 
can be used. A sheet of paper ruled off in such a manner as to show 
the deals, trumps, points made and points lost, is used to .score on. 

The game can be played with any number of tables from two up. It is 
better to divide a large number of players into sections of not more than 
7 tables each, so that the game will not become tiresome. 

The trays are numbered on the back and each pocket is numbered so a9 
to indicate the dealer. An arrow is also on the tray, and this arrow should 
always point in the same direction. At the first table trays numbered 
from i to 4 are placed, at the second 5 to 8, at the third 9 to 12, etc. 

At the start the cards must be shuffled by the player sitting opposite 
the mark on the tray indicating the dealer. When the hands have been 
played they are placed in the trays without being shuffled. The pro- 
cedure is the same as in Bridge, except that the cards are played in front 
of each player as in Duplicate Whist. The dealer does not play his 
dummy partner's cards, but calls out the card he wishes played. The 
cards are turned and the tricks kept count of as in Duplicate Whist. 

When the hand has been played and the score entered, the cards are 
placed in the tray and passed to the next table. After four deals, the 
pair A and B having won, they move to the next table and Y and Z 
keep their seats. A and B at all tables move in the same direction. 
The trays played with always go in the opposite direction from A and B. 

There is no dealing of cards in the second round. The dealer takes 
his cards from the pocket of the tray opposite him and makes the trump 
or passes. After four deals the A and B players again move forward, 
the Y and Z partners always remaining in their seats. 



BRIDGB WHIST. 115 

If there are six tables A and B will meet the trays at the fourth 
table which they played with at the first. To avoid this A and B skij 
the fourth table in a six-table game, the fifth in an eight-table game, etc. 

The scores are kept on specially ruled slips of paper. The names of 
the players, with their pair numbers, the number of the table at which 
they started, are entered at the top of the slips. The first column on the 
slip shews the number of the deal, the second the number of their ad- 
versaries, the third the trump, then points and honors won, and points 
and honors lost, then in the last column the gross loss and gross gain. 

At the end of the last game the winning points are added and the 
points lost are added, and then the totals are subtracted and must be 
a total plus or a total minus. 

Then all the scores of the A and B pairs are added up and divided 
by the number of pairs playing, to find the average. The same method 
is used in discovering the average of the Y and Z pairs. 

Say the average is 250 and No. 4's score was 380, the average taken 
from 380 would leave 130 for No. 4. Then if No. 5 had 390, No. 5's 
score would be 140 and the top score. 

If two pairs play, as in Duplicate Whist, the score is kept as in that 
game, and the side making the greatest gains wins. 

DUMMY BRIDGE. 

Bridge Whist, properly speaking, is Dummy Whist. In Bridge there 
are four players, however, one of whom lays down his hand. If, how- 
ever, four players are not available, three play and the game becomes 
"Dummy" Bridge. 

The simplest method of play follows: 

The players cut for partners, choice of seats, cards, etc., as in the 
ordinary game. The player cutting the lowest card has the choice and 
is the lone player for the game or the rubber. In case of a rubber the 
ioo points are added to the winner's score as in the ordinary game. In 
the second rubber the partners cut to see who will be the single player. 
On the third rubber the single player is that one who has not had that 
position. 

If rubbers are not played, but games only, the winning side adds but 
50 points to its score. Three games should be played, so that each 
player shall be single. 

When play begins the cards are cut, shuffled, and then the single 
player deals them, beginning on his left, so that the last card will fall to 
kis share. 



n6 BRIDGE WHIST. 

Then the dealer makes the trump or passes it to dummy. If he 
passes, he examines dummy, who is forced to make it no trump ifjie 
holds three or four aces; if he has but two aces he cannot make it no 
trump, but must make it his longest suit — that is, the suit in which he 
holds the most cards; if he has two suits of equal length he must make 
it the strongest suit, which is decided by counting the pips on the 
cards, ace counting 14, king 13, queen 12, jack 11. 

When the trump has been declared the eldest hand can go over or 
ask his partner, "Shall I play?" His partner can go over, but then the 
dealer can go back; and as he has seen two hands, if the dummy has 
made it, he has an advantage. If the single player makes the trump 
and is gone over, he must go back without looking at dummy. If he 
names the trump the dummy is not turned until after the eldest hand 
has led. If dummy makes the trump his hand is not exposed until the 
first card is led. Then the play proceeds as in Bridge. 

When the hand is completed and scored, the single player goes to 
the opposite side of the table, and the player who was his opponent on 
his left has the deal, the former single player being eldest hand. 

There are several other ways to play. For instance: The dealer is 
compelled to make the trump from his own hand, whether the single 
player or not. It is not passed to the partner, and the single player is 
not permitted to see dummy's cards, until the lead for the first trick 
has been made. Neither can the eldest hand ask his partner if he 
must play, but he must go over or lead, and if he goes over the single 
player may go back, but the eldest hand's partner takes no part in the 
doubling. 



D RAW PO KK R. 



RULES FOR PLAYING. 
By the Hon. Robert C. Schenck, 

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States 
of America near Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The deal is of no special value, and anybody may begin. 

The dealer, beginning with the person at his left, throws around five 
cards to each player, giving one card at a time. 

The dealer shuffles and makes up the pack himself ; or, it may be done 
by the player at his left, and the player at his right must cut. 

To begin the pool, the player next to the dealer on his left must put 
up money, which is called an k4 Ante"; and then in succession each 
player, passing around to the left, must, after looking at his hand, de- 
termine if he goes in or not ; and each person deciding to play for the 
pool must put in twice the amount of the ante. Those who decline to 
play throw up their cards face downward on the table, and, per conse- 
quence, in front of the next dealer.* 

When all who wish to play have gone in, the person putting up the 
ante can either give up all interest in the pool, thus forfeiting the ante 
that has been put up, or else can play like the others who have gone in, 

* Notje. — A, B, C, D, and E (five being the best number to play the game) sit 
down to play draw poker. A deals the cards ; B u antes " — say five cents. 
("Ante " is corrupted from the French word entrer^ to enter.) C can " strad- 
dle" B, by putting up (or " anteing ") at least ten cents, which is double B's 
11 ante," without looking at his cards. This doubling the ante (or IC blind ") is 
called a lk straddle," and always should carry the " age," as an inducement t» 
straddle. D can straddle C f which makes a double straddle, and thu* takep* th« 
M age " from C ; and so round ad infinitum.— Arkansas. 

(117) 



DRAW POKER. 

by " making good "; that is, putting up in addition to the ante as much 
more as will make him equal in stake to the rest. 

If a number of players have gone in, it is best generally for the ante- 
man to make good and go in, even with a poor hand, because half his 
stake is already up, and he can therefore stay in for half as much as the 
others have had to put up, which is a percentage in favor of his taking 
the risk. This, of course, does not apply if any one has " raised"; that 
is, more than doubled the ante before it comes around to the starting- 
point. 

Any one, at the time of going in, must put up as much as double the 
ante, and may put up as much more as he pleases, by way of " raising " 
the ante ; in which case every other player must put up as much as will 
<nake his stake equal to such increase, or else abandon what he has 
already put in. 

Each player, as he makes good and equals the others who are in be- 
fore him, can thus increase the ante if he chooses, compelling the others 
still to come up to that increase, or to abandon their share in the pool. 

All " going in," or " raising " of the pool, as well as all betting after- 
ward, must be in regular order, going round by the left ; no one going 
in, making good, increasing the ante, or betting, except in turn. 

When all are in equally who intend to play, each player in turn will 
have the privilege of drawing ; that is, of throwing away any number of 
his five cards and drawing as many others, to try thus to better his hand. 
The cards thus thrown up must be placed face downward on the table, 
and, for convenience, in front of or near the next dealer. 

The dealer, passing around to the left, will ask each player in turn 
how many cards he will have, and deal him the number asked for from 
the top of the pack, without their being seen. The dealer, if he has gone 
in to play for the pool, will in like manner help himself last. 

The players must throw away their discarded cards before taking up 
or looking at those they draw. 

In the game every player is for himself and against all others, and to 
that end will not let any of his cards be seen, nor betray the value of his 
hand by drawing or playing out of his turn, or by change of countenance 
or any other sign. It is a great object to mystify your adversaries up to 
the " call," when hands have to be shown. To this end it is permitted 
to chaff or talk nonsense, with a view of misleading your adversaries as 
to the value of your hand ; but this must be without unreasonably delay- 
ing the game. 

When tne drawing is all complete, the betting goes around in order, 
ttke the drawing to the left. The ante-man is the first to bet, unless he 






DRAW POKER. 119 

has declined to play ; and in that case the first to bet is the player near- 
est the dealer, on his left. But the player entitled to bet first may with- 
hold his bet until the others have bet round to him, which is called 
"holding the age"; and this, being an advantage, should, as a general 
rule, be practiced. 

Each better in turn must put into the pool a sum equal at least to the 
first bet made ; but each may in turn increase the bet, or raise it, as it 
comes to him : in which case the bets, proceeding around in order, must 
be made by each player in his turn equal to the highest amount put in 
by any one ; or else, failing to do that, the party who fails must go out of 
the play, forfeiting his interest in the pool. 

When a player puts in only as much as has been put in by each player 
who has preceded him, that is called M seeing " the bet. 

When a player puts in that much, and raises it, that is called seeing 
the bet and " going better." 

When the bet goes around to the last better or player who remains in, 
if he does not wish to see and go better, he simply sees and "calls"; 
and then all players must show their hands, and the highest hand wins 
the pool. 

When any one declines to see the bet, or the increase of bet which has 
been made, he "lays down" his hand, — that is, throws it up with the 
cards face downward on the table. If all the other players throw down 
their hands, the one who remains in to the last wins, and takes the pool 
without showing his hand. 

To "bluff " is to take the fisk of betting high enough on a poor hand, 
or a worthless one, to make all the other players lay down their hands 
without seeing or calling you. 

When a hand is complete, so that the holder of it can play without 
drawing to better it, that is called a "pat" hand. A bold player will 
sometimes decline to draw any cards, and pretend to have a pat hand, 
and play it as such, when he has none. 

A skilful player will watch and observe what each player draws, the 
expression of the face, the circumstances and manner of betting, and 
judge, or try to judge, of the value of each hand opposed to him ac- 
cordingly. 

No one is bound to answer the question, how many cards he drew, 
except the dealer ; and the dealer is not bound to tell after the betting 
has begun. 

Of Drawing. — If the player determines to draw to a pair, he draws 
three cards. If he draws to two pairs, he draws one card. 

If he holds three to begin with, he draws two cards, in order to have 



120 DRAW POKER. 

the best chance of making a full, inasmuch as, in playing, paire are apt 
to iun together. But to deceive his adversaries, and make them think he 
has nothing better than two pairs, a sharp player will often draw but one 
card to his threes. 

It is advisable, sometimes, to keep an ace, or other high card, as an 
41 outsider," with a small pair, and draw two cards, — thus taking the 
chances of matching the high card, and so getting a good two pairs, or 
something better possibly, while at the same time others may be deceived 
into believing that the player is drawing to threes. 

When drawing to cards of the same suit to try to make a flusk, or to 
cards of successive denominations to try to make a sequence, as many 
more cards are to be taken as will be needed to fill out the flush or the 
sequence. But it is seldom advisable to venture in to draw for either a 
flush or a sequence when more than one card is required to complete the 
hand. 

When a player holds fours in his original hand, it is as good as it can 
be ; and yet it is best to throw away the outside card, and draw one, be- 
cause others may then think he is only drawing to two pairs, or for a 
flush or a sequence, and will not suspect the great value of the hand. 

When one is in (as he ought seldom to be) without even so much as a 
pair, his choice must be either to discard four cards, or three cards, and 
draw to the highest or two highest in the hand ; or throw away the whole 
hand, and draw five ; or look content and serious, stand pat, and bet 
high. 

The player determining to try this last alternative on a worthless hand 
had generally better begin by raising when he goes in, or else nobodj> 
will be likely to believe in his pretended strong hand. 

RELATIVE VALUE OF HANDS IN THEIR ORDER, BEGIN- 
NING WITH THE BEST. 

1. A sequence flush ; which is a sequence of five cards, and all of the 
same suit. 

2. Fours ; which is four of the five cards of the same denomination. 

3. A full ; which is a hand consisting of three cards of the same de- 
nomination, and two of likewise equal denomination. 

4. A flush ; which is all five cards of the same suit. 

£5. A sequence ; * which is all five cards not of the same suit, but all in 

• Many experts rate threes in relative value above a sequence ; but the better 
opinion is, that a sequence should rank first, as being in itself one of the com 



DRAW POKER. I2 ] 

sequence. [In computing the value of a sequence, an ace counts eithei 
as the highest or lowest card ; that is, below a deuce, or above a king.] 

6. Threes ; which is three cards of the same denomination, but the 
other two of different denominations from each other. 

7. Two pairs. 

8. One pair. 

9. When a hand has neither of the above, the count is by the cards of 
highest value or denomination. 

When parties opposed each hold a pair, the highest pair wins ; and the 
same when each party holds threes or fours. 

When each party holds two pairs, the highest pair of the two deter- 
mines the relative value of the hands. 

When each party holds a sequence, the hand commencing with the 
highest card in sequence wins : so also when two or more parties hold 
flushes against each other. 

That full counts highest of which the three cards of the same denomi- 
nation are highest. The two cards of the same denomination help only 
to constitute the full, but do not add to the value of the hand. 

When hands are equal so far that each party holds a patr, or two pairs 
of exactly the same value, then the next highest card or cards in each 
hand must be compared with the next highest card or cards in the other 
hand to determine which wins. 

In case of the highest hands (wkich very seldom occurs) being exactly 
equal, the pool is divided. 

The main elements of success in the game are : (1) good luck ; (2) good 
cards ; (3) plenty 0/ cheek ; and (4) good temper. 



LAWS OF POKER. 

{Though the Schenck rules are good, they require amplification , and 
to meet a new generation of players the following laws, which are the 
latest, are presented.] 

DEALING. 

1. One card is thrown face up to each player. The lowest card deals. 
The Ace is the lowest. The King is the highest. 

Dlete hands. (There is no longer any difference of opinion or play. Every- 
where the straight is better than threes. We may remark that the title of th<J 
$ame " Draw Poker " is to-day rarely in use. Either a game of Draw, or Poker 
Jone are the terms employed. — Editor.) 



I22 DRAW POKER. 

2. Cards are shuffled in sight. Every player has a right to shuffle. 
The dealer shuffles last. 

3. The player to the right of the dealer cuts. 

4. One card at a time is given to each player, beginning at the left. 

5. The deal goes to the left. 

6. A pack with a faced card, when dealt, requires a new deal by the 
same dealer. Cards are re-shuffled and cut as before. 

7. When a card is faced in dealing, this turning of the card being due 
to the dealer, or any other player, whether by accident or not, the player 
must receive the card. 

8. If two cards are exposed in the same way, as described in Rule 7, 
\here must be a new deal. 

9. If the dealer gives a player six cards or four cards, or more or less 
than five, a new deal is in order. It is a misdeal. If all the players re- 
ceive fou¥ or six cards each, it is a misdeal. 

10. No^play can be made without the exact number of cards, which is 

five. 

DISCARDING. 

11. After the first five cards are dealt, players who remain in may dis- 
card up to five cards, and ask for as many new cards as they require. 
The discard begins at the Age— the player at the left of the dealer. 
Every player must discard in his regular turn. The exact number of 
cards asked for is given. Once cards are thrown away, they cannot be 
handled until the next deal. 

12. Players cannot ask others what is the discard as to numbers, either 
before or after the draw. (Formerly the rule read that before the draw 
the question could be asked, but not after it.) The dealer must announce 
his own discard. 

13. When more cards are offered by the dealer than are asked for by 
the discard, the player, on announcing that too many or not enough cards 
are dealt him, can decline taking them, and the dealer may correct the 
error. If, however, the player accepts the cards from the dealer, and 
looks at them, whether they be more or less than the regular number he 
should have, which is five, the player is ruled out of the game. 

14. If, in asking for cards in the draw, one card is turned or shown, 
the latest-accepted rule is that this card cannot be taken. The dealei 
takes the exposed card, puts it at the bottom of the pack, proceeds to 
give the cards in order to the next players, and when through, then gives 
a card to the player whose card has been turned. If more than one card 
be turned in the draw, the rule is the saire. (This rule, though often 
disputed, should be accepted.) 



DRAW POKER. 123 



THE ANTE. 

15. The player after the dealer must ante first, before tne deal. He 
puts up any number of chips, not exceeding half the limit To come in 
he has to double the ante, as the other placers have to. The ante can 
never be more, when first put up, than half the limit. 

16. When the cards are dealt, players who come in must double the 
ante. 

17. The Age comes in last, and makes his ante good or not, at his 

option. 

RAISES. 

18. After the Age any player, in his turn, may raise. Any number 
of raises in turm are in order. 

19. After the draw, any player who is in, commencing with the one to 
the left of the Age, can raise. 

20. The eldest hand, the Age, comes in last. If the Age declines 
making his blind good, notwithstanding this, the first player after him 
must bet first. The Age ?iever passes. 

21. If a bet be raised by a player who is in his regular turn, the next 
player must see the bet or retire. 

SHOWING HANDS. 

22. A show of hands, putting them on the table, face up, is a rule 
never to be departed from when the call is made. 

CALLING. 

23. When a player bets more than any one else, within the limit, and 
no one calls or sees him, he wins. 

ONCE OUT. 

24. Once out of a game, a player can never enter again. (A r o foul 
hand can wi?i under any circumstances.} 

THE BLIND AND STRADDLE. 

25. The Age alone can make the blind. The next to the Age can 
straddle. But the third player after the Age cannot begin the straddle. 
The third player can straddle the straddler, always within the limit. 

26. The straddle cannot make the straddle and raise at the same time. 
(There is no rule less observed than the one that the Age never passes, 
This Rule, No. 20, should be faithfully observed.) 



124 



DRAW POKER. 



RULES FOR THE JACK-POT. 

27. Each player puts up as many chips as the one having the age. 

28. The opening hand must have a pair of Jacks or better. 

29. If no player can come in, another chip is added by each player, and 
a second round begins. 

30. After the opener, to the left of him all the players can come in 
providing they see the amount he bets. 

31. The opening bet must be put up before the draw. 

32. The opener makes the first bet. 

33. The last person to bet is the player, who is to the right of th© 
opener. 

34. All raises, as in Poker, are in regular order. 

35. For an error in opening a Jack-pot, the person having made the 
Aiistake retires from the game. The penalty for the mistake is for him 
to put up a Jack-pot equal in chips to the one he has entered into in error. 

36. In the case of an error of this kind, any otlur player, to the left 
Of the putative opener, having a pair of Jacks or better can open. 

37. If the error is found out after the cards have been drawn, and no 
hand nas a pair of openers, that round of Jack-pots is null and void. 

38. A Jack-pot cannot be opened by a player drawing for a straight or 
a flush. Any other player but the opener can draw for what he pleases. 
(See the explanations for this apparently arbitrary rule.) 

(The laws governing the playing of the Jack-pot require remodelling. 
This peculiar phase of Poker is not old enough to have crystallized into 
its concrete form. As it is universally played, stringent rules should be 
adopted for it. Such rules as are presented are in accordance with those 
employed in New York City. The right to play the Jack-pot at all is 
disputed by many players. The argument against it is that it is a dia- 
bolical invention of Kitty. It is true that the more frequent are Jack- 
pots, the larger the earnings of the Kitty.) 

All the rules of Poker are made to prevent fraud. Every rule should 
be strictly adhered to. 

VALUE OF THE HANDS AT POKER. 

Singly each card possesses its ordinary value, as in Whist. 

No Pairs.— The lowest hand is one in which, in the five cards, th«re 
are no pairs, nor are the cards of the same suit, nor is there a sequence. 
Its value would depend on its highest cara. Thus, one hand may con- 
tain a Two of spades, a Four of hearts, an Eight of diamonds, a Jack 



DRA W POKER. \ 2 5 

of clubs, and an Ace of diamonds. This hand would be better than «me 
which held only a King of diamonds as its highest card. It is not un- 
common, even when betting is made on a false straight, that when one 
adversary calls the other no pair can be shown. Then the highest card 
wins. (See further on in regard to straights and flushes.) 

One Pair. — The values of the cards being the same as in Whist, a pair 
of Threes, as the Three of diamonds and Three of spades, is better than 
the Deuce of diamonds or a Deuce of spades, as a pair of Aces are bet- 
ter than a pair of Kings or a pair of Queens better than a pair of Jacks. 
If each player, when two are engaged, has pairs which are alike, as, say, 
each one has a pair of Queens, the next highest card wins. Say the two 
players had each Queens. In one hand is a King, in the other a Jack. 
The hand with the Queens and King would win. Occasionally this parity 
of hands may require the second or even the third card after the pair to 
decide on the value of the hand. One of the rarest things is to see the 
same cards held exactly by two hands. This may occur, but never when 
threes, fulls, or fours are held. (Threes and fulls will be explained 
later.) 

Two Pairs. — Two pairs beat a single pair. Of the two pairs the 
higher wins when pitted against any other two pairs. A pair of Ace 
and a pair of Deuces are better than a pair of Kings and a pair of 
Queens. A pair of Sixes and Threes are better than a pair of Fives 
and Fours. If the two pairs are alike, then the single card left 
decides the value of the hand. 

Threes or Triplets.— By Threes or Triplets is meant that the 
player holds three cards of the same value, as three Aces, or three Tens, 
or three Deuces. The three highest win. There can be no similarity of 
hands in Threes. 

The Straight. — The straight, sometimes called a sequence, means 
that five cards are held, which ascend in exact values. Thus, 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5, or 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, are numerical sequences. The Straight has no refer- 
ence to color. A straight may be composed of the Five of hearts, Six of 
diamonds, Seven of clubs, Eight of spades, and Nine of hearts. The 
Ace, King, Queen, Jack, Ten, irrespective of suits, is a straight. The 
•\ce, however, in a straight may change in value, for it may be taken as 
the beginning of the straight ; thus, an Ace, a Deuce, Three, Four, and 
Five is a straight, but it is the lowest one ; it would be beaten by a Two, 
Three, Four, Five, and Six. As in all valuations, the best or highest 
straight or sequence wins. A straight beginning with a Nine and end- 
ing with a King is not as good as one commencing with a Ten and end- 
ing with an Ace. Two hands may hold straights of the same value ; and 



126 DRAW POKER. 

when this happens the pool is divided between the two players holding 
the straights. 

Flush. — When five ^ards of the same suit are held, this is a flush. 
Any five spades, or five clubs, diamonds or hearts, is a flush. The hand 
holding the highest card in the flush wins. A Two, Three, Four, Five. 
headed by an Ace of the same suit, is better than an Eight, Ten, Jack, 
Queen, and King of the same suit. In the flush two hands may be made 
Df exactly the same value ; in this case the pool is divided. 

The Full. — By the full, is understood a hand which contains not 
only Threes, but a Pair. Thus, a full hand may be composed of three 
Threes and two Deuces, or three Aces and two Kings. Just like in two 
pairs, the higher Threes decide in the value of the hand. Three Fours 
and two Twos are better than three Threes and two Aces. Two similar 
hands in a full do not exist. 

Fours. — This is a rare hand to hold, and means that in the five cards, 
four cards are of the same value. Thus four Deuces is a Four, as are 
four Aces. The highest Fours win. There can be no similar hands 
in fours. 

The Straight Flush. — This is the most unusual of all hands to 
hold, and is the highest in value. By a straight Flush is meant that the 
five cards are not alone of the same suit, but have a regular numerical 
progression. It is not only a straight, but also a flush. Thus, a Two, 
Three, Four, Five, Six of spades is a straight flush, as is a Ten, Jack, 
Queen, King, and Ace of clubs or any other suit. Many games of Poker 
may be played, and a straight flush never seen. Two straight flushes 
of the same value may be made at the same time. It is within the pos- 
sibility of cards, but players have rarely, if ever, seen this double event. 

RECAPITULATION. 

The values of the cards at Poker are in the following: order : 
i. No Pairs. (Highest Card wins.) 

2. One Pair. 

3. Two Pairs. 

4. Threes or Triplets. 

5. The Straight or Sequence, 

6. The Flush. 

7. The Full. 

8. Fours. 

9. The Straight Flush. 

How the Game is Played. — Poker is played with a full pack of 5a 
cards. 



DRA W POKER. 



I27 



The number of players should be limited to six. Five is the oes* 
number, but seven can play ; but when seven play, as each player re 
ceives five cards, thirty-five cards have been dealt, and this only leaves 
seventeen cards. As every player has five cards dealt to him and has a 
right to draw five cards, there are not sufficient cards for this ; and when 
seven play, recourse must be had to the discard. Now, as every rule in 
Poker is devised as a protection against fraud, seven players should no% 
be pe?-mitted. 

For the deal, as in Whist, one card is thrown to each person, face up, 
and the lowest deals. There is some slight advantage in dealing. The 
Cards are shuffled, and cut by the person to the left of the dealer. Th( 
dealer gives in rotation one card singly to each player, dealing the cards 
to the left. The deal goes to the left. Each player receives five cards. 

Before the deal commences, the player to the left of the dealer puts 
his stake on the table. This player to the left is called the Age, and the 
stake he puts up is called the ante. It is an invitation, as it were, to the 
others to make their bets. This player who has the Age, has certain ad- 
vantages or disadvantages, which will be aiterward explained. As the 

deal always goes to the left, the 
deal passing after every round of 
the game — the position of the Age 
is always changing in regular 
order. 

The circle represents the table, 
and A, B, C, D, E, the players. 
When A deals, B is the Age, and 
must ante. As the deal goes to 
the left, after every round, B 
would be the next dealer and C 
the Age. When E is dealer, A ij 
the Age. 

Before the dealer gives any 
cards, or the game is commenced, 
h limit is agreed upon. The necessity of a limit must be at once insisted 
upon, because no game of Poker is possible without it. It acts as a curb, 
and prevents losses. To play without a limit would be the same as to 
wager $1,000 in a game of whist or euchre. It may be then supposed that 
the players A, B, C, D, and E, have agreed that ten cents be the limit. 
When A deals, B may put on the table one chip, the chip representing 
one cent, and he does this before receiving any cards. He may put up 
two, three, four, or five chips; when he reaches five chips he is at the 




Dealer 



128 



DRA W POKER. 



Bmit of the game, because should he or any of the ^iher players come ic, 
he or they would have to double the ante, which if he put up five would 
be ten, and ten is the limit of the game. If he put up one he would have 
to double it if he came in. No bet then can be made of any kind, higher 
man ten chips, if ten be the limit. But the ten chips or ten cents can 
be accepted as the wager, and ten chips more bet, and this ten repeated 
over and over again, but eleven chip^ cannot be bet. The limit is tea 
The person who is the Age has the advantage of playing or betting last. 
If he has good cards he may be willing, to come in. He has one chip on 
the table, which he will lose if any one else comes in, and he is unwilling 
to put up another chip. If he has a bad hand he abandons his one chip. 
This is to his disadvantage . The 

advantage of the position is Two pairs 

that if he has a good hand, be- TwQ Aces 
tag the last player, he can aug- 
ment the stake. An augmenta- 
tion of the stake by the Age will 
je afterward explained. 

It is C who makes the first 
wager, or C may have nothing. 
Then D may come in, or E, or 
the dealer A. It is never ob- 
ligatory to play in Poker ; you 
may make a wager or not as you 
please, with the exception of the hearts 
A ge, who must risk a chip. 

With the diagram and the 
players an imaginary game can 
now be carried on. 

A deals, B puts up one chip for an ante, the limit of betting is ten, and 
the cards are dealt live to each person. The cards are looked at. C is 
the first to bet. Say he has a pair of Aces iu his hand ; D two pairs, a 
pair of Fives and a pair of Sixes ; E has three Twos ; A, the dealer, no 
pairs at all, a valueless hand ; and B, who comes in last, four hearts. 
C, D, E have all of them cards of some value ; B has, so far, cards 
which are worthless, but, if he could get another heart, he would have 
an excellent hand, and make a flush. C, D, E come in, as does B. 
They each have put up two chips, and B, who was the Age, makes his 
stake good by putting up another chip A, the dealer, who holds noth- 
ing, does not enter at all. Now, the cards are drawn, just as in ecarte 
The players ask for cards, and can take up to five cards — that is. a$ 




A Dealer 
Nothing. 



DRA W POKER. 



12? 



many cards as they want. B, who is after the dealer, is helped first. He 
asks for one card. He has four hearts, and wants to get another heart. 
C, who has two Aces, asks for three cards. He may make two pairs, 
taking in another pair, or he might draw another Ace, which would make 
him three Aces, or he might draw three cards all of the same value, a 
triplet, making him a full, or he might take in two more Aces, making 
him have four of a kind. D, who has two pairs, Fives and Sixes, might 
also, by taking one card, get another Five or Six, and so have a full. E, 
who has three Twos, might draw two cards, helping, just like C, to 
make four or a full. A, who dealt, has nothing, and does not ask for 
new cards, for, once having passed, he is out of the game for the round. 
B, who was the Age, has four hearts. It might be that he held the 
Two, Three, Four, and Five of hearts. Should he draw the Six of 
hearts, he would have a straight flush, which would be almost invincible. 
If his hand consisted of the Ace, King, Queen, Jack, and he were to 
draw the Ten, there would be no possibility of his losing. If he drew 
any heart, he would make a simple flush, which is a strong hand. The 
cards are then dealt, the dealer giving to each one exactly the number of 
cards he asks for. 

B, one card, drawn to a flush* 

C, three cards, drawn to a pair. 

D, one card, drawn to two pairs. 

E, two cards, drawn to threes. 

The discarded cards are thrown toward the dealer before the new cards 
are given. Now, the question arises : Whose hand has been improved ? 
Nobody can tell. C's two Aces is a fair hand ; but of all of them before 
the draw, E's was the best hand, he had three Deuces. The player may 
gain some information as to the character of the hands from the number 
of cards drawn. If a player had drawn five new cards, or four new 
cards, the certainty would be that he held in neither case a pair, but was 
trusting to luck to draw something. E has taken two cards. That 
looks as if he had threes. D and B have both taken one card. Either 
of them may hold threes. This might not be likely or they would have 
shown perhaps by an early bet, that they held good hands. But nothing 
absolutely certain can be gleaned from the draw, for B, who has nothing, 
may be drawing for a card to make a straight, or a flush, or he may have 
two pairs. 

Let the giving of the new cards in this case, B, C, D, and E, have 
their hands precisely in the same condition as before the draw. C hat 
\iis pair of Aces ; D his two pairs » E his three Twos ; B has drawn • 



130 



DRAW POKER. 



spade, and his hand is good for nothing; — just as it was when he came in. 
Now the betting commences. C wagers one chip ; D " sees it," or puts- 
up one chip ; he has two pairs ; E, who has three Twos, wagers the one: 
chip of C and D, and "raises " them ten chips. B is frightened. It is his 
turn next, and he goes out, relinquishing his two chips. If C, with one 
pair of Aces, is a conservative player, has gone out, D, who has only two 
small pairs, will give up also. Then all the players, having declined to 
"see" or bet E's ten chips, E will take the pool. There has been no 
bluffing. E has simply backed up his hand. Not being called, he is not 
forced to show his hand. 

Suppose, however, in the drawing, a good or helping card had been 
secured by only C, who held the pair of Aces, and that he had drawn 
another Ace. When B passed out, C having the best Threes, would 
have seen E's hand, accepted the wager of ten, and raised an additional 
ten. D, with two pairs only, caught between the cross-fires, would have 
beaten a precipitate retreat. E, with three Twos, might have thought that 
C was bluffing. Prudence would dictate his not betting any more. He 
would have only seen C, and the hands being exposed, C's three Aces 
would have won the twenty-one chips E had bet. Having been called, 
by E, both hands are shown. 

Taking the same condition of hands, B with a flush to draw, C with 
two Aces, D with two pairs, and E with three Twos, we will suppose that 
there has been this time no improvement in the hands. The betting is, 
the same as before. C bets one chip, D sees it, and E goes Ten better. 
B has not improved his hand at all. He thinks that E also actually has 
three Twos and is bluffing. He sees E's Ten, and bets Ten better. C 
and D are frightened out as before. E is not quite certain. B may have 
made a straight or a full. His Threes are the smallest in the pack. E 
may have been in bad luck. He hesitates. B looks very determined. E 
gives up, will not see the additional Ten, and then B wins, or takes the 
pool and the wagers. He does not show his hand. He has not been 
called. This is a legitimate bluff. B being the age, has had some little 
advantage of the position. 

Taking again the same players with the same cards : suppose the hands 
had been improved by the drawing. That C had drawn two more Aces, 
that D had drawn another Six, that E had added two Kings to his Threes, 
and that B had made that rara avis, a straight flush. Then the Ten, as 
a limit, would be repeated by each player any number of times. C with 
the four Aces knows that in all the multitudinous changes of cards, there 
xm be but one chance against him — the straight flush. To his misfor- 
■:«*** wb«n the hands are called* he fia<is this straight flush. If D and K 



DRAW POKER. 



131 



are intelligent players, after they have made several bets which their adve? 
saries have capped with other bets, they would have gone out, satisfied thai 
they held losing hands. No combination of cards is impossible in Poker, 
Two hands, each holding Fours, have been often seen struggling for the 
victory, and Fours have more than once succumbed to a straight flush. 

The Elder Hand. — The condition of the elder hand or Age must 
now be considered in regard to such advantage as it may possess, and 
raising in general be explained. Before any new cards are taken, raising 
is legitimate. Referring to the diagram of the table and players, B being 
(he Age, and the last one to come in, C, D, E, and A have seen the 
wager of two chips, or ten chips ; when it is B's turn to come in he can 
say : " I make my ante good ; or my blind good, and I raise it ten." 
This is the bet before any cards have been dealt. If then (as in the after 
case, when cards have been drawn, as previously explained), C, D, or E 
and A do not see B's bet, though they have put up their two chips each, 
B wins. If any of the players, however, see this extra wager of ten, 

made before new cards are given, 
they are all said "to stay in." 
Then the new cards are given to 
them as before, and the status of 
the game remains the same. 

B being the Age, the others 
coming in with inferior hands, 
say — B has the best cards, a flush. 
As he is the last to come in, when 
it is his turn, he makes his ante 
good and raises it ten before cards 
are drawn. All the other players 
are frightened and go out. They 
will not see the wager ; B takes 
the two chips, or the ten chips 
each of the others have put ufc. At the beginning. He need not show 
his hand, because no one had seen his bet. Suppose, however, all had 
gone out but D, who held two pairs, or one pair ; D draws one card and 
makes a full, or three cards and makes a full, he would accept any of B's 
bets, and the wagers would be exactly as in the former cases cited. But 
if he supposed B, the Age, had nothing at all, and raised ten at the start, 
before any cards were taken, he might not draw any cards at all, or only 
one card. Other players, who came in with one pair, or two small pairs, 
might not see his next bet, that is, if he carried out his purpose of betting 
the limit. They would believe that he really held a strong hand. 




132 



DRAW POKER. 



This is one of the advantages of the position, and Is called holding: the 
Age. Raising can be made, however, by any of the players. Say B, the 
Age, has put up his ante, one chip. C comes in, sees the chip ; putting 
up his two, and raising it two. This would be bad play, because C would 
intimidate only the Age, B, and drive him out. There are three more 
players to come after him. It would be bad policy then for C to raise. 
He would, if a good player, wait. If any one raised after him, before cards 
were taken, he would see this raise, and possibly raise it again. Taking 
again the explanation with the diagram, the following case is presented : 

C comes in. It is not his 
place to raise, nor is it D's, but £ hree Two small 

£> . *_ .o tv . -, Deuces ^^*m ^^^ pairs 

E, with three Kings, raises the ^ ^^~~~ ~^^w n 

ante ten. A, who has a chance 
to make a flush, comes in, as 
do B and C. D may or may 
not come in. Say D goes out. 
B, C, and A have met E's 
raise. Cards are drawn with 
no improvement. C bets first, 
say one chip. D is out. E, 
who has originally raised the 
blind, bets ten more. A, whose 
hand has not improved, passes 
out. B, who has three Aces, 
sees the new bet ot ten, and 
bets ten more. C is intimida- 
ted. E believes he has the best hand, and may make another bet. Say 
he sees B, and on showing cards he loses. Innumerable combina- 
tions might be presented : as of D holding three Kings, and E three 
Aces. C coming in with the ante, and D seeing the raise of ten, before 
cards have been drawn, and raising it ten more. 

Two hands may each hold flushes, and standing " pat," that is having 
good cards (a perfect hand, before a card is drawn), and raising each 
other in the first stage of the game. In Poker, position has much 
to do with the game, and the Age has only this advantage of posi- 
tion, for the chances of his having a good hand, so as not to lose the one 
chip he has been forced to put up, are small. He wagers his chip with- 
out having seen his cards, while the others know what they have before 
ttsey come in. 

tt is in " raising," entirely apart from such cheating as may arise from 
"forcing a card," that fraud in Poker is possible, and a fraud exceed- 




A Dealer 
A flush to draw. 



DRAW POKER. 133 

ingly difficult to detect. A player may be " forced out " or " raised out w 
by a combination of two players who have previously agreed to such a 
rascally performance. Taking the diagram with the same players, C 
and E, or any two players, may have agreed to combine and raise out 
other players. This conspiracy, as has been stated, is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to detect. Players have not the right to even say to one another in 
private, u When I raise you, you may be sure I have a hand." It gives 
to each of them an undue advantage. It is a secret arrangement, and, 
being such, is nothing else than a fraud. 

Of Drawing. — If the player determines to draw to a pair, he draws 
three cards. If he draws to two pairs, he draws one card. 

If he holds three to begin with, he draws two cards, in order to have 
the best chance of making a full, inasmuch, as in playing, pairs are apt 
to run together. But to deceive his adversaries, and make them think he 
has nothing better than two pairs, a sharp player will draw but one card 
to his threes. 

It is advisable sometimes to keep an Ace or other high card as an 
" outsider " with a small pair, and draw two cards — thus taking the 
chances of matching the high card, and so getting two good pairs, or 
possibly something better — while at the same time others maybe deceived 
into believing that the player is drawing to Threes. 

When drawing to cards of the same suit, to try to make a flush, or to 
cards of successive denominations to try to make a sequence, only one 
card is to be taken. This will be needed to fill out the flush or the 
sequence. But it is seldom advisable to venture a draw for either a flush 
or sequence when more than one card is required to complete the hand. 

When a player holds Fours in his original hand, this is as good as it 
can be ; and yet it is best to throw away the outside card and draw one, 
because others may then think he is only drawing to two pairs, or for a 
flush or sequence, and will not suspect the value of the hand. 

When one is in (though he ought seldom to be) without even as much 
as a pair, his choice must be either to discard four cards, or three cards, 
and draw to the highest or two highest in the hand, or thcow away the 
whole hand and draw five, or look content and serious, stand pat, and bet 
high. 

The player determining to try this last alternative on a worthless hand, 
had generally better begin by raising when he goes in, or else nobody 
will be likely to believe in his pretended strong hand. 



i 3 4 DRAW POKER. 

PROBABILITIES. 

The probabilities of receiving a specified Poker hand in the deal 
are as follows: 

Straight Fluch i in 65,000 deals. 

Fours 1 " 4,^4 " 

Full i" *93 " 

Flush 1" 507 " 

Straight (Sequence) I M 254 " 

Threes * " 45 " 

Two Pairs * " 2 ° " 

One Pair . . . . x " if* M 

Or, 10 in 13 " 

The draw, of course, modifies these proportions, and gives the pbye* 
increased chances. But it would require too much space to give the 
chances in these cases. 

TECHNICAL TERMS KNOWN IN POKER. 
The Age.— Designation of the player whose place is after the dealer. 
The Age never passes. 

The Ante.— The bet made by the Age, and applicable to any of the 
stakes put up in the game, at the entrance of the players. 

Blaze.— A hand which holds all the picture cards, an Ace being con- 
sidered as a court card. It beats two pairs. The Blaze is rarely played, 
and should be ruled out. 

Blind.— This is the stake put up by the Age. He doubles it, if he 
wishes to play. Not wanting to play, he abandons it. All the players 
Ante. 

Call.— This term means that one player sees the bet of another, and 
will not advance the bet. Then the cards are shown. But it is only the 
last better, or the one nearest to the player to the right of the person 
who has raised, who can call, and so calling, no one else betting higher, 
this closes the game. 

Chips. — Counters. 

To Chip In.— To put counters on the table. Equivalent to entering 
into the game. 

Discard.— To throw out cards from the hand first dealt. 

Draw. — To take new cards. 

Eldest Hand.— The player to the left of the dealer. 

FILLING.— To improve the hand by means of th« cards draw* 



DRA IV POKER. I 3 5 

Freeze-Out. — Five players, each take the same number of cards, and 
play until one of them has won all the chips or counters. Those who 
lose are " frozen out." 

Going Better. — When a player raises or bets an amount higher than 
the player to the right of him, he " raises." 

Going In. — The elder hand makes his "blind good." That is, he ac- 
cepts the wagers of the rest, and adding more chips, makes his blind 
good. Any one entering the game " goes in." 

Going Out. — The reverse of the above. 

Limit. — Before a game is commenced it is agreed that so many chips 
shall be the limit. Above this no bet can be made ; but the amount of 
the limit in the betting may be made over and over again. No game 
ever should be played without a limit. 

Making Good. — Putting up the number of chips any one else has bet. 

Original Hand. — The first five cards dealt before the draw. 

Pat Hand. — Is a hand as it is first dealt, by supposition only a perfect 
hand ; as a straight, a flush, or a full. A pat hand may have nothing in 
it. "I play pat," means that a player does not want any cards in the 
draw. 

Pass. — When a player does not come in at all, or gives up his hand 
after a raise, this is a pass. 

The Pot.— All the chips on the table. 

To See. — Is equivalent to calling a bet. 

To Straddle. — To double the ante. 

There are innumerable cant terms peculiar to localities. To keep two 
small cards and an ace, is called holding up "a kicker." This draw is 
made by the player, hopeful of getting two pairs, with the additional ace 
or king. The term two pairs, " Queens Up," means that the Queens are 
the higher cards of the two pairs. "Tens Up," would mean that the 
Tens were the higher cards. A full, " Kings Up"; a flush, " Ace Up" v 
can be at once understood. When a big bet is made which drives out 
the other players, they are sometimes said to be " blown out." 

THE JACK-POT. 

The Jack-pot mgj be an innovation, and contrary to the traditions 
of the game, but it is universally accepted to-day. It differs from everything 
else in the game, because it arbitrarily forces every player to ante. In all 
other phases of Poker it is only the Age who antes. In the prehistoric 
period of Poker the way of playing when every one passed out, was for 
the Age to withdraw his ante. When he dealt, in his turn, the next Age 



136 DRAW POKER. 

put up the ante. It was not unusual for several rounds to be dealt, and 
for everybody to pass out. This became monotonous ; and then some- 
body invented the Jack-pot. 

The way of playing the Jack-pot is as follows : When all pass out, the 
Age leaves up his ante, and all the other players put up their antes o* 
chips in equal amounts to the Age's ante. The cards are dealt for the 
next round by the next player. It differs again from the ordinary game, 
inasmuch as there is no elder hand, no one holding the Age. 

To open the Jack-pot, some one must have at the least a pair of Jacks. 
He can open it then with Jacks or better. But if no one has a pair of 
Jacks, or better, each player again contributes a chip, and a new deal is 
in order. A half dozen rounds may be dealt, and the Jack-pot not 
opened. There is nothing obligatory about entering. A player may 
hold a pair of Jacks and not open. Supposing a player has a pair of 
Jacks or better, he opens the Jack-pot, that is, he wagers so many chips. 
The rest see it, or not, as they please. If they do not see his wager, he 
takes the pot. The opener makes, however, the first bet, and the betting 
proceeds to his left as in the ordinary game. 

Sometimes, by prior arrangement, an ascending scale is determined on 
for opening the Jack-pot, beginning with Jacks. At the first round, say 
it is not opened, no one having Jacks or better. Then for the second 
round, Queens or better are required. For the third, Kings or better, 
and for the fourth, Aces or better. Sometimes, when the round of Aces 
is reached, the opening continues at Aces. Occasionally, the openin' 
changes in the descending scale, after Aces are reached, going down to 
Kings, then to Queens, and to Jacks again. But this ascending or de- 
scending scale is not often played, because it leads to frequent mistakes. 
The best way is to make Jacks the openers, and to keep the opening at 
Jacks. Of course anything better than Jacks, as a pair of Queens, 
Kings, or Aces, and all the other combinations, open the Jack-pot. The 
opener of the Jack-pot must show his hand at the end of the round. 

There is one case of opening the Jack-pot which leads to many dis. 
putes. The rule being that Jacks will open the pot, how shall this be 
construed when a player has a pair of Jacks, his hand being made up, 
say, of the Jack of diamonds, the Jack of hearts, and three other hearts ? 
He has a perfect right to open. He has in his Jacks the key to the 
situation. But has he the privilege of throwing away a Jack, say his 
Jack of diamonds, and then draw, hoping to make a heart flush ? Now, 
it may happen that A opens, and has the two Jacks, with the combina- 
tion of cards just presented, B and C come in, and D raises. A may 
want to take th« risk of throwing away his Jack of diamonds, so as to 



DRAW POKER. I37 

draw the flush. Sometimes it has been decided that the player may draw 
for the flush, on condition that he puts the card he discards face down 
before him, so that he may show after the round that he had a pair of 
Jacks, because there is a penalty, to be explained afterward, for a mistake 
made in opening the Jack-pot. It has been declared, that this drawing: 
to a flush cannot be made. In some clubs an arrangement has been 
made, that the person drawing for the flush should announce the same, 
exhibiting the discarded picture card. But this is all against the opener 
of the Jack-pot, as it exposes his hand. The best authorities on this 
subject have decided that the player opening the' Jack-pot must show 
cards which contained the positive evidence that be held a hand of a 
fixed value. It may be improved by the draw, as a pair made, two pairs, 
or threes, or fulls, but if he is the opener he cannot draw to a straight 
or a flush. Aside from an exact construction of the rule, as Jack-pots 
are the most important of all the phases of the game, the amount oi 
chips on the table being the largest, when it is played, to put a card on 
the table is to favor fraud. The editor, notwithstanding many differ- 
ences of ideas advanced in regard to this point, is most decidedly of the 
opinion that this rule should be enforced. Of course this has nothing tc 
do with the rest of the players who come in. They may draw as they 
please, and come in with anything they like. 

When a Jack-pot is opened through a mistake of the player, he has to 
pay for his error, and this penalty should be insisted upon. This penalty 
varies according to agreement. Sometimes the person making the blun- 
der is mulcted to three times the amount in the pot. This we think to 
be too severe. The fact of making the mistake, though the error is dis- 
covered before the cards are drawn, makes no difference. The party mak- 
ing the blunder is ruled out. Suppose that A has made this mistake, is 
not aware of it at once, and B, C, D, and E enter. A declares his mis- 
take, and is ruled out. Then the round may begin over again ; but ii 
any other of the players have a pair of opening cards, they open the pot. 
The status of the other players is not changed by A's mistake. Even if 
A does not find out his error, and has drawn cards, and the others have 
done the same, and then A makes known his error, the rule holds good. 
If the others have not had openers, even if one player with a pair of 
deuces had drawn two other deuces, it makes no matter. It is for this 
reason that the hand of the person opening the Jack-pot should always 
be closely scrutinized. He must expose it after the round, whether he 
has lost or won. 

The temptation to open a Jack-pot by a rascally player being great, 
the pot always being large, the utmost vigilance should be used. 



138 DRAW POKER. 

Experience shows that a great many of the frauds at Poker are con- 
centrated around Jack-pots. 

THE STRADDLE. 

The straddle is simply an augmentation of the original ante. A 
being the dealer, B the Age, and B putting up, say, one chip, it 
being so far two chips to come in, C may straddle, that is, he puts 
up two chips, and says, " I straddle." Then it takes four chips to 
come in. If B wants to make his blind good he puts in three more chips, 
as do all the other players. But if B declines to see the straddle, C takes 
B's chip. When the anteing takes place, or coming in prior to receiving 
cards in the draw, the person who has straddled is the' last to ante, or 
make good. This gives him the opportunity of position, and he can 
raise. When the draw is completed, B's age is retained, just as hereto* 
fore, and he has the last betting. The advantage to the straddler is only 
before the draw. But the straddle must come from the player after the 
Age, and from no other. A dealing, B is the Age, and C can straddle — 
E cannot, but E can over-straddle B within the limit. 

THE AGE. 

Although everybody is supposed to know what the u Age " means at 
Poker, there is no rule more commonly blundered about. The rule must 
be taken in its strictest sense. In no manner whatsoever ought it to be de- 
parted from except in Jack-pot. If the Age B passes out, abandons his 
chip, and D comes in and all the rest, though B is out of the game, D 
must bet first. It may be a relic of superstition, this tenacious holding of 
the Age, but all conservative players insist on the maintenance of the 
rule. What it does, when once established, is to preclude constant mistakes 
and doubts as to the first bet. 

The only exception is then in the Jack-pot. In the Jack-pot the Age 
has made a forced contribution, and his age has gone, according to the 
rule of Jack-pots. (See Jack-pot.) 

ADVICE TO PLAYERS. 

There are no rules for playing Poker so as to win. Advice may be 
given so as to limit losses. All absolute laws as to how you must play 
end in disaster. A good player varies his game. He may play a poor 
game for a while on purpose. To deceive is the acme of poker playing. 
The strong point in Poker is never to lose your temper, either with those 
you are playing with or, more particularly, with the Gards. There is no 



DRAW POKER. 139 

sympathy at Poker. Always keep cool. If you lose ycur head you wiB 
lose all your chips. Poker being as much a criterion of character as any- 
thing else, keep in the shade your personalities. As Mr. Cable has it, 
'* a man who could play delightfully on a guitar, and keep a knife in the 
collar of his coat," would be a perfect poker player. Always believe 
in the equalization of chances. If your King flush is beaten twice hand 
running by an Ace flush to-day, to-morrow you will hold the Ace flushes 
and your adversaries the King flushes. If you begin to draw for flushes 
and straights and cannot fill them, you must continue trying to fill them, 
otherwise you throw away your chance of equalizing your draw. Pa- 
tience is one of the strong points of Poker, just as much as cheek. He 
who waits longest finds his opportunity. A player who never bluffs at 
Poker is not in sympathy with the game. His battery is never masked. 
The enemy gives him a wide berth ; when his guns are shotted, no foes 
ever approach. He fires a volley and kills a lame duck. Too much cu- 
riosity is ruinous. All the money saved at Poker comes from not seeing. 
To be over-timid is an equal fault. It is perfectly legitimate to tell 
stories at Poker. All is fair in love, war, and Poker. 

To adhere to anything but the strictly truthful, brings with Poker no 
moral obliquity. As it is impossible for some players not to lie when 
they play, this want of veracity brings its own cure. It is not, however, 
a good rule to tell stories about your hand. You may, if you have the 
talent for such things, assume an innocent guise with your face alone. 
This is the most effective of lures. It is best never to show your hand 
at all, if not called, and to remain silent in regard to its merits. A sol- 
emn mystery in regard to your cards is the most effective. Though a 
hand which is miscalled when shown, rests solely on its face value, avoid 
doing this. It should, in fact, never be permitted. It induces fraud. 
An adversary might throw down his cards, the winning ones, when an- 
other player announced something which he did not have. As the holder 
of the best cards has thrown them away, they cannot be found again, and 
he loses, whereas he should have won. It is at the least an ungentle- 
manly trick. It irritates the best - tempered players. When a player 
leaves the room no hand should be dealt him. No two persons ever 
ought to have an interest in the same hand. The reasons for this are 
legion. The strongest is, that it prevents rascality. Then, again, when 
another player takes the hand of a person who is not present, and enters 
or makes a bet, it gives an additional strength to the hand, which is un- 
fair. Never play Poker without a limit. It is then the most dangerous 
of all games. 



H° DRAW POKER. 



POSITION AND PROBABILITIES. 

The study of the theory of probabilities for the playing of Poker, i. #., 
how to win at it, may be very good in its way. The examination of the 
chance laws is a most interesting one. For practical use they are of no 
value. No one save a genius, in the possession of an exceptional memory, 
playing like an automaton, could carry these laws into actual practice, 
and such a gifted individual does not usually sit at a poker table. 

Everybody knows that before the draw one pair is more commonly held 
than two pairs ; and that after the draw, to receive another pair, is more 
usual than to get a third card, which makes threes. The progression of 
difficulties is at once understood when the scale of winning combinations 
is examined, and for the rarity of such combinations the laws of chance 
may be studied. 

For those interested in such mathematical problems, the laws of chance 
relative to Poker are presented in this volume, due to such authorities as 
Pole and Proctor. Mr. Cavendish has also written a learned paper on 
this same topic, but we do not print it, as being too abstract for common 
use. 

There are some very simple, common-sense facts in Poker in regard to 
the advantages of position, which positions are, of course, always chang- 
ing. 

The hand after the Age, designated as C, after A the dealer, and B the 
Age, has the worst position. If he has anything he comes in first, and 
has to stand the entrance or the possible raises of all who are after him. 
C then is in the position of a man running the gauntlet. For position 
the advantage lies with the last man, who is the Age. He winds up the 
performance. If he happens to hold a good hand, anything above the 
average — as a pair of aces, or two pairs — he should raise before the draw 
is made. The chances are that he has the best hand, or even if he has 
not, that he forces out some of the others. They will not see his raise, 
and he carries off the pool. 

If all the other players go out, the dealer with a low pair has a good chance 
of winning against the blind. It is the exact reverse of the position of C, 
who plays when he enters against four. A, the dealer, plays against only 
B, the blind. The chances are that the blind has nothing, and gives up. 

For the first player after the Age for C, to raise is a stupidity. All he can 
do is then to win the Age's half ante ; for if he has not a fair hand, the 
Age will give it up. This raise too at the beginning drives out aU the 
•thers, unless they hold good hands. C must always pla? a waiting 



DRAW POKER. 141 

game. If he has a strong hand, he sees the raises or may raise in 
his turn. 

If C comes in it it is not wise for D to raise, because E and A and 
B are after him. The blind, who is never given credit for holding 
anything, is in the best position to raise, not alone because he is the 
last, but for the reason that his raise is the most unexpected. ^It is, 
therefore, good tactics if he has a pair over the average to raise. But 
the Age still remains the most wasting as to chips of all the positions. 

If a player were to retain the Age through a whole game, there are 
ninety-nine chances in a hundred that he would lose. A great many 
chips are lost by the Age by the mere fact of his doubling his ante, or 
making his blind good, relying on his holding one small pair, lower than 
the average. Taking three minutes as the average time to finish one 
rou«d at Poker when five are playing, within an hour the ante man will 
have put up twenty chips. If he plays three hours, he has offered up 
sixty chips. If he has made his blind good, that would be one hundred 
and twenty chips. The chances would be, that as Age he held originally 
some fair hands. The probabilities, if given all in his favor, would be 
when he won with some of his hands. But calculating all to his advan- 
tage, it is quite certain that if he comes in with a small pair, he will lose 
in the three hours, ninety chips. To have the Age, and to bluff with a 
small pair, is very great, and this adds to ruin. 

For the Age to raise, induces the players to believe that there is a blu<f 
in the air, and it looks from a study of the game, as if the Age were more 
constantly called than any other hand. 

The dangers of the Age cannot be too much expatiated upon. It is the 
finest and the worst positior at the same time. Steady, experienced play- 
ers, when more than one comes in, often make it a rule to abandon their 
chip if they hold a pair lower than Tens. C, if he knows what he is 
about, will never ccme in first with less than Tens : and D ought to have 
even better. The percentage against C's winning then is very great. 

"All in the c'.raw." When a person who holds the Age, believes in 
that, it is ruin. Suppose you do go in with two Nines, and draw a third, 
making three nines. The chances are just as good for another player to 
have taken in another Ten, or another Jack, Queen, King, or Ace, and 
then you /are beaten. You started too low, and your improvement is 
only so /much the worse for you. It requires *o explanation to under- 
stand fhat your adversary's two pairs, made dur^g the draw, with theii 
Jack^ up, are better than yours, with Tens up. 

TTo straddle is a weakness. It confers no possible benefit. You assume 
fr. r the moment the apparent advaniages of the Age, an^a then when you 



142 BRA W POKER. 

want this advantage the most — that is, to bet last — you have, according 
to the rule, to give it up. You have simply doubled the ante. This may, 
or may not, intimidate the rest of the players. It ought never to frighten 
out the Age if he has a pair. The Age, if he has a single pair, will see the 
straddle, with good chances of winning. The person who straddles often 
forgets that the active condition of the game is something entirely differ- 
ent from the passive one. 

Entrance into the game by the last player, A the dealer, when C, D, 
and E are in, unless he has a good pair, is folly. 

When players meet frequently, they all know that a wild player, if 
there is such a one among them, is certain to lose in the long run. Steady 
play — conservative poker is absolutely sure to worst him. He may have 
occasional flights of luck, and draw "a tan-yard from a shoe-string"; but 
that kind of thing does not last long. He may win largely once in a 
while, and all the rest of the time lose quite as largely. 

It may be denied, but experienced players rarely enter without a pair 
of Jacks or better. It is even under exceptional circumstances that they 
draw for a straight or a flush. At the first to go in, after the blind, they 
let the straights and flushes severely alone. If they have the Age, they 
will draw on straights and flushes, and may or may not raise. If there 
are many players, then old players take their chance with a flush or 
straight to draw to. 

With all these explanations for playing, founded on common-sens 
principles, there are numerous exceptions. These exceptions do not arise 
from the laws of chance, but have to do with the idiosyncrasies of the 
players. Most of the money lost at Poker coitus from seeing. Curiosity 
is fatal. All the money saved arises from want \ f curiosity. Still, take 
the player who has won twice hand running, his h.ur: haling been called, 
if he makes a high bet a third time with a new hand, there are many 
chance.* that he is bluffing. It is not likely that he will have three times 
consecutively the best cards. 

Whether to draw for a straight cr a flush depends not o.ily on position, 
but how many cards your adversaries take. If you see the bh ad, and have, 
say, four hearts, or four clubs, spades or diamonds, your four cards end- 
ing with a Queen, King, or Ace, and the other card being aQu^en, King, 
cr /vce, you have a pair. Are you to retain a pair or draw for -i flush ? 
If the majority of throe before you draw one card, they may &lso be 
Ira wing to a flush X straight, but at the same time they may have two 
pairs or threes. Jt the majority of the adversaries draw one card, wihat 
sLjuld you do .' We would not advise throwing away the Queen 
%o draw three cards. If you make two pairs or three Queens, 



DRAW POKIiR. 



143 



hand is above the average. But we would throw away a pair of tens. 
Having a straight to make, the same plan is recommended. If the 
flush is made, or the straight, of course the advantages of this hand 
are immense. The temptation to raise on a straight to be made or a 
flush to be made is very great, as it is likewise for players having the 
making of these two combinations to see the raises. They look, when 
one card is drawn, like two pairs or threes in hand. The player rais- 
ing on a flush or straight in the future, is bound to bet on it, and 
mostly wins, providing other players have only two small pairs. It 
is here that the bluff must be pushed home. 

How to draw on threes, whether by taking two cards or by dispensing 
with their presence, asking for one card is only a question of expediency. 
Poker, in order to be well played, must be ever changing in its methods. 
Deceit is the constant element. It is quite unlikely that when C is raised 
by D, and that C only takes two cards, that he has not a bona fide trip- 
let. If you have raised on two pairs, you had better treat the matter 
mildly, and if he raises, go out. Even four of a kind may be disguised 
by the drawing of one card, or by standing pat. In fact, whether there 
is anything in a hand or not, can never be known until it is called ; with 
threes, is it then better to draw two cards or one ? If two cards were 
drawn the chances of making a four are possible ; but at the same time, 
the value of the hand is given away to the players. The probabilities of 
having fours, are 4,164 to 1 — of a full, 693 to 1. Many players having 
threes, discard, invariably, the lowest card. They believe that the higher 
cards have been retained by the other hands coming in. The only thing 
in regard to the discard of the lowest card, is that once begun, it must al- 
ways be continued. 

Theoretically, calculations as to what should happen with cards, do not 
avail against what actually does take place. Luck is a perverse jade, and 
refuses to be bridled. In theory, in 10,900 games of Poker, there ought 
to occur at least fours ten times. In an actual game, fours nev*?r came 
out but once, and yet at one sitting, on three occasions fours have ap- 
peared, and during the same time two straight flushes. More straight 
per contra by fifty per cent, were dealt in an actual game than should have 
been theoretically present. There were sixty dealt, while there should 
have been but forty, according to the books. Strangely enough, the 
threes tallied with the theory, and in two pairs and single pairs the play 7 
ers and the theorists were wonderfully close. 

A player ought in a certain way to equalize his chances, and do the 
same thing over and *over again. This equalization of his chances, and 
the advantages of it may not be apparent during one game, but 



144 DRAW POKER. 

only during a series of games. Win to-day, lose to-morrow, is the maxim 
It is not the cards that change, it is human nature. 

When a player takes but one card, it is a rule among conservative 
players to see his bet, if they have a good hand, but not to raise him. 
This rule is applied when only two are in. Two fulls may meet each 
other in this dull way. But it is foreign to the game of Poker, and be- 
longs to the automatic way of playing. 

It is impossible to estimate the value of a hand. The heaviest losses 
may be made on four Kings. Never think how much you may win on a 
good hand, but how much you can lose. There is no such thing as 
cowardice at Poker. A player has stood on a pat, Ace, King, flush, and, 
raising, seen without raising another flush which had drawn on fouj 
cards, with an Ace, King, Queen, flush, and thereby the holder of the 
pat hand saved innumeraole chips — it having cost him no more than if he 
had had two pairs, Ace higu. Those who pity "your poor play," are by 
no means willing to share your risks. 

Jack-pots have very much changed the character of the game, and in 
one respect to its detriment. On the other handy it has equalized Poker. 
It is really at best but a show of hands. A great deal depends in Jack- 
pot on the character of the game, whether it is a high or a low one. 
Among conservative players, the first plaj-er, C, will not open on Jacks ; 
the risk is too great. If all pass to the dealer, he is safe to open on 
Jacks. Some players will never open themselves, or come in afterward 
without two good pairs, at the lowest Kings up, or threes. 

The losses at Jack-pot, where the limit is reached every time, are 
heavier, it should be remembered, than at any other period during the 
game. Bluffing in the play of Jack-pot should be eschewed — nothing is 
more dangerous. The chances are, that starting in with good hands, 
the bluff will be seen. A conservative player is never tempted in a Jack- 
pot, with a flush or straight to be drawn to. To raise the opener of a 
Jack-pot requires a good hand. If the player after the opener raises, 
and the opener raises m his turn, do nothing more than call unless a 
superlative hand is there. 

A trick in the Jack-pot, when ^11 hc.ve passed up to E, and E opens, 
is for A, the last to come in, to raise him All the other? are weak, having 
passed out once, and it is likely that E w?ll drop. But this is, like all 
things in Poker, uncertain. 

In all these hints as to playing Poker, the supposition is, that there is a 
limit. In fact this treatise on Poker is written only for those who play 
with a limit. To play Poker without a limit is ruin. The came without 
a limit brings to the front all the rascals. It is a temptation to fraud. 



DRAW POKER. 145 

It is rather difficult to state what shall be the limit. Penny-ante, with 
a limit of 20 cents, suffices for all amusement. The losses may be $5 ; 
with a $1 limit, $10 ; with a $2 limit, $75 ; with a $5 limit, $250. It is 
the limit which largely increases the losses. A player may lose $5 and 
go to bed happy. But with a loss of $250, it is pretty certain that the 
player does not sleep sweetly. A heavy game is destructive of Poker. No 
purse is big enough to stand it. In fact, harmless as is Poker when 
played with reason, when unreasonably indulged in it ends with deso- 
lation and dishonor. 

PLAYING THE PAT HAND. 

The pat hand means a hand which is played without having recourse 
to the draw. It may contain anything, from cards of no value up to a 
straight flush. There are all possibilities in a pat hand. Sometimes a 
player will raise on a pat hand according to position, and when called 
may exhibit two poor or two good pairs, or threes. He has played a 
mongrel pat. He had something and wanted to make his hand appear 
stronger than it really was. Such a hand containing two small pairs or 
three deuces, if started by a raise and backed up by a bluff, might make 
a better pair of threes, or a very low straight, take water. 

Where Poker is played according to the spirit of the game, it is pretty 
certain that one-eighth of the pat hands are bogus ; because they are 
made to appear more frequently than the laws of chance permit. It is 
a very puzzling play to face with success. A good player, however, often 
employs it. When in the draw the first player who comes in refuses any 
fresh cards, it looks as if he really had pat a ready-made hand. When 
several are in, and bet a single chip, showing little strength, the final 
raise on the pat hand, which has nothing, generally takes the pot. 

When a real pat hand, which has a straight, flush, full, fours, or a 
straight flush comes to a player, the holding of either of them often in- 
duces an over-estimation of their values. The straight may begin with an 
Ace and end with a Five, then it is the lowest ; or it may be a flush with 
only Ten high, or a full of deuces. The better it is, the more you may 
count on its winning ; but never lose your head over a pat hand. Noth- 
ing is invincible in Poker but a straight flush, ace high. 

With a bona fide pat in hand, having position, and raising, watch out 
for those drawing one card, if, after your final raise, they raise back on 
you. If your straight is low, or your flush is low, or your full is low, you 
might be then very expensively beaten. 

The pat hand with nothing in it, is, among good players, a very likely 
bluff. If it wins it is always shown by them. Then a reputation fc# 



146 DRAW POKER. 

duffing is gained by the player, which is exactly what he has been trying 

to establish. 

It is, of course, impossible with a simulated pat hand not to bet on it. 

The least timidity exposes it. That would be like a battery having a 

heavy gun letting off a squib. Occasionally a wheedling bet, however, as 

if the player implored the others to see him, wins the pot. The other 

players think it a tempting lure, and say, "No, I thank you!" and 

are taken in. 

PUSHING YOUR LUCK. 

What is called "pushing your luck" at Poker is often expatiated 
upon. U A11 in the draw "is frequently repeated. There are certain 
series which do appear in certain games. In Poker there is only one 
which you can take advantage of. The player who holds most frequently 
iwo pairs will win. It is not the single immense pots which help the pile of 
chips,- but the bulk of the small ones. Sometimes a player for hours will 
never hold a single pair higher than fives. Then he must learn patience 
and stay out. Then may come the picture-card periods and the threes. 
It is then wise under certain circumstances to play them for what they are 
worth. But " to push your luck," as many Poker players understand it, 
is to come in with nothing, and trust to chance to improve. This always 
depletes a player. 

Steadiness in play often makes up for losses. It is not a great hand 
that makes a player square or ahead, but often a moderate hand, so that 
it comes in at the right time. Threes win more than fulls. Bide your 
time is the best rule. Show no impatience. Remember that there is 
equalization of chances. When losing beware of making the straddle. 
To straddle is to force your luck. Be more observant than ever. Watch, 
when you are going " to the bad," who has won or who has lost. The 
winners may show greed or covetousness. Try and appreciate the dif- 
ferences in their methods of playing. 

To cut short your fosses can be done only in one way. This is a term 
frequently used, and its application is not well understood. It means 
simply this : You are willing to lose $5 ; lose that and not another cent. 
That is " cutting short your losses." 44 Let your profits go on," means 
that you can keep on as long as you are winning. There is a great deal 
of selfishness about Poker. 

ASKING QUESTIONS AT POKER. 

It sometimes happens, that from inattention during a game of Poker, 
t player does not know how many cards another person has taken. The 
player whose draw he wants to be positive about, has certainly told the 



DRAW POKER. 147 

dealer in tones loud enough to be heard. Once the cards are dealt, it should 
have been the duty of the inquiring player to learn what was this demand. 
If a deaf man plays Poker, perhaps he might ask the question, but not 
otherwise. Even then his infirmity might find no indulgence. When the 
dealer takes cards v he should invariably announce how many cards he 
takes. This should be insisted upon. The dealer might hold a bona fide 
pat hand, and saying nothing, disguise the strength of his cards. Some 
players believe that they have a right to ask the dealer this question, who 
is bound to reply to them. But this is against the rules. If more than 
three are in, no one has a right to reply to the question of one of the 
players. When two alone are in, it is optional. The one interrogated 
may answer if he pleases, because he can do no one else any harm. 

Disputes about this are constant, and various authorities have been 
presented. The latest decision is, that no questions are permissible. 

The indication made by a sign, as of thumping on the table, when no 
cards are taken, if alone used, is out of order. A player may thump all he 
pleases, but must say also, " I do not want any cards." No pantomime is 
possible in Poker. The thump may be misinterpreted, for it is often em- 
ployed, with a less degree of force, when players pass out. 

TABLE STAKES. 

By table stakes, or playing table stakes, a person who bets must have the 
money before him. It prevents any credit. You cannot owe when " table 
stakes " are played, nor can you be raised out for more chips or money 
than you have before you ; as far as reducing credit to a minimum, it is 
useful. 

In olden times, when table stakes were played, it was employed as a 
device to drive out another player. If he had not the chips or money, he 
left. He had, however, one recourse. He might declare his ability to 
raise the money. Then the game was closed for the time being, and the 
hands sealed up for twelve hours. Then if he showed up with the money 
the game was continued. 

THE FREEZE-OUT. 
The Freeze-out, is so called, because when it is played all the perform- 
ers are left out in the cold, with the exception of one. It is a duel at 
cards. In a certain way it has its advantages, because it limits individual 
losses. The players each take the same number of chips, and the game 
closes when one player has won them all. For example, five players 
each take twenty chips. There are one hundred chips out. The freeze- 
out is ended, when one of the party has the one hundred chips. Th« 
same is carried on under all the rules of Poker, with, however, thi 



148 DRAW POKER. 

exception, and that is in regard to the limit, for it never should be played 
without the limit. Say the limit is ten, one player or more are reduced 
to their last five chips. The player having the bulk of chips cannot then 
insist on the limit, he can only bet as many chips as his adversaries have. 
The freeze-out is not precisely a social game, because necessarily the 
players drop out one by one. At the conclusion of the game it is obvious 
that great caution is necessary. The last chips are carefully nursed. 
Jack-pots are not generally played in a Freeze-out, but this is optionaL 

THE WIDOW, OR KITTY. 

By the Widow, or as it is more commonly known as M Kitty," is meant 
a percentage, taken in chips at certain occasions during the game of 
Poker. This percentage may be put to the account of the club where 
the game is being played, and defrays the cost of cards, use of chips, gas, 
attendance, etc. The Kitty may, however, be introduced when no ex- 
penses occur. When threes or better are made on a called hand, or when 
Jack-pots are played, one chip is taken from the pool and put aside. 
These chips amount to quite a number at the end of the game. Then 
they may be either divided among the players or made into Jack-pots, as 
a consolation stake, and so wind up the game. 

BUCK. 

Originally the Buck was a pocket-knife passing always to the left, indi- 
cating only the deal. Perhaps from the handle of the knife being of 
buck-horn, the term is derived. By a process of evolution, the buck in 
Poker is made sometimes a representative of value, and can be put up by 
the Age. It may designate a certain number of chips, say, for instance, 
five. Then if the Age makes his blind good, he puts up five more chips. 
The rest of the players, when they come in, do the same thing. The 
person who wins it when he is the Age, puts up the buck. When the 
game is over, the person who has issued the buck redeems it, at the value 
he put on it. 

In some cases the buck is used in order to induce the Jack-pot, of 
course by prior agreement. Whoever has the buck when he deals, puts 
it on the table with two or more chips, and then all contribute to making 
a Jack-pot. Whoever wins the Jack-pot, when it is his turn to deal, puts 
it up, and another Jack-pot is in order. Too many Jack-pots in a game, 
or forced contributions, destroy the character of Poker. They come in 
sufficient frequency, under ordinary circumstances. 

A knife is not an obligatory buck. In the Far West, a revolver on the 
table sometimes serv«s the purpose of a buck. . 



POKER PRINCIPLES AND CHANCE LAWS. 

By Rrootor. 



Let us consider briefly what are the chances for each different kind of 
hand at Poker. 

t irst, the total number of ways in which a set of five cards can be 
formed out of a pack containing 52 cards has to be determined. This is 
easy enough. You multiply together 52, 51, 50, 49, and 48, and divide 
the product by that obtained from multiplying together I, 2, 3, 4, and 5. 
You thus get 2,598,960 as the total number of Poker hands. 

It is very easy to determine the number of flushes and sequences and 
flush sequences which are possible. 

Thus, begin with the flush sequences. We can have in each suit. Ace, 
2, 3, 4, 5 ; 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 ; 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 ; and so on up to 10, Knave, Queen, 
King, Ace ; or in all there are ten flush sequences in each suit, forty flush 
sequences in all. 

The number of sequences which are not flush may be thus determined. 
The arrangement of numbers may be any one of the ten just indicated. 
But taking any one of these, as 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, the three may be of any suit 
out of the four; so that each arrangement may be obtained in four 
different ways as respects the first card ; so with the second, third, 
etc.; or in all 4 times 4 times 4 times 4 times 4, or 1,024, four of which 
only will be flushes. Thus there are 1,020 times 10, or 10,200 sequences 
which are not flush. 

Now as respects flushes their number is very easily determined. The 
number of combinations of five cards which can be formed out of the 
13 cards of a suit are given by multiplying together 13, 12, n, 10, and 9, 
and dividing by the product of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ; this will be found to be 1,287. 
Thus there are 4 times 1,287, or 5,148 possible flushes. Of these, 5,108 
are not sequence flushes. 

The total number of "four" hands may be considered next. The 
process for finding it is very simple. There are, of course, only 13 
fours, each of which can be taken with any one of the remaining 48 
cards, so that there are 13 times 48, or 624 possible four hands. 

For the benefit of those who like a game with seven or eight players, 
a deck has been devised which contains cards of the denomination 11, 
\2, and 13. This adds twelve cards to the deck, leaving twenty- four to 
draw from after the deal, which under ordinary conditions is a suffi- 
cient number to do away with the necessity of dealing the discards. 

(149) 



150 DRAW POKER. 

Next to determine the number of " full hands." This is not dimctrtt, 
out requires a little more attention. A full hand consists of a triplet and 
a pair. Now manifestly there are four triplets of each kind — four sets of 
three Aces, four of three Kings, and so forth (for we may take # each Ace 
from the four Aces in succession, leaving in each case a different triplet 
of Aces ; and so with the other denominations). Thus, a all, 4 times 
J 3» or 5 2 different triplets can be formed out of the pack of 52 cards. 
When one of these triplets has been formed there remain 49 cards, out 
of which the total number of sets of two which can be formed is ob- 
tained by multiplying 49 by 48 and dividing by two ; whence we get 1,170 
such combinations in all. But the total number of pairs which can be 
formed from among these 49 cards is much smaller. There are four 
twos, which (as cribbage teaches us) will give six pairs of twos ; so 
there are six pairs of threes, six pairs of fours, and so on ; or as there 
are only twelve possible kinds of pairs (after our triplet removed), there 
are in all 6 times 12, that is 72, possible pairs which can with the triplet 
form a full hand. Hence, as there are 52 possible triplets, the total 
number of full hands is 52 times 72, or 3, 744. 

The number of triplet hands which are not also fours or fulls (for 
every four hand contains triplets) follows at once from the above. There 
are 52 possible triplets, each of which can be combined with 1,176 com- 
binations of two cards out of the remaining 49, giving in all 52 times 
1,176, or 61,152 sets of five, three at least of which are alike. But 
there are 624 • four hands, each of which is not only a triplet hand, but 
will manifestly make four of the triplet hands our gross reckoning in- 
cludes (for from every four you can make three triplets), and there are 
3,744 full hands. These (to wit, 4,496 fours, and 5,744 fulls, or 6,240 
hands in all) must be removed from our count, leaving 54,912 triplet 
hands (proper) in all. 

This last result might have been obtained another way, which (as I 
shall use it for counting pair hands) I may as well indicate here. Taking 
any triplet of the 52, there remain 49 cards, one of which is of the same 
denomination as the triplet. Removing this, there are left 48 cards, out 
of which the number of sets of two which can be formed is obtained by 
multiplying 48 by 47 and dividing by 2 ; it is therefore 1,128, and among 
these 72 are pairs. There remain then 1,056 sets of two, any one of 
which can be combined with each of 52 triplets to give a triplet hand 
pure and simple. Thus, in all, there are 52 times 1,056 triplet hands, or 
54,912, as before. 

Next for double and single pairs. 

$• rom the whole pack of 52 cards we can form 6 Umes 13 pairs ; for d 



DRAW POKER. 



151 



Aces can be formed, 6 pairs of twos, 6 pairs of threes, and so forth. 
Thus there are in all 78 different pairs. When we have taken out any 
pair, there remain 50 cards. From these we must remove the two 
cards of the same denomination, as either or both of these must not 
appear in the hand to be formed. There remain 48 cards, from which 
we can form 72 other pairs. Each of these can be taken with any one 
of the 46 remaining cards, except with those two which are of the 
same denomination, or with 44 in all, without forming a triplet. 
Each of these combinations can be taken with each of the 78 pairs, 
giving a two-pair hand, only it is obvious that each two-pair hand will 
be given twice by this arrangement. Thus the total number of two- 
pair hands is half of 78 times 72 times 44, or there are 123,552 such 
hands in all. 

Next, as to simple pairs. We get, as before, '8 different pairs. Each 
of these can be taken with any set of three formed out of the 48 cards 
left when the other 2 of the same denomination have been removed, ex- 
cept the 72 times 44 (that is 3,168) pairs indicated in dealing with the 
last case, and the 48 triplets which can be formed out of these same 48 
cards, or 3,216 sets in all. Now the total number of sets of three cards 
which can be formed out of 48 is given by multiplying 48 by 47 by 46, 
and dividing by the product of the numbers 1, 2, and 3. It is found to 
be 17,296. We diminish this by 3,216, getting 14,082, and find that there 
are in all 78 times 14,082 or 1,098,240. 

The hands which remain are those which are to be estimated by the 
highest card in them ; and their number will of course be obtained by 
subtracting the sum of the numbers already obtained from the total 
number of possible hands. We thus obtain the number 1,302,540. 

Thus of the four best classes of hands, there are the following 
numbers : 



Of flush sequences there may be 

41 four . 

44 full hands . 

44 common flushes . 

u common sequences 

*" triplets . 

Ci two pairs 

44 pairs 



44 other hands * 

Total number of possible hands 



40 

624 

3,744 

5,io8 

10,200 

54,912 

123,552 
1,098,240 
1,302,540 

2,598,960 



* It is easy to test the accuracy of the whole series of calculations by d«* 



I5 2 DRAW POKER, 

It will be seen that those who devised the rules for Poker play set the- 
different hands in very proper order. It is fitting, for instance, that as 
there are only 40 possible flush sequence hands, out of a total number of 
2,598,960 hands, while there are 624 "four" hands, the flush sequences 
should come first, and so with the rest. It is noteworthy, however, that 
when sequences were not counted, as was the rule in former times, there 
was one hand absolutely unique and unconquerable. The holder of four 
Aces then wagered on a certainty, for no one else could hold that hand. 
At present there is no absolutely sure winning hand. The holder of Ace, 
King, Queen, Knave, ten, flush, may (though it is of course exceedingly 
unlikely) be met by the holder of the same cards, flush, in another suit. 
Or when we remember that at whist it has happened that the deal di- 
vided the four suits among the four players, to each a complete suit, we 
see that four players at Poker might each receive a flush sequence headed 
by the Ace. Thus the use of sequences has saved Poker players from 
the possible risk of having either to stand out or wager on a certainty, 
which last would of course be very painful to the feelings of a profes- 
sional gambler. 

We might subdivide the hands above classified into a much longer 
array, beginning thus: 4 flush sequences headed by Ace; 4 headed by 
King, and so on down to 4 headed by five; 48 possible four-aces 
hands; 48 four-kings hands; and so on down to 48 four-twos hands; 
24 possible "fulls" of 3 aces and 2 kings; as many of 3 aces and two 
queens; and so on down to 24 "fulls" of 3 twos and 2 threes, and 
so on. Any one who cares to do this can, by drawing the line at any 
hand, ascertain at once the number of hands above and not above 
that hand in value; and thus determine the chance that any hand 
taken at random is above or below that particular hand in value. The 
comparatively simple table above only shows how many hands there 
are above or not above pairs, triplets, and the like. But the more 
complete series could be very easily formed. 

We note from the above table that more than half the possible 
Poker hands are below pairs in value. So that Clay was right enough 



termining independently how many hands there are not belonging to 
the first eight classes. Thr.s, as all the cards of the five are of differ- 
ent denominations, we first take the combinations of the thirteen 
card names five together. These (as in dealing with common flushes 
above) are 287 in number. But, as in dealing with common se- 
quences, we must multiply these by 4 times 4 times 4 times, times 4, 
or by 1,024, getting 1,317,888. Subtracting thence the flushes and se- 
quences, 15,348 in all, we get 1,302,540 as the total number of com- 
mon hands (not containing pairs or the like) as above. 



DRAW POKER. 1 53 

in wagering on an Ace-high hand, seeing that there are more hands 
which will not beat it (supposing the highest next card a King, at any 
rate) than there are hands that will; but he was quite wrong in call- 
ing on such a hand, even against a single opponent. 

The effect of increase in the number of hands can also readily be deter- 
mined. Many, even among gamblers, know so little of the doctrine of 
chances as not to be aware of, still less to be able to measure the effect of, 
the presence of a great number of othei* contestants. Yet it is easy to 
illustrate the matter. 

Thus, suppose a player casts a die single against one other. If the first 
has ^ast four the odds are in favor of his not being beaten ; for there are 
only l .wo casts which will beat him and four which will not. The chance 
that lie will not be beaten by a single opponent is thus 4/6ths or 2/3. If 
there is another opponent, the chance that he individually will not cast 
better than 4, is also 2/3. But the chance that neither will throw better 
'.han 4 is obtained by multiplying 2/3 by 2/3. It is therefore 4/9 ; or the 
odds are 5 to 4 in favor of one or other beating the cast of the first 
thrower. If there are three others, in like manner the chance that not 
one of the three will throw better than 4 is obtained by multiplying 2/3 
oy 2/3 by 2/3. It is, therefore, 8/27 ; or the odds are 19 to 8 in favor of 
the first thrower's cast of 4 being beaten. And so with every increase in 
the number of other throwers, the chance of the first thrower's cast being 
beaten is increased. So that if the first thrower casts 4, and is offered 
his share of the stakes before the next throw is made, the offer is a bad 
one if there is but one opoonent, a good one if there are two, and a very 
good one if there are more than two. 

In like manner, the same hand which it would be safe to stand on (as 
a rule) at Poker against two or three opponents, may be a very unsafe 
hand to stand on against five or six. 

Then the player has to consider the pretty chance-problems involved 
in drawing. 

Suppose, for instance, your original hand contains a pair — the other 
three cards being all unlike ; should you stand out ? or should you draw ? 
(to purchase right to which you must stand in); or should you stand in 
without drawing ? Again, if you draw, how many of the three loose 
cards should you throw out ? and what are your chances of improving 
your hand ? 

Here you have to consider first whether you will stand in, which de- 
pends not on the value of your pair only, but also on the chance that youf 
hand will be improved by drawing. Having decided to stand in, remem« 
her that discarding three tells the rest of the company that in all prcb* 



j r* DRAW POKER. 

ability you are drawing to improve a pair hand ; and at Poker, telling 
anything helps the enemy. If one of your loose cards is an Ace, you do 
well to discard only the other two ; for this looks like drawing to a trip- 
let, and you may chance to draw a pair to your Ace. But usually you have 
sc much better chance of improving your hand by drawing three, that it 
is, as a rule, better to do this. 

Drawing to a triplet is usually good policy. " Your mathematical ex- 
pectation of improvement is slight," says one work on the subject, "being 
t to 23 of a fourth card [it should be the fourth card] of the same denom- 
ination, and 2 to 23 of another pair of denomination different from the 
triplet," a remark suggesting the comment that to obtain a pair of the 
same denomination as the triplet, would require play something like 
what we hear of in old Mississippi stories, where a "straight flush" 
would be met by a very full pair of hands, to wit, five in one hand and 
a revolver in the other ! The total expectation of improvement is 1 to 8 ; 
but then see what an impression you make by a draw which means a 
good hand. Then, too, you may suggest a yet better hand, without 
much impairing your chance of improvement by drawing one card only. 
This gives you one chance in 47 of making fours, and one in 16 of pick- 
ing up one of the three cards of the same denomination as the odd cards 
you retain. This is a chance of 1 in 12. 

11 Draws to straights and flushes are usually dearly purchased," says 
our oracle \ "always so at a small table. Their value increases directly 
as the number of players." (The word " directly " is here incorrectly 
used, the value increases as the number of players, but not directly as 
the number.) Of course in drawing to a two-ended straight, that is one 
which does not begin or end with an Ace, the chance of success is rep- 
resented . by 8 in 47, for there are 47 cards outside your original hand, of 
which only eight are good to complete the straight. For a one-end 
straight the chance is but 4 in 47. With a small chance, too, of improv- 
ing your hand, you are trying for a hand better than you want in any but 
a large company. "If you play in a large party," says one authority, 
" say seven or eight, and find occasion to draw for a straight against six 
players, do so by all means, even if you split aces." The advice is sound. 
Under the circumstances you need a better hand than ace-pair to give you 
your fair sixth share of the chances. 

As to flushes your chances are better, when you have already five of a 
suit. You discard one, and out of the remaining 47 cards any one ot 
nine will make your flush for you. Your chance then is 1 in 5§. In deal- 
ing with this point our oracle goes altogether wrong, and adopts a prin- 
ciple so inconsistent with the doctrine of probabilities as to show that, 



DRAW POKER. 1 55 

though he knows much more than Steinmetz, he still labors under some- 
what similar illusions. " Theoretically," says he, "the result just ob- 
tained is absolutely true ; but I have experimented with six hands through 
a succession of 500 deals, and filled only 83 flushes in the 500, equal to 
one in six and one-twentieth draws. Of course I am not prepared to 
say that this would be the average in many thousand deals ; theoretically 
it is an untrue result ; but I here suggest a possible explanation of what I 
confess is to me a mystery." Then he expounds the very matter on which 
we touched above. " In casting dice," he says, " theoretically, any given 
throw has no influence upon the next throw, and is not influenced by the 
previous throw. Yet if you throw a die and it turns up six, while the 
chances are theoretically one to six" (one in six it should be) "that the 
next throw will produce a six because the previous throw of six lies ab- 
solutely in the past, yet you may safely bet something more than the 
usual odds against it. Then suppose the second throw turns up a six, 
that throw also now lies in the past, and cannot be proved to have an in- 
fluence upon throw number three, which you are preparing to make. If 
any material influence is suspected you may change the box and die ; and 
you may now bet twice the usual odds against the six. Why ? Because 
you know by experience that it is extremely difficult to throw six three 
times in succession, even if you do not know the precise odds against it. 
Granted, certain odds against throwing six twice in succession, etc. , yet 
at any given moment when the player shakes the box in which is a six- 
faced die, he has one chance in six of throwing a six ; and yet if he has 
just thrown sixes twice, you may bet twelve to one that he will not throw 
a six in that particular cast." If I did not hold gambling to be near akin 
to swindling, and could find but a few hundred who held this doctrine, 
how much money might I not gain by accepting any number of wagers 
of this wise sort ! 

The fact is, the mistake here, is Just the ridiculous mistake which 
Steinmetz called "the maturity of the chances" over again. It is a 
mistake which has misled to their ruin many thousands of gamblers, 
who might have escaped the evil influence of that other equally foolish 
mistake about being lucky or unlucky, in the vein or out of it. Stein- 
metz puts the matter thus: "In a game of chance, the oftener the 
same combination has occurred in succession, the nearer are we to 
the certainty that it will not recur at the next cast or turn-up: 
this is the most elementary of the theories on probabilities; it is termed 
the maturity of the chances." The real fact being that this is not a 
theory of probabilities at all, but disproved by the theory of probabili- 
ties, and disproved, whenever it has been put to the test, by facts. 



156 DRAW POKER. 

Take the case considered in " The Complete Poker Player," and note 
the evidence on the strength of which the author of that work tejects the 
theory in favor of a practical common-sense notion (as he thinks), which 
is, in reality, nonsense. You may expect 9 successful draws to a flush in 
47 hands ; therefore in the 500 deals he experimented upon, he might 
have expected 95 or 96 ; and he only obtained 83. Now 500 trials are far 
too few to test such a matter as this. You can hardly test even the toss 
ing of a coin properly by fewer than a thousand trials ; and in that cast 
there are but 2 possible events. Here there are 47, of which 9 are favor- 
able. It is the failure to recognize this which led the Astronomer Royal 
for Scotland to recognize something mystical and significant in the pre- 
ponderance of 3's and the deficiency of 7's among the digits representing 
the proportion of the circumference to the diameter of a circle. In cast- 
ing a coin a great number of times, we do not find that the occurrence of 
a great number of successive heads or tails in any way affects the average 
proportion of heads or tails coming next after the series. Thus I have 
before me the record of a series of 16,317 tossings, in which the number 
of sequences of tails (only) were rendered ; and I find that after 271 
cases, in which tails had been tossed 5 times in succession, the next toss- 
ing gave in 132 cases heads, and in 139 cases tails. Among the 16,317 
tossings, two cases occurred in which tail was tossed 15 times in succes- 
sion, which, as it happens, is more than theory would regard as probable. 

Here, however, I must draw these notes to a close. I have been al- 
ready led on farther than I had intended to go. I shall note only one 
other of the doctrines (mostly sound enough theoretically) laid down in 
the "Complete Poker Player." Players sometimes, he says, act on the 
strange principle that if they are in bad luck, it is well to try the bold ex- 
periments usually regarded as bad play — as two negatives in algebra make 
a positive, so they think that bad play and bad luck united will win. On 
this our author makes the significant comment, "a slight degree of in- 
toxication aids to perfect this intellectual deduction." Poker-playing 
generally, as a process for making money more quickly, is much improved 
and enlivened by a slight degree of intoxication. 

STRAIGHT POKER. 

The fifty-two cards are used, and the rule of the game the same as in 
ordinary Poker, with these exceptions. Deal passes to the person win- 
ning. Before playing everybody puts up a chip. You can pass and come 
in again at your pleasure. The original cards are what you play with, 
and you do not draw. When nobodv enters, the player to the left of the 



DRAW POKER. 157 

fiealer makes a new round of cards. Bucks are often usea ior conven- 
ience, the elder hand putting in as many chips as there are players. 

STUD POKER. 

In dealing, five cards are given as in Poker. The first card is placed 
face down, the others with their faces up. Then a card or cards are 
drawn, which are not exposed. The raising and all else as in usual 
Poker. 

WHISKEY POKER. 

This game begins by each player putting a chip in the pool. Hand6 
as in Poker are dealt, with one extra hand, placed face downward on the 
table. This hand is called the widow. The elder hand has the choice 
of passing, or taking the five cards of the widow. If he passes, the hand 
after him has the privilege. If the widow is taken, the player puts face 
up on the table the hand he has originally held, and from this, in rota- 
tion, the other hands take a card or the cards they want, replacing in the 
widow the cards they have taken from their own hands. When one 
player is satisfied with his hand, he intimates that he will close the game. 
Those after him and up to him are still entitled to take or exchange 
cards, until his place is reached. Then there is a show of hands, but 
no betting. The best hand wins. If the first player has a good hand, 
and decides to close the game, the widow may still be used or exchanged 
with the widow made as before described. 

MISTIGRIS. 
The Joker is used. The Joker makes fifty-three cards in the pack. 
The Mistigris, in a player's hand, entitles him to increase the value of his 
hand. If he has a pair, holding the Mistigris makes them threes. With 
threes, the Mistigris makes them fours. With two pairs, it converts the 
hand into a full. It has all latitude, makes straights, flushes, etc., etc. 
Sometimes its power is diminished of course by agreement, as' in a full t 
increasing only the lower pair. All else is as in regular Poker. 

TIGER. 

This is a dreadful innovation, but as it is occasionally played we give it 
a place in this volume. The Tiger in a hand of Poker is the very lowest 
combination of cards which can be held. Five cards beginning with a 
seven and ending with a deuce is a Tiger. Thus seven, six, five, four, 
and deuce, and nothing else, is a Tiger. There must be no pair in it. 
It can be drawn for. It is supposed to be better than a straight, and not 
as good as a flush. A Tiger then beats threes.— Editor. 



158 DRAW POKER, 



PROGRESSIVE POKER. 

Progressive Poker was invented when Progressive Euchre was the fad. 
It is an excellent game for the drawing doom, as chips of a nominal 
value alone are used. It is entertaining and any number of persons 
can play. Four tables or more can be used. Five play at the first table 
and four at each of the other tables except at the last or "booby" table, 
at which six are seated. New-comers can sit at the booby table until 
the number of players has reached six, when a new booby table must 
be arranged taking all but four players from the erstwhile booby. 

The banker is selected by the players, and he assigns positions of 
-players, attends to the distribution of chips, and so on. 

Cards are hung over the different tables denoting the amount of ante 
.and the limit allowed at the table. The head table must have a bell 
with which to indicate when to stop playing and to change tables. 

The players, as in Progressive Euchre, are seated according to cards 
they draw. When the drawing is complete the banker gives to each 
player the same number of chips. The chips are, as usual, of different 
colors and are of different values. It would be well to fix the values 
thus: Red worth five white ones; the blue, five red ones, etc. 

The game is then played as regular Poker is played, with these ex- 
ceptions: At the head table, table stakes must be played — that is, no 
player must bet more chips than he actually holds. A player at the 
head table cannot borrow from another player nor from the banker. 
And at this table alone are jack-pots allowed. These are played as jack- 
pots are generally played, except that the buck is placed in the middle 
•of the table and is taken by the winner of the first pot after each change 
of players. The jack-pot must be fattened by a blue chip from each 
player before each deal until it is opened. Progressive jack-pots are al- 
ways played. 

At the other tables a limit is fixed beyond which no player can bet. 
The limits are: 

At second table, one blue chip; at third, three red chips; at fourth, 
'two red chips; at fifth, one red chip; at sixth, or booby table, one white 
chip. If there are more tables than this number, the banker must set- 
tle the limit. 

At each table the deal at the start is cut for, the lowest dealing and 
ace counting as low. As the game progresses and the players move 
from table to table, the age goes to the last lady coming to a table, and 
the cards are dealt by the player to her right. If two ladies progress to 



DRAW POKER. I S9 

the same table, they cut; if no lady comes to the table by progression, 
the deal is cut for. 

The play at the first table, as in Progressive Euchre, determines the 
time for progression. When a jack-pot is won at the first table the 
bell is rung and play ceases, except at those tables where there is an 
unfinished hand, which is played out. The players of these hands may 
call and cannot raise, a raise not being permitted after the bell. If the 
bell rings at the beginning of a draw, the hands must be shown without 
betting. 

The method of progression is this: The winner of the jack-pot retains 
his seat, the other four cutting the cards; the two cutting the lowest 
cards go to the booby table, and the two players at the other tables who 
won the last two pots progress upward to the next higher table. If one 
player has won both the last pots, the three remaining players cut and 
the highest goes to the next table. 

At the end of the game each player will count his chips and inform 
the banker of the number. The women who have won the highest and 
the next highest number of chips must receive the first and second 
prizes for women; the same rule holding with regard to the men. Booby 
prizes go to the man and the woman who lost the greatest number of 
chips. 

During the game, if a player lose all his chips, he can borrow from 
the banker, who, when the game is ended, charges these chips against 
the borrower. If the banker runs short he can borrow from any 
;»layer, crediting that player with the number of chips borrowed. 



cribb age: 



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. 

The game of Cribbage may be played in several ways, viz., by 
two, three, or four persons — five or six cards being dealt to each. It 
will be convenient first to describe the game as played by two 
persons (two-handed Cribbage), with five cards dealt to each (five- 
card Cribbage). 

A pack of fifty-two cards is required, and a board with holes for 
scoring (called a Cribbage board). 














..... 


.... - 







• GAMS HOLE. 












..... 





..... 








.. ... 



The board is placed lengthwise between the two players, with the 
game hole nearest to the edge of the table. 

Four pegs (of which each player takes two) are used in scoring. 



DEALING. 

The players having cut for deal (see Laws), the pack is shuffled, 
and the non-dealer cuts it. The dealer reunites the packets and gives 
five cards to each player, by one at a time, commencing with his ad- 
versary. The undealt portion of the pack is placed face downward, 
between the game hole end of the board and the edge of the table. 

(160) 



CRIBBACl^ 



THREE FOR LAST. 



161 



The non-dealer is entitled to mark three holes, called three for last. 
Three for last is only scored once during a game, viz., by the player who 
is non-dealer at its commencement. He generally marks it while his 
adversary is dealing. (This rule is universal in the United States, but is 
not so in England. — Editor.) 

LAYING OUT FOR CRIB. 

The deal being completed, the players proceed to look at their hands 
and to lay out for crib. Each has to put out two cards. The players, 
having decided which two cards they deem it expedient to discard, place 
the discarded cards face downward on the table, by the side of the board 
nearest to the dealer. The two cards last put out are placed on the top 
of the two first put out. The four cards laid out are called the crib, 

CUTTING FOR THE START. 

After the crib is laid out, the non-dealer cuts the pack and the dealer 
turns up the top card of the packet left by his adversary. The card 
turned up is called the start. If the start is a knave the dealer marks 
two (called two for his heels). 

PLAYING. 

The hands are now played in the following manner : The non-dealer 
plays any card from his hand he thinks fit, placing it face upward on 
the table by the side of the board nearest to himself, and calls out the 
number at which it is valued. The king, queen, knave, and ten (called 
tenth cards) are valued at ten each, the other cards at the number of 
pips on them. The dealer then plays any card he thinks fit, placing it 
face upward by his side of the board, and calls out the value of his card 
added to the value of the card first played. The non-dealer next plays 
another card, and then the dealer, and so on, as long as any cards remain 
in hand, or until a card cannot be played without passing the number 
thirty-one. When it happens that a player cannot play without passing 
thirty-one, he says "go." His adversary then, if he has a card which 
will ccme in, i.e., which can be played without passing thirty-one, is 
entitled to play it. When there is a go, or when thirty-one is reached, 
the remainder of the cards in hand (if any) are not played. 

During the play of the hand the players are entitled to score for certain 



1 62 CRIB BAGS. 

combinations of cards as follows : pairs, fifteen, sequences, and the go or 
thirty-one. 

Pairs. — If when a card is played the next card played pairs it (for in- 
stance, if a four is played to a four), the player pairing is entitled to mark 
two points. If the card next played is also of the same denomination, a 
pair royal is made, which entitles the player making it to mark six 
points ; and if the card next played is again of the same kind, it consti- 
tutes a double pair royals which entitles the player to a score of twelve 
points, in addition to the pair already scored by him. Tenth cards onlj 
pair with tenth cards of the same denomination. Thus : kings pair with 
kings, queens with queens, and so on ; but kings do not pair with queens, 
knaves, or tens, although they are all tenth cards. 

Fifteen. — If during the play of the hand a player reaches exactly 
fifteen, by reckoning the pips of all the played cards, he is entitled to 
mark two points. Thus — a nine is first led ; the second player plays a 
six ; he calls fifteen and marks two. 

Sequences. — The sequence of the cards is king, queen, knave, ten, 
nine, eight, seven, six, five, four, three, two, ace. The ace is not in 
sequence with the king and queen. The king, queen, knave, and ten, 
though they each count ten toward thirty-one in play, reckon in sequences 
in the above order. Thus: knave, ten, nine are in sequence. If any 
three cards are played in such a way that they can be reckoned in se- 
quence order, either from above downward, or below upward, without the 
intervention of another played card out of sequence order, the player of 
the third card is entitled to mark three (called a run of three). If a 
fourth card is similarly played, the player of it is entitled to a run of four ; 
if a fifth card is similarly played, a run of five accrues ; and so on. If 
there is a break in the sequence, and in the subsequent play the break is 
filled up, without the intervention of a card out of sequence order, the 
player completing the sequence is entitled to a score of one for each card 
of it. 

For example : A plays a four ; B plays a three ; if A follows with a 
deuce or a five, he is entitled to a run of three. Suppose A plays a deuce ; 
if B now plays an ace or a five, he gains a run of four, or, if he plays a 
four, he gains a run of three ; and so on, as long as either player plays a 
card that will come in. 

It is not necessary that the cards forming a sequence should be played 
in order. Thus : A plays a four ; B a deuce ; A a five. B can then 
come in with a three, and make a run of two, three, four, five. After 
the three is played, A can come in with an ace or a six, making a run of 
five, or with a four, making a run of four. But if any card not in 



CRIBBAGE. 163 

sequence intervenes, the run is stopped. Thus: If four, deuce, five, 
and five are played in this order, a three or a six will not come in, 
as the second five, which intervenes, forms no part of the run. 

Again: Suppose the cards played in this order: four, two, three, 
one, five, two, four, one, as they might be at the six-card, or at the 
four-handed game. The third card entitles the run of three; the 
fourth to a run of four; the fifth to a run of five. The sixth card, 
the deuce, has no run, as the second card (another deuce) inter- 
venes, and the four is wanting to complete the sequence. The seventh 
card takes a run of five; and the last card has no run, as the ace 
previously played blocks the three. 

Again: Suppose the cards played in this order: one, five, six, three, 
two, four. There is no run 'until the four is played. The four com- 
pletes the sequence, and entitles to a run of six. 

The Go. — The player who approaches most nearly to thirty-one 
during the play of the hand is entitled to mark one, for the last card, 
go, or end hole. If a player reaches thirty-one exactly, he marks 
two instead of one. 

For instance: Two tenth cards and a four are played, making 
twenty-four. If the next player has no card in hand under an eight, 
he cannot come in, and his adversary marks a go. If, however, the 
adversary has a seven, he may play that and score two for thirty- 
one, instead for one for the go; or, if he has a four he may play it, 
when he marks two for the pair, and, if his adversary has no card 
that will come in (*". e. no card under a four remaining in his 
hand), the last player also marks one for the go. 

Compound Scores. — It not unfrequently happens that more than 
one score can be recKoned at the same time. Thus, in the case last 
given, a pair and a go are scored together. So also a pair and a 
thirty-one, or a pair and a fifteen, may be reckoned together — scoring 
four; or a sequence and a fifteen (e. g., four, five, six are played), 
scoring five; and so on with other combinations. 

SHOWING. 

As soon as a go or thirty-one is reached, the players show their 
hands, and reckon aloud for certain combinations of cards in 
them. The non-dealer has the first show. He places his hand face 
upward on the table, and reckons and marks the points in it, mak- 
ing use of the start as though it were a part of his hand, but without 
mixing it with his cards. 

The dealer then shows his hand, and similarly reckons it aloud, and 
marks the points in it and the start combined. He then shows the 
crib, and reckons aloud, and marks the points made with it and the 
start. 



i04 



CRIBBAGE. 



The points counted in hand or crib may be made by fifteens, by pairs 
or pairs royal, by sequences, by flushes, or by his nob. 

Fifteens in hand or crib are counted by adding together all the differ- 
ent cards (including the starO, the pips of which will make exactly fif- 
teen, without counting the same set of cards twice over. In reckoning 
nfteens, tenth cards are valued at ten each. Each separate fifteen that 
can be made with a different combination reckons two. For example : 
A player holding, either with or without the start, a tenth card and a five, 
reckons two, or, as it is called, fifteen-two. If he has another five, he 
combines this also with the tenth card and reckons two more, or fifteen- 
/our ; or, if Ins other cards were a four and an ace, he would similarly 
reckon another fifteen. 

Suppose a player holds two tenth cards with a five, and a five is turned 
up, he reckons fifteen-eight, the combinations being as follows : 



10 of clubs 
5 of clubs 



10 of spades 
5 of spades 



10 of clubs 
5 of spades 



io of spades 
5 of clubs 



Again : A nine and three threes give three different combinations P* 
fifteen, each of which reckons two. Thus : 



9 of spades 
3 of hearts 
3 of clubs 



9 of spades 
3 of hearts 
3 of diamonds 



9 of spades 
3 of clubs 
3 of diamonds 



ind so on for other cards. 

Pairs are reckoned on the same principle as when playing the hand. 
In the example last but one the total score would be twelve, viz. : eight 
for the fifteens, and four for the two pairs ; in the last example, six for 
the pair royal would have to be added to the six for the fifteens. 

To take a less easy example, a hand consisting of four fives would score 
twenty (twelve for the double pair royal and eight for th^ fifteens), as 
under : 



5 of spades 
5 of hearts 
5 of clubs 



5 of spades . 
5 of hearts 
5 of diamonds 



5 of spades 

5 of clubs 

5 of diamonds 



5 of hearts 

5 of clubs 

5 of diamonds 



It will be observed that these are all the fifteens which can be made with- 
out reckoning the same set of three cards together more than once. 

Sequences of three or more cards are counted as in the play of the 
hand, but with this addition, that, if one card of a sequence can be sub- 
stituted for another of the same kind, the sequence is reckoned again. 



CRIB B AGE. 165 

Thus a seven, eight, and two nines give two sequences of seven, eight, 
nine, by substituting one nine for the other, in addition to the fifteen and 
the pair, making the total ten. 

Suppose the crib to consist of two tens, two nines, and an eight. Here 
are four sequences of three cards each, viz. : 

10 of clubs 10 of clubs to of diamonds 10 of diamonds 

9 of hearts 9 of spades 9 of hearts 9 of spades 

8 of spades 8 of spades 8 of spades 8 of spades 

These count twelve in addition to the two pairs, which make the total 
sixteen. 

To take a more difficult example— the crib contains six, seven, seven, 
eight, eight. This hand is counted thus : four fifteens (eight), two pairs 
(four), four sequences of three each (twelve), in all twenty-four. 

A Flush is reckoned by a player whose entire hand consists of cards 
of the same suit. The flush counts three ; if the start is of the same 
suit as the hand, the flush counts four. For example : a player has three, 
four, five, of the same suit, and a six is turned up. The hand counts 
fifteen-two, four for sequence, six, and three for the flush, nine. If tne 
start is also of the same suit, the hand reckons ten. No flush can t»e 
counted in crib, unless the start is of the same suit as the crib, when 
the flush reckons five. 

His Nob. — If a player holds in hand or crib the knave of the suit 
turned up, he counts one for his nob. 

When the hands and crib are reckoned, the deal is at an end. The 
cards are put together and shuffled, and a fresh deal commences. The 
player who was the n on -dealer in the first hand now deals ; and so on 
alternately, untL the game is won. 

SCORING. 

The points made during the hand accrue in the following order : two 
for his heels, points in the play of the hand to the player gaining them 
as they are made, the non-dealer's show, the dealer's show, and the crib 
show. 

The game is sixty-one up. Each player marks the points to which he 
is entitled as soon as they accrue, by placing a peg in the hole on the 
board, corresponding to the number to which he is entitled. For the first 
score on each side, only one peg is used ; for the second score, the second 
peg (called the foremost peg) is placed in front of the first. At the next 
score the hindmost peg is moved in front of the other, and becomes in 
its turn the foremost peg. By marking in this way, the adversary k> 



1 68 CRIBBAGE. 

enabled to check each score, as the number of holes between each peg 
shows whether the score is correctly marked. 

The players first mark up the beard, commencing from the game hole 
end, each using the row of holes nearest the edge of the board, and 
nearest to himself. When a player arrives at the top, he proceeds to mark 
down the board, on the inner row of holes on his side of the board. 
The player who first scores sixty-one wins the game. When the game is 
won, the winner places his foremost peg in the game hole. 

If a player wins the game before his adversary has scored thirty-one 
points, he wins a double (but see Law 37). 

SIX-CARD CRIBBAGE. 

Cribbage is sometimes played by dealing six cards to each player in- 
stead of five. At this game the non-dealer does not take three for last. 
Also, in playing, the hands are not abandoned as soon as a go or thirty- 
one is obtained. When a go is called, if the adversary has a card or 
cards that will come in he must play them. When no more cards can 
be played without passing thirty-one, the cards played in the first series 
up to the go are turned face down, and a fresh series is commenced by a 
lead from the opponent of the player who scored the first go or thirty- 
one. If only one card is left after a go, the player holding it plays it, 
and marks one for the last card. If he has two left, he plays both, and 
also marks any points (as a pair or fifteen) they may make. In all other 
respects the game is played in the same way as five-card Cribbage. 

THREE-HANDED CRIBBAGE. 

Cribbage is occasionally played by three persons. Five cards are dealt 
to each ; one card is laid out from each hand, and one from the top of 
the pack to complete the crib. The deal proceeds to the left of the last 
dealer. Each player marks for himself. Sometimes a triangular board 
is used. 

FOUR-HANDED CRIBBAGE. 

At Four-handed Cribbage two of the players are partners against 
the other two. The partners, who sit opposite each other, are 
determined as at Whist, and the lowest has the first deal. One 
player scores for himself and his partner. Five cards are 

dealt to each player, and each puts one out for crib. The 
deal proceeds in rotation to the left. In playing the hands, the 
player to the dealer's left leads first, and each player plays a 
card in rotation to the left. When a go is called, the next player 



CRIBBAGE. y l6y 

in rotation must play if he can come in ; if not, he also says " Go," and 
so on until no one can come in without passing thirty-one, when it is a 
go all rou?id, and the go, or thirty-one, is scored by the side who were 
last able to come in. If only one player can come in, he must go on 
playing alone as long as he has cards that can be played without passing 
thirty-one ; and, similarly, if two partners only can come in, they must 
go on playing alternately. After the first go, or thirty-one, the hand is 
continued as at six-card Cribbage, the player to the left of the one who 
last came in leading to the next series. 

In reckoning the hands, the player to the dealer's left has the first show, 
the dealer's partner the next, and the dealer the last. 

Rubbers (best two games out of three) are sometimes played ; but a 
better plan is to play single games twice round the board, the game being 
one hundred and twenty-one up. 

A player may assist his partner in counting his hand and crib, and may 
correct the score if his partner marks too few points. 

HINTS. 

i. In laying out for crib, it is necessary to bear in mind whether it is 
your deal or your adversary's. When you are the dealer, you should lajr 
out cards that are likely to score in crib ; when you are not the dealer, 
you should do precisely the reverse. At five-card Cribbage it is, as a rule, 
more important to lay out bad cards for the adversary's crib (called balk- 
ing the crib), than to keep the cards in hand which will give you the 
greatest score ; for the crib and start together consist of five cards, the 
hand and start of only four cards. The largest number, with but very 
few exceptions, that can be made out of four cards is twelve ; but, with 
five cards, there are hundreds of hands that score from twelve to twenty- 
nine. Hence it is advisable to put out for the opponent's crib the most 
unlikely scoring cards. Moreover, if your adversary is a good player, he 
will for the most part prefer the interest of his crib to that of his hand. 
Hence he will put out cards that are likely to make long scores in combi- 
nation with three others ; and this is an additional reason for balking 
his crib. 

2. The least likely card to reckon in crib is a king, as that card can 
only score in sequence one way. For a similar reason, an ace is a good 
balk. The best balking cards for the opponent's crib are king, with 
ten, nine, eight, seven, six, or ace (king, nine being the best) ; or queen, 
with any of these except the ten. If unable to lay out any such combi- 
nation, discard cards that are not in sequence nor near together. Wide 



1 68 CRIB BAGS. 

even cards are good balks, even cards being less likely to give a score 
than odd ones, or than one even and one odd one. If you have the 
choice between two cards of the same suit, or of different suits, prefer 
the latter, so as not to give a chance of a flush in crib. 

3. The best cards to put out for your own crib (and, therefore, the ones 
to be avoided for your adversary's) are fives, five and six, five and a tenth 
card, three and two, seven and eight, four and one, nine and six, or pairs, 
particularly low pairs. If unable to lay out any of these, discard as close 
cards as possible. It is generally good play to retain a sequence in hand 
as, if any one of the cards held is turned up, it gives you eight in hand 
at least. Pairs royal are also good cards to keep. The rule to ke?p these 
and sequences in your hand also applies when discarding for the adver- 
sary's crib, unless the two other cards are in the list just mentioned. For 
example : with queen, knave, ten, four, ace, you should put out the four 
and ace for your own crib ; but for your adversary's the queen and ten, 
keeping a fifteen and sacrificing the sequence. The queen and ten are 
chosen because they are the widest apart ; also, retaining the knave gives 
a chance of his nob. 

4. The lay-out is affected by the state of the se^re. Toward the end 
of a game, if you have cards that in all probability will take you out, the 
consideration of balking the opponent's crib is of but little consequence. 

5. In playing the cards, the card first chosen should be the one that 
presents the least chance of an adverse score. Aces, twos, threes, or 
fours are the best cards to lead, as no fifteen can be made from them, 
and the only chance of a score is by pairing them. The pair, however v 
is very likely to be declined, as it is commonly the game to begin with a 
card of which you hold a duplicate (except with two fives), so that you 
may make a pair royal if paired. Also, if an ace, two, three, or four is 
led, the second player must play a card which makes less than fifteen, 
when you have the chance of fifteen, especially if witn ace and four, or 
two and three, you have led one, as the play of any tenth card (of which 
there are sixteen in the pack) will then enable you to make fifteen. Also, 
with nine and three, or four and seven, if the three or the four is led anu 
paired, the nine or seven makes fifteen. And further, if the second hand 
plays a tenth card to the low one first led, you have a chance of a safe 
pair, i. e.\ of pairing with so high a card that a pair royal cannot be 
made without taking the adversary beyond thirty -one. 

6. When leading from a sequence, the highest or lowest is to be chosen 
in preference to the middle card. 

7. If the adversary plays a close card to the one led, it is frequently be- 
cause he desires you to make a run ol three, he lying with a fourth card 



CRIBBAGH. 169 

that will come in. Whether you should accept the run, or decline it by 
playing wide, depends on the state of the game. (See Hint 10.) 

8. If the adversary plays a card which you can pair, or make fifteen of, 
choose the latter. At the same time you must not forgot if a seven or 
eight is led, and you make fifteen, that you give the opponent a chance of 
coming in with a six or a nine. 

9. Avoid making eleven with a four, as, if the four is paired, the ad- 
versary gains four holes. The rule applies to all similar combinations, 
e. g., twelve made with a three, twenty-seven made with a four, or twenty- 
eight with a three. Avoid making the number twenty-one in play, as 
then a tenth card comes in for two. 

10. When playing the cards, the state of the score should constantly 
be considered. When you are ahead in the game, or have your average, 
you should endeavor to keep the advantage by playing wide cards, by re- 
fusing pairs, or by declining to make fifteen with close cards. Playing in 
this way is called playing off. On the other hand, if you are behind in 
the game, you should run risks to get on, as by pairing (chancing a pair 
royal), by making fifteen with close cards, or, by playing close cards, 
when, if your adversary makes a small run, you have a card that will 
come in and give you a larger one. Playing in this way is called play- 
ing on. 

11. In order to know whether you should play or play off, you must 
keep in mind that the average points in the play of the hand are two for 
the dealer, and one and a half for the non-dealer ; that the average 
points in hand are more than four and less than five ; and that the aver- 
age points in crib are five. Each player ought, therefore, to make six in 
hand and play throughout the game, and seventeen and a half in two 
deals. If the players score this average, they are said to be at home. If 
you score the average or more, and leave your adversary about seven 
holes in arrear, you are said to be safe at home. When you are at home 
you should play off ; when your adversary is safe at home you should 
play on. 

12. When you are safe at home, the rule respecting sequences (see 
Hint 3) does not always apply, especially with sequences containing seven 
and eight. It is then frequently the game to hold a wide card, to enable 
you to play off. Again : when near the end of the game, and you want 
to make points in play, in order to play out, you should endeavor to hold 
two low cards and one high one. 

13. With skilful players it is considered very important to play for the 
end hole, or go, which makes a difference of two to the score. To this 
end it is best, as a general rule- with two low cards and a high one, to 



170 CRIBBAGE. 



commence with a low card ; with two high cards and a low one, to begJK 
with a high one. The dealer's chance of making the end nole is greater 
than that of the non-dealer. 

14. In reckoning the hand and crib, it will assist the novice to keep to 
a regular order. He should first search his cards for fifteens, then for 
pairs, then for sequences, then for a flush, and, lastly, for his nob. 

15. At six-card Cribbage thtre is not so strong a reason for balking 
the crib as at five-card Cribbage. The average scores are larger at the 
six-card game. The non-dealer is at home at the end of the first hand 
if he scores twelve, the dealer if he scores seventeen. At the end of the 
second deal each player is at home at twenty -nine holes. In the first deal 
it is a considerable advantage to either player to exceed his average, and, 
consequently, both should play on ; but, when a player sees he cannot get 
home in the first deal, he should commence by playing off. Also, with 
only high cards in hand, it is advisable to keep two cards that will score 
in play (e. g., a seven and an eight), so that if your adversary is obliged 
to play a card more than you, you come in for a score at the end of 
the hand. 



LAWS OF CRIBBAGE. 

SHUFFLING. 

1. Bach player has a right to shuffle. The dealer has the right of 
shuffling last. 

CUTTING. 

2. A cut must consist of at least four cards. In cutting for deal, 
the player cutting first must not cut more than half the pack. 

3. The player who cuts the lower cribbage card deals. The ace is 
lowest. The other cards rank in sequence order, the king being 
highest. 

4. The cut for deal holds good even if the pack is incorrect. 

5. If, in cutting for a deal, a player exposes more than one card, 
his adversary may treat whichever of the exposed cards he pleases 
as the one cut. 

6. If in cutting to the dealer a card is exposed, or if in reuniting 
the separated packets a card is exposed, or there is any confusion of 
the cards, there must be a fresh cut. 

7. There must be a fresh cut for deal after each game, unless rub- 
bers are played. 



CRIBBAGB. 171 



DEALING. 

8. The players deal alternately throughout the game. 

9. The dealer must deal the cards by one at a time to each player t 
commencing with his adversary. If he deals two together, he may rec- 
tify the error provided he can do so by moving one card only ; otherwise 
there must be a fresh deal, and the non-dealer marks two holes. 

10. If the dealer exposes any of his own cards, there is no penalty. If 
he exposes one of his adversary's, the adversary marks two holes, and has 
the option of a fresh deal, prior to looking at his hand. If a card is 
exposed through the non-dealer's fault, the dealer marks two, and has 
the option of dealing again. 

n. If it is discovered while dealing that there is a faced card in the 
pack, there must be a fresh deal. 

12. If the dealer gives his adversary too many cards, the non-dealer 
marks two holes, and has the option, after looking at his hand, of a fresh 
deal, or of returning the surplus cards to the top of the pack without 
showing them to the dealer, and of standing the deal. 

13. If the dealer gives himself too many cards, his adversary marks 
two holes, and has the option, after looking at his hand, of a fresh deal, 
or of standing the deal. If he stands the deai, he has the right of draw- 
ing the surplus cards from the dealer's hand, ano of looking at them. 

14. If the dealer gives his adversary or himseL; ^00 few cards, the non- 
dealer marks two holes, and has the option, afte ooking at his hand, of 
a fresh deal, or of allowing the imperfect hand to be completed from the 
top of the pack. 

15. If a player deals out of turn, and the error is discovered before the 
Scan is turned up, the deal in error is void, and the right dealer deals. 
After the start is turned up it is too late to rectify the error. 

LAYING OUT. 

16. If either player lays out when he holds too many cards, the adver- 
sary marks two holes, and has the option of a fresh deal, or of standing 
the deal. If he stands the deal, he has the right of drawing the surplus 
cards from the offender's hand, and of looking at them. 

17. If either player lays out with too few cards in hand, he must pla) 
out the hand with less than the right number of cards. 

iS. The dealer may insist on his adversary's laying out first. 

19. If a player takes back into his hand a card he has laid out, his act 
versary marks two holes, and has the option of a fresh deal. 

20. The crib must not be touched during the pkiy of the hand. 



172 CRIB B AGE. 



THE START. 

21. In cutting for the start, the non-dealer must cut at least four cards 7 
and must leave at least four in the lower packet. 

22. If the dealer turns up more than one card, the non-dealer may 
rhoose which of the exposed cards shall be the start. 

23. If a knave is turned up, and the dealer plays his first card withou i 
s?oring his heels, he forfeits the score. 

PLAYING. 

24. If a player plays with too many cards in hand, his adversary marks 
two holes, and has the option of a fresh deal. If he elects to stand the 
deal, he has the right of drawing the surplus cards from the offender's 
hand and of looking at them, and the option of playing the hand ag^in 
or not. 

25. If a player plays with too few cards there is no penalty. 

26. If a card that will come in is played, it cannot be taken up again. 
If a card that will not come in is played, no penalty attaches to the ex- 
posure. 

27. If two cards are played together, the card counted is deemed to be 
the one played, and the other must be taken back into the player's hand. 

28. If a player neglects to play when he has a card that will come in 
his opponent may require it to be played, or may mark two holes. (This 
rule does not apply to the player who has the go at two-handed five- 
card Cribbage.) 

29. There is no penalty for miscounting during the play. 

SHOWING AND SCORING. 

30. When reckoning a hand or crib, the cards must be plainly shown, 
and must remain exposed until the opponent is satisfied as to the nature 
of the claim. 

31. If a player mixes his hand or crib with each other, or with the pack, 
before his claim is properly made (see Law 30), he forfeits any score the 
hnnd or crib may contain. 

32. If a player scores more points than he is entitled to, the adversary 
may correct the score and add the same number to his own score. This 
law applies even if a player, in consequence of overscoring, places his 
foremost peg in the game hole. 

33. There is no penalty for scoring too few points. A player is not 
bound to assist his adversary in making out his score. 



CRIB B AGE. 173 

34. When a peg is quitted the score cannot be altered, except as 
provided in Law 32. 

35. If a player touches his opponent's pegs (except to put back an 
overscore), or, if he touches his own pegs, except when he has a 
score to make, his adversary marks two holes. 

36. If a player displaces his formeost peg, he must put it behind 
the other. If he displaces both his pegs, his adversary is entitled to 
place the hindmost peg* where he believes it to have been, and the 
other peg must then be put behind it. 

27. A lurch (or double game) cannot be claimed, unless by previ- 
ous agreement. 

38. The three for last may be scored at any time during the game, 
but not after the opponent has scored sixty-one. 



FIVE-CARD CRIBBAGE. 

This game is practically the same as the six-card game, with, how- 
ever, a few notable points of difference. Except for the case noted, all 
arrangements and rules of the six-card game remain in force. 

In dealing, the dealer gives to the players alternately, one by one, 
five cards; each discards two for the dealer's crib, retaining three cards; 
the non-dealer at the beginning of the game can mark three holes as an 
offset to the advantage of the first deal. As soon as a "go," or thirty- 
one, is reached the remaining cards are not played. 

This game is considered more scientific than the six-card game. 
Every point is of value, as the chances for marking are so much less. 
The best players therefore make it a point to play for the "go," which 
makes or loses a point. 

At this game the rule is to lay out bad cards for the adversary's crib 
— called balking the crib. This is done because the crib and the start 
consist of five cards, while the hand and start is of four cards only. 
With very few exceptions the largest number that can be made out of 
four cards is twelve; but with five cards there are many hands that 
score from twelve to twenty-nine. This makes it advisable to place in 
your opponent's crib the most unlikely scoring cards. 



EUCHRE. 



The game of Euchre is played with a pack of thirty-two cards; the 
twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes being thrown out from a com- 
plete pack. 

Two or four players make the best game. When four are engaged 
the game is almost always played with partners. 

DEALING. 

The players cut for deal. 

The pack is then cut for the dealer : if two play, by his opponent ; if 
more than two play, by the adversary to his right. The dealer reunite* 
the packets and delivers five cards to each player by three at a time, and 
then by two at a time, or vice versa. Some players make it compulsory 
to deal three first, and then two ; others deal two first to the opponent, 
then three to themselves, then three to the opponent, and lastly two. 
Whichever mode is adopted, when each player has five cards the dealei 
turns up the top card for trumps, and places it face upward on the top of 
the stack. 

ORDER OF THE CARDS. 

The cards in suits not trumps rank as at Whist, the ace being; the high- 
est, and the seven the lowest. But in the trump suit, the knave of the 
suit turned up (called the right Bower) is the highest trump, and the 
other knave of the same color (black or red, as the case may be, called 
the left Bower) is the next highest. For instance, a heart is turned up, 
the knave of hearts is the best trump, then the knave of diamonds, then 
the ace of hearts, then the king, queen, ten, down to the seven. The 
order of the cards in the diamond suit, when hearts are trumps, is ace, 
king, queen, ten, down to* the seven ; *he knave being the left Bower, 
belongs to the trump suit. 

(i74) 



EUCHRE. 175 



ORDERING UP, TAKING UP, AND PASSING. 

The mode of procedure after the deal depends on whether the game is 
played with partners or not. 

When two play, the non-dealer examines his hand, and decides wheth- 
er he will play it or not. If he is satisfied with his cards, that is, if he 
thinks he can win three tricks, he says, " Order it up." The dealer then 
puts a card out of his hand, face downward, under the pack, and the 
play of the hand commences. 

The trump card when ordered up belongs to the dealer's hand, in 
place of the discarded card ; but he generally does not take it up until it 
is his turn to play. It is found in practice convenient thus to leave the 
card on the pack, so as to avoid the necessity of asking what are trumps. 

If the non-dealer is not satisfied with his cards, he says, " Pass." The 
dealer then has the option of taking up the turn-up (in place of a dis- 
carded card as before), or of passijig in his turn. If the dealer takes up 
the trump, the play of the hand commences ; if he passes, he signifies his 
determination by placing the trump card face upward under the pack, 
called turning it down. Some players turn the trump card down on the 
top of the pack ; but the first-mentioned way is preferable, as there can 
be no dispute as to the suit first turned. 

If both pass, the non-dealer then has the option of naming any suit 
(except the one turned up) for trumps, or of passing again. He signifies 
his intention by saying, " Make it spades," or any suit he prefers, or by 
saying, " Pass again." If he passes again, the dealer has the option of 
making the trump suit or of passing a second time. If either player 
makes it, the play of the hand commences ; if both pass a second time, the 
hand is thrown up, and the opponent deals. 

When the trump is made of the same color as the turn-up (i. e. , red, if 
the turn-up is red, or black if it is black) it is called making it next, or next 
in suit. If the trump is made of a different color from the turn-up, it is 
called crossing the suit. 

PLAYING. 

If the hand is played the non-dealer leads a card. The dealer plays to 
it, the two cards thus played constituting a trick. The second player 
must follow suit if he is able ; he is not bound to win the trick (unless it 
so happens that he cannot follow suit without), and if not able to follow 
suit he may play any card he pleases. 

It must not be forgotten that the left Bower belongs to the trump 
suit, and if led a trump must be played to it. Thus, if hearts are 



x>;6 euchre: 



are trumps, and the knave of diamonds is led, the second player must 
follow suit with a heart if able. 

The highest card of the suit led wins the trick ; trumps win other suits. 
The winner of the trick leads. 

The object of the play is to win three tricks or five. 

At two-handed Euchre some players turn over the tricks, others do not. 
When more than two play, each trick should be turned before he winn*' 
leads to the next. 

THREE-HANDED EUCHRE. 

When three play, the option of playing; or passing goes to each in turn 
commencing with the player to the dealer's left. Three cards, one from 
each hand, constitute a trick. The player who orders up or takes up the 
trump, or who makes the trump, has to play single-handed against the 
other two. 

If the hand is played, the player to the dealer's left (eldest hand) has 
the first lead, and the dealer plays last to that trick. The eldest hand 
deals next. 

Three-handed Euchre is sometimes called " cut-throat Euchre," be* 
cause not only do two players conspire against the third, but at many 
points of the score one of the allies conspires against his quasi partner. 

FOUR-HANDED EUCHRE. 

At four-handed Euchre the partners sit opposite each other, as at 
Whist. If the first hand passes, the second may say, u I assist," which 
means that the dealer (his partner) is to take up the trump. The hand 
is then played, the player to the dealer's left (eldest hand) having the first 
lead, and each playing a card in turn, the rotation going to the left. 
Four cards constitute a trick. The eldest hand has the next deal. 

If a player has a very strong hand he may play alone, i. e. , he may 
play single-handed against the two adversaries. When a player announces 
that he will play alone, his partner cannot object, but must place his 
cards, however good they may be, face downward on the table, and leave 
himself in the hands of his partner. A player can play alone when he 
or his partner orders up ; or when his partner assists ; or, in the case of 
the dealer, when he takes up the trump. A* player may also play alone 
when he makes the trump, but not when the adversary orders up, or 
assists, or makes the trump. 

The player to the dealer's left has the first lead, and each plays a card 
in turn, as at Whist. In other respects the game is the same as, the two« 
handed. 



BUCHRB. 17; 



SCORING. 

The game is five or ten points up. 

If the player (or side) ordering: up, taking up, or making the trump 
wins all five tricks, he wins a ma?-cJi, and scores two. 

If he makes three tricks, he makes the point, and scores one. Winning 
four tricks is no better than winning three. 

If he fails to make the three tricks he is euchred, and the adversary 
scores two. 

The principle is that the attacking player undertakes, in effect, to 
make three tricks, and if he does not do what he undertakes he is pun- 
ished by the loss of two points. 

If a lone player wins all five tricks he scores four. If he wins three 
tricks he scores one. If he fails to win three tricks the adversaries score 
two. 

At three-handed Euchre, or at independent Euchre (played without 
partners), when more than two play, the mode of scoring varies. In 
some companies it is ruled that, if the attacking player is euchred, both 
the adversaries score two. If this makes them both out the eldest hard 
wins. 

But the better way of playing is to set back the player who is euchred. 
The score can be set back even beyond five, so that if a player is at love, 
and he is euchred, he has seven points to make. The player who first 
obtains five receives from each of the others as many points as he is short 
of five ; thus, if he is set back two points, and does not score at all during 
the game, he has to pay seven points. 

Laps. — It is sometimes agreed that one player, or side, shall carry any 
surplus they may make over into the next game. 

Lurch or " Slams." — It is sometimes agreed that a player, or side, 
shall receive double if they win a love game. 



HINTS TO LEARNERS. 

The hands that should be played or passed differ according to the 
number of players. Thus, at two-handed Euchre, you may play on a 
lighter hand than at three-handed. The following Hints relate principally 
to the two-handed game, and to the four-handed game with partners. 



178 BUCHRH. 



ORDERING UP, PASSING, TAKING UP, AND MAKING 

THE TRUMP. 

1. The chances are that the dealer has one trump dealt ; so, if you 
order up, you must expect to meet one trump and the turn-up in the 
dealer's hand. And it must be remembered that you lose two points if 
you order up and do not win three tricks, and only gain one if you suc- 
ceed (unless you make a march). Therefore you should not order up un- 
less it is two to one in favor of your winning three tricks against two 
trumps, and your cards are such that you would not have as good a 
chance if you made the trump. 

To order up at four-handed Euchre, the eldest hand should be some- 
what stronger than at two-handed. 

2. It follows from Hint 1, that if strong in trumps, and equally strong 
in another suit, it is always good play for the eldest hand to pass. Foi 
if the dealer takes up the trump he may lose the point and be euchred ; 
and if he passes you can then make the trump, and are better off than in 
the other case, as the dealer does not get the turn-up. 

3. If you pass, and the dealer turns it down, you may still consider 
that, whatever you make it, you will probably find one trump against 
you. It is, therefore, not advisable to make the trump unless you hold 
cards that will probably win three tricks against one trump higher than 
any in your own hand, or against two small ones. 

4. If you are about to make the trump, and have good cards in two 
suits of different colors, you should, as a rule, make it next. The reason 
is that the dealer having turned it down in one color, you are not likely 
to enconnter either Bower of that color in his hand. The rule not to 
cross the suit, applies at the four-handed game to the non-dealer and his 
partner. But if the dealer's partner makes the trump, he should not 
hesitate to cross the suit, as he may assume, from the dealer's having 
turned it down, that he has no Bower in that color. 

5. With so strong a hand that you are almost sure of the point 
whether you make the trump or not, of course you pass, in hopes that 
the dealer will take up the trump. For example : you have both Bowers 
and the ace of trumps ; you should pass. If the dealer takes up the 
trump you euchre him ; if he passes you make it next in suit, and win 
the point, unless the dealer has passed with three trumps (which would 
be bad play) and none of your ace suit. 

6. At four-handed Euchre the second player (dealer's partner) should 
assist if he has something more than one trick, as, for instance, an ace 



HUCHRB. 179 

and a trump, or two aces. The assisting hand says, in fact, "I am 
good for one trick, and have a chance of another." 

But if the dealer's partner is strong in the non-trump suits he should 
not assist unless morally certain of two tricks. 

7. The third hand should be cautious of ordering up, as his partner, 
havir.^ passed, has declared weakness. 

8. The dealer should be very cautious of taking up, as his partner, not 
having assisted, must be very weak (see Hint 6). The dealer ought not 
to take up as a rule, unless he has two tricks morally certain, and a 
chance of a third. 

9. If the dealer, either at two or four-handed Euchre, can reduce his 
hand by his discard to three trumps and two cards of another suit, he 
should take up the trump, unless all the five cards are very small. 

10. If the dealer takes up the trump, he should generally keep two 
cards of a suit, except his single one happens to be an ace. For example : 
with queen, seven of one suit, and king single of another, the king 
should be discarded. 

LEADING. 

n. Lead from your guarded suit. Thus, if you hold two trumps, a 
guarded card and a single card, lead your best card in the guarded suit 
But if in fear of losing a march lead your highest single card. 

12. If you have three trumps in sequence always lead a trump, unless 
the sequence is nine, eight, seven. At four-handed Euchre always lead 
a trump with three trumps of any denomination. 

13. At four-handed Euchre, if you have made the trump next in suit 
and have the lead, lead a trump, unless you hold the right Bower and 
ace, and weak cards out of trumps. 

14. As a general rule at four-handed Euchre, if the dealer's partner 
assists, the eldest hand should at once lead a trump through him. The 
rule does not apply if the dealer has turned up a Bower, nor if the leader 
has the left Bower, or the ace of trumps guarded. 

15. If your partner orders up, or assists, or takes up, or makes the 
trump, invariably lead a trump as soon as you obtain the lead. If youi 
partner orders up or makes the trump, lead him your best trump ; if he 
takes up the right Bower lead your smallest trump. 

PLAYING AFTER THE FIRST LEAD. 

16. Head the trick second hand if you hold a card higher than the 
one led. 

17. If your partner orders up, or assists, or takes up, or makes the 



!8o EUCHRE. 

trump, and you hold trumps, trump with them whenever you can. If 
you have a single trump do not hesitate to trump with it, even if it 
is a Bower. 

1 8. If your partner leads an ace do not trump it, but throw away 
a single card. Toward the end of a hand, if you infer that your 
partner has another trump, it would often be right to trump even a 
winning card led by him. 

19. At two-handed Euchre the following point not unfrequently oc- 
curs: The leader has the left Bower, ace, and a small trump, and two 
cards of another suit. He leads the left Bower. His adversary wins 
it and forces him. The leader now should not continue the trump; for 
if the adversary has one higher card in leader's suit, and no more 
trumps, the leader thus makes the point and whatever other cards 
the adversary holds, it does not matter which card is led. 

20. If you have lost two tricks and won the third, and remain with 
one trump, lead the trump. For if your trump does not win you can- 
not save the point. At four-handed Euchre, however, if your partner 
dealt, and he still retains the turn-up in his hand, it is better, as a 
rule, to lead the outside card, on the chance of making the trumps 
separately. Of course, if your outside card is a' winning card, and 
your trump is higher than the turn-up, you should lead the trump. 

21. If your partner has assisted and led a trump, and you remain 
with one trump and two other cards and the lead, your play must 
depend on the value of the outside cards. If they are pretty good 
lead the trump, but if small lead one of the outside cards. 

22. In discarding during the play of the hand, a player ought, as a 
rule, to keep a guarded card in preference to a single one, unless tne 
single card is an ace : Thus, having knave, seven of hearts, and king of 
spades, if at the third trick a trump is led, the king of spades should be 
discarded. 

23. Inform your partner of your strength. Thus, if you discard from 
a suit of which you hold ace and king, throw the ace. This is most im- 
portant when the adversary has ordered up, or assisted, or taken up the 
trump, as it indicates to your partner that he need not keep that suit. 
Again : if you hold a trump next in value to the turn-up, play it, or 
trump with it, in preference to the card taken up. 

24. As a rule make tricks when able. Passing a trick or finessing is 
seldom permissible. For example : If a card (not an ace) is led, of whic> 
you (third player) hold none, and you have king and another trum^ 
trump at once with the king. 

The second hand, however, should generally leave the chance of the 



EUCHRE. l8l 

first trick to his partner, if he holds the best trump, or two trumps, and 
throw away a single card (except an ace). 

EFFECT OF THE SCORE. 

25. If the adversary is at three, the trump should not be ordered up, 
unless with very good cards, as, if the trump is ordered up, the loss of the 
point at this score loses the game. 

26. If the adversary is at the score of four, it is better for the dealer to 
take up tne trump on a light hand, than to leave it to his adversary to 
make ihe trump. 

27. At four-handed Euchre, when the dealer's side is at the score of 
one or two, and you (eldest hand) are at four, you should order up, even 
if you have not a trick in your hand, or rather, unless you have one cer- 
tain trick, as the right Bower or the left Bower guarded. By so doing 
you pi event the opponent from playing alone. In the worst case you are 
euchred, and have the deal next time, the chances being greatly in favor 
of winning the point with the deal. Thi3 position is called the bridge. 

If at this score you (eldest hand) pass your partner may be sure that 
you hold one or more commanding trumps. If, therefore, the third hand 
has tolerable strength (e. g., one trick and a chance of a second, see Hint 
6) he should order up, in expectation of making the point. 

If at this score the trump is not ordered up, the dealer should pass as a 
rule, as he may feel sure of meeting strength in trumps to his left. 

28. At four-all, if the eldest hand or the third hand has a trick, and 
the probability of a second (see Hint 6), and such cards that he would be 
no better off if he made the trump, he should order up ; for if the dealer 
turns down the trump, the second hand or the dealer will probably make 
the trump, and so win the game in another suit. 

LONE HANDS. 

29. In plaj'ing a lone hand the eldest hand has the advantage, and 
next to him the dealer. The players may, therefore, play alone on 
hands that should not be played alone by other players. 

30. When leader, with a lone hand, lead your winning trumps. If 
you thus make two tricks and remain with one trump, lead, your best 
card out of trumps, and if that wins, lead the remaining trump. 

31. When playing against a lone hand, always lead an ace, if you 
have one; if you have no ace, lead your highest card out of trumps, 
except you hold a guarded king and cards of other suits, in which 
case it is advisable to wait for your king to be led to (see also Hints 
11 and 23). 



l82 EUCHRE. 

32. When playing against a lone hand, keep cards of the suit your 
partner discards, as you may be sure he is weak in them, and depend on 
your partner for strength in the suits he keeps ; but do not throw away 
*n ace, even if your partner keeps your ace suit. 



LAWS OF EUCHRE. 

. CUTTING. 

1. The lowest deals. In cutting, the ace is lowest. 

When playing partners the two highest play against the two lowest 

DEALING. 

2. The dealer must give five cards to each player by three at a time and 
two at a time, or vice versa, and must turn up the top of the undealt 
cards for trumps. 

3. If the dealer gives too many or too few cards to any player it is a 
misdeal, and the deal passes to the next player. 

4. If the dealer exposes a card in dealing there must be a fresh deal ; 
but if the dealer in turning up the trump turns two cards it is a misdeal. 

5. If a faced card is found in the pack before turning up, there must be 
a fresh deal, unless the faced card is the turn-up. 

6. When more than two play, the players deal in rotation to the left 

PLAYING. 

7. If any one plays with more or less than five cards he can score 
nothing that hand. 

If the trump is ordered up and the dealer omits to discard a card 
oefore he or his partner plays, he can score nothing that hand. 

8. When more than two play, exposed cards may be called. A card 
led out of turn may be called, or a suit from the side offending 
when they next have the lead. 

9. A player revoking is euchred. A player revoking against a lone 
hand is euchred four. 

10. A player not following suit when able may correct his mistake 
before the trick is turned and quitted, and before he or his partner 
leads or plays to the next trick. The card played in error is an ex- 
posed card. 

11. A player making a trump must abide by the suit first named. 



EUCHRE. 



183 



12. If after the trump is turned a player reminds nis> partner aiat they 
are at the point of the bridge, the latter loses his right of ordering up. 

13. Each player has a right to see the last trick. 

DEFECTIVE PACKS. 

14. If a pack is found to be defective the deal is void ; but all previous? 

deals stand good. 

SCORING. 

15. An erroneous score may be corrected at any time during the game* 



RAILROAD EUCHRE. 

Thirty-three cards are used, the Joker making the extra card. Tht 
Joker is the best trump and is higher than the leading Bower, no matter 
what is the trump. A player may have then an equivalent to three Bow- 
ers, the Joker and the two knaves of a color. 

In Railroad Euchre, a player going alone can call for the best card in 
his partner's hand, throwing out his own discard. When the player goes 
alone, one of his adversaries may agree to call for the best card in his 
partner's hand. It is a two-handed game, or four-handed game. In 
Railroad Euchre, a euchre counts four points. 

If in turning for trumps, the Joker turns up, the next card in the pack 
is made trumps. 

It is generally played in ten points. 

SET-BACK EUCHRE. 

In this game the points made diminish a certain score given to each 
player at the beginning of the game. 

Everybody plays for himself. 

At the beginning five points are allotted to each player. 

If a player makes three tricks he scores one, which is deducted from 
his five points, leaving him four points ; each player's object being to 
wipe out his score. 

To begin the game every player puts one or more chips into a pool, 
and the first one who has wiped out his score wins it. There are no 
partners. 

A player not making a trick, though he may not have declared any- 
thing, has one added to his score. A euchre counts two. Sometimes 



1 84 EUCHRE. 

when a euchre is made, the players deposit another chip in the pool. 
The rules for Set-back Euchre have not yet been clearly defined. 



NAPOLEON. 

Six players can play Napoleon, which is a development of Euchre. In 
rutting it is the person taking the lowest card who deals. It is a game of 
bidding. If a player thinks he has a good hand he states, " I can make 
so many tricks." The person bidding the highest number of tricks plays. 
He has in opposition to him the other players. The player who has the 
bid has the privilege of naming the trump. He may elect to name no 
trump, but it is understood that the first card he plays is the trump. 
Should a player declare Napoleon and succeed in taking all the tricks, 
he makes Napoleon, and is paid by all the others two chips for each trick, 
which is ten. Making tricks less than Napoleon is paid at the rate of one 
chip per trick. A player saying, " I will make two or three tricks," must 
make the number stated, or he loses. Losses are made according to 
tricks. Sometimes by a fall of the cards, a player having announced 
"three tricks" and makes them, believes he can make Napoleon. He 
may succeed in securing the two other tricks, five in all, but he is not 
paid ten chips, as he would have been had he declared Napoleon at the 
beginning. He receives only one chip for each trick. Should he, how- 
ever, after making his three tricks not make the Napoleon, he pays one 
chip for each trick, or five chips. He might, when he made the number 
of tricks he announced, have stopped there, and won his declare. 

Players must follow suit, but not having the suit, to trump is obli- 
gatory. 

FRENCH EUCHRE. 

In this game the eights and sevens are not used, there being twenty- 
four cards, and not more than four players ; these are partners. It re- 
sembles in many respects Napoleon. A player states that he will make 
so many tricks, making a particular suit trumps. If the other players 
bid no more tricks, the eldest hand has the play. The assistance of the 
partners is as in Euchre. If, for instance, one partner were to announce 
three in hearts, and his partner had the Bowers, and other good cards, 
the partner when his turn came to play might bid for the five tricks. The 
game being of fifteen points, tricks are counted as points. The euchre 
counts only as much as the number of tricks which were announced by 
the losing party. 



EUCHRE. 



PROGRESSIVE EUCHRE. 



185 



The game is the regular four-handed Euchre with five points up, and 
is so adapted as to enable any number of ladies and gentlemen to partici- 
pate. 

For example, say the number of players is twenty, consequently five 
tables are required. 

The guests on entering the room are each presented with a favor or 
decorated card by the hostess, which is to be attached to the lady's dress 
or gentleman's coat ; these designate the tables to which each player is 
assigned, viz., first lady first table, or first gentleman first table, etc. The 
iady and gentleman having corresponding cards, take position as partners. 

When all are seated, the leader, or one of the players at the first table, 
announces the commencement of the game by tap of bell. 

The first table having finished their game, the bell is tapped, when play 
must cease at all the tables. 

The successful partners at the first table retain their seats and attach a 
gold star or label to their favors, while the unsuccessful partners at the 
first table retire to the last or fifth table, taking the place of the victors at 
that table, where they do not remain partners, but exchange with those 
left at table five ; the losers at table five attach a green label or booby to 
their favors. 

The victors at the other tables then move up or progress one table, viz., 
fifth to fourth, etc. 

In case of a tie, when the leader taps the bell at any of the tables, the 
ladies cut the cards, the highest cut determines the victors, or in case the 
game is not completed, the side having the greatest number of points to 
their credit are the victors. 

As prizes are provided for the lady and gentleman receiving the highest 
number of honors, gold labels or stars, and also for the recipients of the 
greatest number of booby labels, it causes a pleasant rivalry between the 
players, which remains unabated to the close of the game. 

In case of a tie, the same rule applies as during the game. 

All other points in the game are decided according to the usual 
rules of Euchre. 



1 86 EUCHRE. 



SIX-HANDED EtJCHRE. 

As the name indicates, six persons, three on a side, play this game. 
The partners are seated alternately. Before the cards are dealt two of 
the sevens are removed. The cards are then distributed, each player 
getting eight cards. 

The players bid for trumps, and the bidding is conducted the same 
as in French Euchre. The side that makes the trump and wins the 
number of tricks bid counts that number and no more, even should it win 
all the tricks. If it fail to make the number of tricks bid, the op- 
posing side counts that number of tricks. 

The score is generally twenty-five points, with which each side starts. 
As points are made they are deducted from the score, the side first 
wiping out the twenty-five winning. When a bid is successful the trump 
must be declared, but it is not obligatory to lead trumps. 

The joker is sometimes used when the remaining cards after the deal 
are thrown into the centre of the table, and is known as the "Widow.'* 
The player who makes the highest bid has the right to select the cards 
he wants from the Widow. He must declare the trump suit before he 
looks at the Widow. A bid to play alone supersedes a bid of five, and if 
successful it counts ten. 



B^ZIQUE. 



GUIDE TO BEZIQUE, BY CAVENDISH. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The game of Bezique is generally played by two persons. Two pack* 
Df Bezique cards are shuffled well together and used as one. It is better 
to have two packs with the same colored backs, or with the same device 
on the backs. Cards prepared for Bezique may be procured, or ordinary 
packs of cards may be used, the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes being 
thrown out. 

There are several ways of playing Bezique, differing, however, only in 
small details. The most usual way will first be described, and afterwaid 
the variations will be noticed. 

DEALING. 

The packs being shuffled together the players cut for deal (see Laws 1-5). 

The cards are then cut to the dealer. He reunites the packets and 
deals eight cards to each player. He delivers three to his adversary and 
then three to himself, then two to each, and lastly three to each. Some- 
times the cards are dealt three at a time, twice successively, and lastly two 
at a time. 

The seventeenth card, now the top of the pack, called the stock, is 
turned up for trumps. The trump card is placed lengthwise between the 
two players, a little to the right or left of them, and the stock is placed 
by the side of the trump card and slightly spread, so that cards can be 
easily taken from it during the play, as will be explained. 

PLAYING. 

The non-dealer now plays any card out of his hand. The dealer plays 
a card to it. He is not obliged to follow suit, nor to play a card that wins 
(187) 



1 88 



BEZIQUE. 



the trick. If, however, he wins the trick, or trumps it (which he 
may do, although holding in his hand a card of the suit led), he has 
to lead. Whoever wins the trick has the next lead; but, before play- 
ing, each player draws one card from the stock, the winner of the 
trick drawing the top card, the other player the card next it; by this 
means the number of the cards in each hand is restored to eight, as 
at first. This alternate playing a card and drawing a card continues 
till all the stock, including the trump card (generally exchanged for 
the seven), which is taken up last, is exhausted. The rules of play 
then alter in the manner presently to be described. 

In playing the cards, the highest card of the same suit wins the trick, 
:he ace being highest, next the ten, and then the king, queen, knave, nine, 
eight, and seven. In ihe case of ties the leader wins. Trumps win other 
suits. 

The tricks are left face upward on the table till the end of the hand 
They are of no value except for the aces and tens which they may contain. 

The objects of the play are to win aces and tens, and to promote in the 
hand various combinations of cards, which, when declared, score a cer 
tain number of points. 

The following table shows all the scores that can be made at Bezique ; 



BEZIQUE SCORES. 



* * 



Seven of trumps (a club is shown, but, of course, any suit may be 
trumps according to the turn-up). 

If turned up, dealer marks 10. Player declaring or exchanging seven 
of trumps marks 10. 





King and queen of same suit not trumps" (called marriage). 

King and queen of the trump suit (called marriage in trumps o\ royai 
marriage). 

Player declaring marriage marks 20. Player declaring marriage in 
trumps marks 40. 



BJEZIQUE. 



189 




<2ueen of spades and knave of diamonds (called bezique). 

Queen of spades and knave of diamonds, declared twice in one deal b> 
the same player (called double bezique). 

Player declaring bezique marks 40. Player declaring double bezique 
marks 500 in addition to the 40 already scored. 

Note. — In order to entitle to double bezique, all four cards must be 
on the table at the same time and unplayed to a trick. If all four are 
declared together, only 500 can be scored, and not 540. 

When clubs or hearts are trumps, queen of spades and knave of dia- 
monds are bezique. When spades or diamonds are trumps, queen of 
clubs and knave of hearts are bezique. 



© 




s? 




* 








Four aces (the four suits are shown, but any four aces will do, whethe: 
duplicates or not). 
Player declaring four aces marks 100. 







Four kings (any four will do, whether duplicates or not). 
Player declaring four kings marks 80. 







Four queens (any four will do, whether duplicates or not). 
Player declaring four queens marks 60. 



1Q0 



B&ZIQUE. 







Four knaves (any four will do, whether duplicates or not). 
Player declaring four knaves marks 40. 



© 




*** 




Mil 




*j^ 




t^Ptt 



Sequence of five best trumps. Player declaring sequence marks 250^ 
in addition to 40 previously scored for marriage in trumps. 

If sequence is declared without previous declaration of marriage, only 
250 can be scored, and not 290. 

Aces and Tens. — Aces and tens in tricks. Each player for each one 
idds to his score 10. 

The winner of a trick containing an ace or a ten at once adds 10 to his 
score ; if the trick consists of two aces or tens, or one of each, he adds 20. 

Last Trick. — The winner of the last trick marks 10. 

Note. — The last trick is the last before the stock is exhausted. 
That is, when two cards of the stock (viz., the trump and another 
card) remain on the table, the player winning the trick is said to win 
the last trick, notwithstanding that there are still eight tricks to be 
played. 

DECLARING. 

A declaration can only be made immediately after winning a trick, and 
before drawing a card from the stock. The declaration is effected by 
placing the declared cards face upward on the table, where they remain. 
Though left on the table they still form part of the hand, and can be 
played to a trick just the same as if they had not been declared. Each 
score is marked at the time of declaring. 

Players are not bound to declare unless they like, although they may 
win a trick and hold scoring cards. 

A card cannot be played to a trick and be declared at the same time. 

It is optional to declare or exchange the seven of trumps after winning 
a trick with some other card. When declared the seven need not be 
shown unless asked for. When exchanged the seven is put in the place 
of the turn-up card, and the turn-up is taken into the player's hand. The 



BEZIQUE. IQT 

card taken in exchange for the seven cannot be declared until the playet 
exchanging has won another trick. 

Any number of combinations may be declared to one trick, provided 
the same card is not used twice over. Thus, a player having declared 
four kings and holding two or three queens matching as to suit, may, 
after winning another trick, marry them all at the same time. But, if a 
player holds king and queen of spades and knave of diamonds, he must 
not put down the three cards to score marriage and bezique. He must 
first score one combination, say bezique ; then, after winning another 
trick, he may place the king on the table and score marriage. 

In declaring fresh combinations one or more cards of the fresh combina- 
tion must proceed from the part of the hand held up. For instance : a 
player having sequence in trumps should first declare marriage in trumps, 
and then, having won another trick, he can declare the sequence by adding 
the sequence cards. If he incautiously shows the sequence first he can* 
not afterward score marriage of the king and queen on the table. 

The same card can be declared more than once, provided the combina- 
tion in which it afterward appears is of a different class. Thus : suppose 
spades are trumps, the queen of spades can be declared in marriage of 
trumps, in sequence, and in four queens ; but a king or queen once mar- 
ried cannot be married again, nor can a card having taken part in a set 
of four take part in another set of four, to make four aces, kings, queens, 
or knaves ; nor can one bezique card be substituted for another to form a 
second single bezique. 

The player scoring the last trick can at the same time declare in accord- 
ance with the foregoing rules. After this all declarations cease. 

PLAYING THE LAST EIGHT TRICKS. 
The last two cards of the stock are taken, one by each player, as before, 
the loser of the la?t trick taking the turn-up or seven as the case may be. 
Then all cards on the table that have been exposed in declaring are taken 
up by the player to whom they belong, and the play of the last eight 
tricks commences. The winner of the last trick now leads ; the second 
player must follow suit if he can, and must win the trick if he can. If he 
holds a trump, and is not able to follow suit, he must win the trick by 
trumping. The winner of the trick leads to the next. The tricks are 
still only valuable for the aces and tens they may contain. 

MODE OF SCORING. 
A numbered dial with hand, or a bezique board and pegs, or counters, 
may be used. The last pjan is to be preferred. Eleven counters are 



192 BEZIQUE. 



required by each player, one marking 500, four each marking 100, one 
marking 50, and five each marking 10. The counters are placed to 
the left of the player, and when used to score are transferred to his 
right. This system of marking shows at a glance not only how many 
each player has scored, but, by looking to his left, how many he is 
playing for. This is often important when near the end of the game. 
The game is usually played 1000 up. If one player scores 1000 be- 
fore his adversary obtains 500, the game counts double. A partie is 
the best three games out of five, reckoning a double as two games. 

VARIATIONS IN THE MODE OF PLAYING. 

Three and Four-Handed Bezique. — Bezique may be played by 
three or four persons. If by three, all play against each other, three packs 
of cards being used. The dealer deals to his left, and the player first 
dealt to leads to the first trick. The rotation of dealing proceeds to 
the left. 

A second double bezique — to make which fresh bezique cards must be 
declared to a bezique on the table — counts another 500. Triple bezique 
counts 1500. All the cards of the triple bezique must be on the table at 
the same time. The game is generally played 2000 up. 

In playing the last eight tricks, the third hand, if not able to follow 
suit, nor to win the trick by trumping, may play any card he pleases. 

In other respects, the mode of play is the same as in the two-handed 
game. 

When four play, four packs of cards are used. The players may play 
independently, or they may play with partners, the partners being CCt 
for, and sitting opposite each other, as at Whist. 

The scores are the same as before, but the four-handed game is 
usually played 2000 up, a second double bezique counting 500, and 
triple bezique counting 1500. All the cards of double or triple 
bezique must be on the table at the same time, but the beziques may 
be declared from the hand of either partner. A player may declare 
when he or his partner takes a trick. 

In playing the last eight tricks, the first and second players, be- 
ginning from the dealer's left, play their cards against each other, 
and score the aces and tens, and then the other two similarly play 
their cards. 

One player scores for himself and his partner as at Whist. 

Three and four-handed Bezique are not so amusing as two-handed. 
When four wish to play it is better to have two separate tables. 

Number of Packs. — Sometimes two players use four or six packs of 
cards shuffled together. In tnis case nine cards are sometimes dealt 



B&ZIQUE. x 93 

instead of eight, the game is 2000 up, and triple bezique can be scored 
Using so many packs makes the game too complicated. 

Diminished Scores.— Some players consider the double bezique and 
sequence scores too high, and by agreement make the score for double 
bezique 300, and that for sequence 20a 

Last Trick. — The last trick is sometimes understood to mean the 
thirty-second trick, or the last of all. This, however, is an error, which 
has probably arisen through the imperfect nomenclature adopted. 

Aces and Tens. — Sometimes aces and tens are not scored till the end 
of the hand. In this case each time an ace or ten is played the winner of 
the trick takes up the cards on the table, and turns them face downward 
in front of himself ; and when all the cards have been played, each player 
looks through his packet to ascertain how many aces and tens it contains. 
When near the termination 01 the game, if scoring in this way, it occa- 
sionally happens that both sides can score out. This being so, some 
players deduct the number of aces and tens held by one from those held 
by the other, and only allow the majority of aces and tens to reckon. 
Other players when near the end count the aces and tens in their tricks 
at once if it makes them out. Thus : being 960, and having four aces 
and tens in the trick, the player would at once call game. Others again 
give precedence in scoring aces and tens to the player who wins the last 
trick. But by far the best and simplest method is to mark each ace and 
ten as the score accrues, not only at the end, but all through the game, 
just as is done in the case of other scores. 



HINTS TO LEARNERS. 

The first difficulty in playing to the tricks is to decide what cards to 
throw away and what cards to retain, so as to do the least harm to your 
chance of scoring. The following hints merely touch on the elements of 
the play, the mode of managing deep or difficult games being quite 
beyond the scope of this small guide. 

1. It is no advantage to get the lead unless you have something to 
declare, but as a rule, rather the reverse. Therefore, when a card (not 
an ace or a ten) is led, do not take it, but throw away a losing Card, 
(But see Hints 5 and 12.) 

2. The cards that can be parted with without loss are sevens, eights, 
and nines, as they form no part of any of the combinations that score 
(But see Hint 7.) 



194 B&Z1QUE. 

3. After these, the least injurious cards to part with are Knaves (ex- 
cept the bezique knave and the knave of trumps). 

4. It is better when in difficulties to lead a ten or an ace, as a rule, 
than a king or queen, though there are many exceptions. It is true that 
aces count a hundred, kings only eighty, and queens only sixty ; but 
kings and queens can marry and aces cannot. And, as a rule, if you gc 
for four aces, you have to sacrifice some other combination, and having 
shown four aces, you are pretty sure to lose some of them in the tricks. 
Recollect that every ace or ten lost to you makes a difference of twenty 
to the score. 

5. It is seldom advisable to go for four aces unless you happen to hold 
three, and are in no difficulty. Rather make tricks with the aces when 
opportunity offers. 

6. If driven to lead an ace or a ten, and your adversary does not take 
the trick, it is often good play to lead another next time. 

7. Do not part with small trumps if it can be helped. The seven, 
eight, and nine of trumps should be kept to trump aces or tens led. If 
possible keep one small trump in hand to get the lead with when you 
want to declare. 

8. Do not part with trump sequence cards. Even if you have a dupli- 
cate card of the trump sequence you should not play it until near the end 
of the hand, as playing it shows your opponent that you have a duplicate. 
This frees his hand, as he need no longer keep sequence cards. Armed 
with this knowledge he will trump every ace and ten you subsequently lead. 

^. Until near the end of the hand, do not part with bezique cards, 
even after declaring bezique. By so doing you give up all chance of 
double bezique, the score for which is very high. Having declared 
bezique, and holding or drawing another bezique card, sacrifice every- 
thing, even sequence cards if necessary, for the chance of double bezique. 

10. Having a choice between playing a possible scoring card from yovn 
hand, or a small trump from your hand, or a card that you have declared, 
as a rule play the declared card, so as not to expose your hand. 

11. Avoid showing your adversary, by what you declare, that he can- 
not make the trump sequence or double bezique. By keeping him in the 
dark you hamper his game, and as a likely consequence may save some 
of your tens or aces from being taken by him. For example, suppose 
early in the hand you hold four queens, viz., two queens of hearts (hearts 
being trumps) and two queens of spades. It is much better to sacrifice, 
or, ai all events, to postpone scoring, sixty, and not to declare these, than 
to let your adversary know that he cannot make sequence or bezique. 



BEZIQUE. 195 

12. Whenever your adversary leads a card (not the ace) of a suit oi 
which you hold the ten, take the trick with the ten. This rule does not 
apply to trumps, as in that suit you require the ten to form part of your 
sequence. 

13. Win the last trick if possible. Lead out the ace of trumps for this 
purpose. In the first place the trick scores ten, and in the next, winning 
it prevents your adversary from declaring anything more that hand. 

14. Toward the end of the hand run your eye over the cards your ad- 
versary has on the table, and play accordingly. For example : suppose 
your opponent has an ace on the table, and you hold a card of that suit, 
throw away that card that you may be able to trump the ace in the play 
of the last eight tricks. 

15. In playing the last eight tricks your only object should be to SSlw% 
four aces or tens and to win those of the adversary. 



LAWS OF BfiZIQUE. 



CUTTING. 

1. The highest deals. In cutting, the cards rank as in playing. 

DEALING. 

2. The players deal alternately throughout the game. 

3. If the dealer gives his adversary or himself too few cards, the num« 
ber must be completed from the stock. The non-dealer, not having 
looked at his cards, may, if he prefers it, have a fresh deal (see also 
Law 8). 

4. If the dealer gives his adversary too many cards, the player having 
too many must not draw until his number is reduced to seven. If the 
dealer gives himself too many cards, the non-dealer may draw the sur- 
plus cards, and add them to the stock. But if the dealer, having too many 
cards, looks at his hand, he is liable to Law 9. 

5. If a card is exposed in dealing, the adversary has the option of a 
fresh deal. 

DRAWING. 

6. If a player draws out of his turn and the adversary follows the draw, 
there is no penalty. If the adversary discovers the error before drawing 
he may add twenty to his score, or deduct twenty from that of the othei 
player. 



ig6 . BEZIQUH. 



7. If the first player when drawing lifts two cards instead of oae, the 
adversary may have them both turned face upward, and then choose 
which he will take. If the second player lifts two cards, the adversary 
has a right to see the one improperly lifted, and at the next draw the tw* 
top cards are turned face upward, and the player not in fault may choose 
which he will take. 

8. If a player plays with seven cards in his hand, the adversary may 
add twenty to his own score, or deduct twenty from that of the other 
player. On discovery of the error, the player with a card short must 
take two cards at his next draw instead of one. 

9. If both players draw a second time before playing, there is no pen- 
alty. Each must play twice without drawing. But if at any time during 
the play of the hand one player discovers the other to have nine cards, 
himself holding but eight, he may add 200 to his own score, or deduct 
200 from that of the other player. The player having nine cards musl 
play to the next trick without drawing. 

PLAYING. 

xo. If a player at two-handed Bezique shows a card on the table in 
error, there is no penalty, as he cannot possibly derive any benefit from 
exposing his hand. 

11. If a player at three or four-handed Berique shows a card on the 
table in error, he must leave it on the table, and he cannot declare any- 
thing in combination with it. 

12. If a player at two-handed Bezique leads out of turn, there Is no 
penalty. If the adversary follows, the error cannot be rectified. 

13. If a player at three or four-handed Bezique leads out of turn, he 
must leave the exposed card on the table, and he cannot declare anything 
in combination with it. If all the players follow to a lead out of turn 
there is no penalty, and the error cannot be rectified. 

14. The cards played must not be searched. 

LAST EIGHT TRICKS. 

15. If a player revokes in the last eight tricks, or does not win the 
card led, if able, all aces and tens in the last eight tricks are scored 
by the adversary. 

SCORING. 

16. An erroneous score, if proved, may be corrected at any time 
during the hand. An omission to score, if proved, can be rectified at 
any time during the hand. 



BBZIQUB. 197 

THREE-HANDED BEZjQUE. 

One more player requires an additional pack of cards. Every player 
is for himself. The deal goes round to the left. A triple scores 
1,500 points, the count to win being 2,000. If, when the last eight 
cards are to be played, the third hand does not have any of the suit, 
and is unable to trump, he has the right to play as he sees fit. 

FOUR-HANDED BEZIQUE. 

This game requires four packs. Sometimes there are partners, but 
each one may play for himself. The game has the same count as 
Triple Bezique — 2,000 points. Declarations, if a partnership game is 
played, are called when either of the partners take a trick. 



VARIOUS GAMES. 

There are several games of Bezique played which depend upon 
caprice; as counting when kings of hearts and queens of diamonds 
are in the hand: or kings of clubs and queens of spades. 



RUBICON BEZIQUE. 



This game practically has taken the place of Bezique. It was recog- 
nized finally in 1887, when the Portland Club drafted laws for the 
game, which is now the standard game of Bezique. 

LAWS OF RUBICON BEZIQUE. 

(Adopted by the Portland Club.) 

1. This game is played with four packs of cards of thirty-two each 
and shuffled together. 

2. Both players have a right to shuffle the cards, it being the pre- 
rogative of the dealer to shuffle last, however. 

CUTTING. 

3. The cut must consist of five cards at least, five or more re- 
maining in the lower packet. 

4. The player cutting the higher card has choice of deal, seats, and 
markers throughout the play. A player who plays a la chouette has 
the choice without cutting. 



198 B&ZIQUE. 



5. If, in cutting for the deal, more than one card is exposed, the 
player must cut again. 

6. The incorrectness of a pack does not affect the validity of the cut. 

DEAUNG. 

7. The card« are dealt either one at a time, the top card being given 
to the non-dealer, the next to himself (the dealer), or the three top 
cards to opponent and then three to himself, and so on until each player 
has received his quota of nine cards. The cards remaining, called talon 
or stock, are placed, face downward, in one packet in the centre of the 
table to the dealer's left. 

8. When there is a misdeal it can be rectified by permission of the 
opponent, if discovered before the deal is completed. The deal is com- 
pleted upon the turning up of the trump card. 

9. If, upon the completion of the deal, but prior to the first trick 
being played to, it is discovered that one or the other of the players 
has more cards than belong to him, there must be a new deal; if, how- 
ever, it is found that one or the other of the players has too few cards, 
his hand may be completed from the stock by mutual consent, or other- 
wise there shall be a new deal. 

10. If the dealer expose any of his own cards, the deal can stand; but 
if he expose a card belonging to his adversary or to the stock, the non- 
dealer may require a fresh deal. 

11. If a player plays with more cards than he should have in his hand, 
he is rubiconed, but the adversary cannot add more than 900 to his 
score, or 300 for brisque and 1,000 for the game. When both of the 
players play with too many cards the game will be considered null and 
void. 

12. If one or both players play with too few cards, either one or the 
other — whoever made the mistake — shall keep that number throughout 
the hand and score after the usual fashion. When only one of the 
players does this, the other will necessarily win the last trick. 

13. When one player plays with too many and the other with too fe\V 
cards, the deal holds good, the former being rubiconed and the latter 
cannot score the last trick. 

14. A card led in turn shall not be taken up after it has been played 
to; if, however, more than one card be played at the same time, all but 
one may be taken up. A card led out of turn shall be taken up unless 
it is covered, in which case the trick shall hold good. 

tc. Either of the players may count the stock at any time, and Vhci. 



BEZIQUE. 199 



he finds that twelve cards or less remain therein, either of the players 
may count the brisques in his own tricks. 

DRAWING. 

16. If, in drawing, either player sees cards to which he has nc right, 
he must show them to his opponent, and when the winner of a trick sees 
the second card the loser may see the top card. If the loser draw first 
and the winner, without observing the mistake, draw second, both must 
retain the cards drawn. 

17. If the loser of the trick, when it is his turn to draw, see two 
cards of the stock, the player who has won may choose either of the 
cards after the next trick, whether" he win it or not. Thus, if either 
player see any number of cards, his adversary shall always choose which 
one he prefers, after each trick, as long as any card seen by the other is 
undrawn. When there is an odd number in the stock the last card is not 
drawn. 

DECLARING. 

18. Declared cards must be placed face upward on the table always, 
and separate from the tricks, and — save in the case of carte blanche — 
must stay there until played or the stock be exhausted. Bezique com- 
binations can be declared separately, and later be united to form a 
superior combination. 

SCORING. 

19. When a player scores for a combination ta which he has no right, 
and his opponent does not discover the error until a card has been 
played to the subsequent trick, the error cannot be corrected. When a 
score is marked wrong it can be rectified at any time during the progress 
of the game. 

THE LAST NINE TRICKS. 

20. If a player, while the last nine tricks are being played, fails to 
follow suit or win the trick, though he could have done so, immediately 
the mistake is discovered, the tricks must be played over again, begin* 
ning from ."-he one in which the error occurred. 

BYSTANDERS. 

21. When a bystander, inadvertently or otherwise, calls attention to 
any error or oversight, and thereby affects the score, he can be called 
upon to pay all stakes and bets of the player whose interest he has 
ojejudicially influenced. 



200 b£zique. 



POLISH BEZIQUE, OR FILDINSKI. 

This variation is very like the ordinary game and is not hard to ac- 
quire. As the scoring is quite different, the change from one game to 
the other often proves agreeable. 

The game is played by either two or four persons. The principal 
difference in the two games is that in Bezique proper the cards playeO 
on a trick are no longer of value, while in the Polish game the winner 
of the trick takes all the scoring cards it contains — that is, all court 
cards and aces, and the ten of trumps — and arranges them, face upward, 
before him, and scores for any combinations they may make together. 
The cards of no value are cast aside, but the winner of each trick scores 
the brisques it may contain. Brisques may be scored after every trick, 
and not left to the end of the hand. 

Cards gained by a player in tricks and placed before him do not belong 
to his hand, and cannot be PI y AYED; they can be declared in scoring 
combinations only. 

The scoring combinations are the same as in ordinary Bezique. 

Brisques contained in tricks count ten each, and the winner of the 
trick before the last cards are drawn also counts ten. 

The Bezique cards are queen of spades and knave of diamonds; but 
when spades or diamonds are trumps it is generally considered better to 
make the queen of hearts and knave of clubs for Bezique. 

As in the other games, declarations can only be made on winning a 
trick and prior to drawing, but in Polish Bezique a declaration cannot be 
made unless one of the cards, at least, which were just gained form part 
of the combination. 

When a player draws a card he loses the score for all the declarations 
he may have failed to score. 

Declarations may be made and scored in any number and at the same 
time, and in any order whatever; but no card is allowed to be declared 
more than once in the same combination. All cards declared remain on 
the table till the end of the hand, even though they may not form part 
of any more combinations, and both of the players have a right to see 
all the declared cards. 

The seven of trumps is declared or exchanged at the same time other 
cards are; i.e., when it is in the trick after which the declaration is 
made. 

It can be declared by the player taking the trick, whether he takes it 
with a seven or takes the seven led by his opponent with a higher card. 



BBZIQUE. 201 



When the seven is exchanged for the turned-up card, the latter is 
put with the declared cards which belong to the player. If, however, 
it is not exchanged, but simply declared, the seven is put aside with 
the cards of no value. 

In the last eight tricks Polish Bezique is like the ordinary game, as 
regards following suit, leading the trick when able, and so on. It differs 
in this: The declarations can continue to be made just as before, until the 
end of the hand. 

When the seven of trumps has been exchanged, the player drawing it 
at the end may not declare it again during the last eight tricks. 

Generally the game is 2,000 tip, as the scoring combinations are so 
much easier to attain than in the ordinary game. 

In other things the rules of the ordinary game govern this. 

A variety of the game, preferred by some players to the one de- 
scribed above, is played by two persons with three packs of Bezique cards 
instead of two. 

The rules and method of play are like those with two packs, but in 
consequence of the extra number of cards employed in this the game is 
2,500 or 3,000 up, and triple Bezique scores. 

The scores of sequences, double and triple Bezique can be lowered by 
agreement to 150, 300, and 1,000. 

FOUR-HANDED POUSH BEZIQUE. 

This can be played, as the ordinary game, two against two or all 
against all. Four or even five packs of Bezique cards are used, and the 
game is usually 2,000 or 3,000 up. The scoring combinations are like 
those of the two-handed game; and a triple bezique counts 1,500, while a 
quadruple bezique wins the game. 

A double or triple or quadruple bezique can be declared by either 
partner, after the winning of the card or cards making up with his open 
cards a single or double bezique, and then — not before this — he can add 
a single or double bezique among his partner's open cards. In short, 
except in the case of double, triple, or quadruple bezique, each partner 
can score a combination only of cards won by himself. At the end of 
the game the partners add their respective scores. 

LAWS OF POUSH BEZIQUE. 

In this game the laws of Rubicon Bezique apply, except: 
A player with more cards than he should have in his hand forfeits 200 
points and must give the extra cards to his adversary, who can add them 



202 BEZIQUB. 

to his declared cards. When both players play with too many cards, 
they shall continue to play without drawing until the error is recti- 
fied. When one player has too many and the other too few cards, 
the deal holds good; the former forfeits 200 points and the latter 
cannot score the last trick. 

Any score unclaimed before the leading of the next card is for- 
feited. If a player scores too many for a combination, the overscore 
is deducted and added to the score of his adversary. After the latter, 
however, has played another score before discovering the error, it 
must go uncorrected. 

If a player, while the last tricks are being played, fails to follow 
suit or win the trick, although he could have done so, he shall forfeit 
all scores made in the last eight tricks and give all the cards to his 
opponent. 



PENUCHLE, 

OR 

PINOCLE. 



RULES OF THE GAME. 



The game of Penuchle can be played by 
each playing for his own hand, or by two 
played with the following forty-eight cards, 

Two nines 



tens 



two, three, or four persons, 
partners against two. It is 
selected from the pack: 



jacks 



of hearts, 






Two 


queens of hearts, 


spades, 






n 


" spades, 


clubs, 






tc 


clubs, 


diamonds, 






a 


" diamonds, 


}f hearts, 






tt 


kings of hearts, 


spades, 






<« 


" spades, 


clubs, 






*t 


clubs, 


diamonds, 






*t 


" diamonds, 


of hearts, 






M 


aces of hearts, 


spades, 






«« 


" spades, 


clubs, 






<( 


clubs, 


diamonds, 


(48 c 


ards.) 


(4 


" diamonds. 



CUTTING FOR DEAL. 

In cutting for deal the highest wins; ace being high, the other cards 
follow in their rank, thus: ten, king, queen, jack, and nine, which is the 
lowest. 

TWO-HANDED GAME. 

The dealer deals twelve cards to each player, four at a time, and then 
turns up the next card as the trump. The dealer's opponent plays first. 
The winner of the trick takes a card off the remaining cards of the deck 

(203) 



204 PENUCHLE. 

first, and his opponent follows in like manner; in this way the num- 
ber of cards in each hand becomes twelve again, as at first. 

The winner of the trick plays out first, and so on throughout until 
the remaining cards of the deck are all used up. After all the cards 
have been taken the players must follow suit, and when trumps are 
played must go over it, or win the trick if possible; if the player 
cannot take the trick he must play a smaller trump; if he has no 
trumps he can play any card he please. Whoever takes the last 
trick is entitled to ten points, iooo points is the limit of the game. 

VALUE OF THE CARDS. 
There are 250 points in each hand, including the last trick. 

Such as eight aces, which count 11 points apiece 88 

Such as eight tens, which count 11 points apiece 80 

Such as eight kings, which count 4 points apiece 32 

Such as eight queens, which count 3 points apiece 24 

Such as eight jacks, which count 2 points apiece 16 



240 
10 points for the last trick 10 

The limit ,of one hand 250 

Cards rank as follows: Ace, ten, king, queen, jack, and nine. 

MELTING.* 
If the dealer, after dealing the cards, turns up the nine, he is en- 
titled to 10 points; if he turns up any card but the nine, the player 
who holds one of the nines of the same suit as the card turned up, 
after taking a trick can exchange that nine for the trump turned 
up, and is also entitled to 10 points. The holder of the other nine of 
trumps can lay it on the board, and is also entitled to 10 points. 

All cards melted must be placed on the board, face upward, and 
left there until all the rest of the cards are picked up unless a player 
wishes to play them. 

8 aces placed on the board at the same time count 1000 

8 kings placed on the board at the same time count 800 

8 queens placed on the board at the same time count. .. 600 

8 jacks placed on the board at the same time count 400 

The five highest trumps, which are the ace, ten, king, 
queen, and jack, when placed on the board count 150 



* From ''mcldcn" (German) — to announce or call out. 



PENUCHLB. 205 

The king and queen of trumps can be placed on the board first, 
counting 40 points, and the three remaining trumps placed down 
afterward, counting 150 more. 

4 aces, all of a different suit, count 100 

4 kings, " " " 80 

4 queens, " " " 60 

4 jacks, " " " 40 

A king and a queen of the same suit, excepting trumps, count 20; 
when it is trumos it counts 40 points. 

Queen of spades and jack of diamonds count 40, and make Pinocle. 
Two jacks of diamonds and two queens of spades placed on the 
board together count 300, and make double Pinocle. 

A player, after melting 40 Pinocle, cannot melt 300 by placing the 
other jack of diamonds and queen of spades on the board, as the 
two jacks of diamonds and the two queens of spades must be 
placed there together. 

A player cannot melt until he takes a trick, and only once after 
taking such trick. 

If a player has 920 points to his credit, and takes a trick, and 
then melts 80 kings, he is out. 

If the dealer has 990 points to his credit, and turns up the nine, 
which entitles him to 10 points, he cannot call out, as he has not 
taken a trick. 

A player can melt three twenties of different suits and then lay 
down the other king or queen of a different suit, and melts 80 if it 
is the king, or 60 if it is the queen. 

If both players should play on after they reach the requireu 1000 
points, the first player who stops playing and cL.ms out, wins. If 
both players should claim, out together, and have the required amount 
to their credit, they would have to continue playing to 1250. 
If there is a misdeal the dealer must deal the cards again. 
If a player melts Pinocle and lays down the other 3 jacks of dif- 
ferent suits, and different from the one on the board, he is entitled 
to 40 points, or if he melts 40 jacks and lays down tne queen of 
spades before he plays the jack of diamonds from the board, he is 
entitled to 40 points. 

A player can only melt once after taking a trick. When he takes 
a trick, and has in his hand the king or the queen of diamonds, and 
hearts is the trump, he lays them on the board and counts 20. 
He cannot melt anything else until he has taken another trick. 

If a player melts 150 trumps, and has the other king or queen of 
trumps, he cannot place either on the board and melt. 



\ 



206 PENUCHLE. 

But if he has the king and queen of trumps, besides those used to 
count the 150 trumps, he can count 40 more. 

If a player melts 80 kings, and then mates them by placing a queen oi 
the same suit as one of the kings, he counts 20 each time, unless it u 
trumps, when he counts 40, if he does not play any of the queens frorfc 
the. board ; and when he has three queens of different suits, and places 
down another of a different suit from the above, he counts 60. He must 
take a trick between each melt. 

The same rule applies to the kings when the queens are placed on the 
board. 

If a player melts 100 aces and 40 trumps, and places the ten and jack 
rn the board, he can melt 150 more, if he has not piayed any of the othei 
3 trumps off of the board. 

If a player melts 40 jacks, and then lay down the other jack of dia- 
monds and two queens of spades, he can melt 300 Pinocle ; or if a player 
melts both queens of spades, and lays down the two jacks of diamonds, 
he can claim 300 Pinocle— that is if he has not played either of the queens 
off of the board. 

If a player melts 150 trumps, and then lay down the other 3 aces, 
or the other 3 kings, or the other 3 queens, or the other 3 jacks, having 
them of four different suits, he can melt 100 for aces, 80 for kings, 60 for 
queens, or 40 for jacks, that is if he does not play any one of the four 
different suits from the board. 

THREE-HANDED GAME. 

The person who cuts the highest card deals. 

The dealer gives the cards, four at a time, until kH the cards are dealt, 
thereby giving each player 16 cards, and turns up the bottom card 
which is the trump. If the player who has first play has the nine of the 
same suit as the card turned, he has the privilege of exchanging it for the 
card turned up, and is also entitled to 10 points ; if he does not have the 
nine, and the player who follows him has, the second player has the same 
privilege as the first, thereby giving the dealer the last chance ; if the 
dealer has the two nines of the same suit as the card turned up, he picks 
up the trump card, and is entitled to 10 points for each nine, which are 
called Deaces. 

MELTING. (THREE-HANDED.) 

The players then melt their cards in the following manner : 
If a player holds 4 aces all different, he is entitled to lor : :' "»e holds 
the 4 highest trumps besides the 4 aces, he can melt 150 more fc* - ips, as 



PENUCHLE. 207 

it gives bim the ace, king, queen, jack, and ten of trumps. If a playei 
holds 4 kings, all different suits, or 4 queens, all different suits, he is en, 
titled to 240 points, such as : 

80 kings, 60 queens, 40 trumps, and three 2o's, which make 240 in all. 

A player, after melting 150 trumps cannot melt 40 trumps by placing 
a king or a queen of trumps to mate them ; he must place both the king 
and the queen of trumps beside the ones used to melt the 150 trumps. 

This rule also applies to kings, queens, and jacks. 

All the cards melted are to be placed on the board. 

If a player holds the jack of diamonds and queen of spades he is en- 
titled to 40 points, which is called Pinocle ; if he holds 2 jacks of dia- 
monds and 2 queens of spades, he is entitled to 300 points, which is called 
Double Pinocle. 

A player can place the 3 jacks of different suits, and different from the 
ones used in melting Pinocle on the board, which entitles him to 40 points 
more. 

The same rule applies to queens, which entitles the player to 60 points. 

If a player, after melting Pinocle, has the king of spades, and spades 
are trumps, lie is entitled to 40 trumps ; if not trumps, he is entitled to 
20 points, which is called 20 spades. 

If a player melts 80 kings, and then places a queen to mate, he is en- 
titled to 20 points ; if the queen is of the same suit as the trump, he is 
entitled to 40 points. 

8 aces, 8 kings, 8 queens, 8 jacks, count the same as in the twohanded 
game. 

4 aces, 4 kings, 4 queens, 4 jacks, all of different suits, count the same 
as in the two-handed game. 

1000 points is the limit of the game. 

There are 250 points in a hand. The last trick counts 10 points, the 
same as in two-handed. 

Two queens of trumps and 2 kings of trumps count 80 points, 40 fot 
each king and queen. 

After the players have melted, each player counts his melt, and the 
^ame-kceper places it to the credit of each player. 

If a player melts 40 trumps, the deace, 100 aces and 60 queens, he fc 
entitled to 210 points. 

Another player melts 80 kings, 20 hearts, and 40 jacks, he is entitled 
co 140 points. 

The other player melts 150 trumps, 4G Pinocle and the deace, he is e» 
titled to 200 poinK 



208 PENUCHLE. 

PLAYING. (THREE-HANDED.) 

All the melting cards are taken off of the board by the players. 
The play begins by the player next to the dealer. If after the first 
card is played a player discovers he has melting cards in his hand 
that he has not melted, he can melt them and have the melt placed 
to his credit. If the second player has played, then he cannot melt 
them, as there are tw» cards played on the board. 

The player who takes the trick plays the first card for the next trick. 

The ace is the highest card and counts n points ; the ten is next and 
counts 10 points ; the king is next and counts 4 points ; the queen is next 
and counts 3 points ; the jack is next and counts 2 points ; the nine is 
lowest and does not count. 

When trumps are played the player must play over it if possible ; foi 
example, if spades are trumps, and the king of spades is led, if the 
second player has in his hand the ten or ace of trumps, he must play it 
on the king ; if lie has no trumps in his hand he can play any card he 
chooses. 

The same rule applies to the third and last player, with the second 
player, as it does to the second player and the first player. 

When a card of any other suit excepting trumps is played, a player is 
not compelled to go over it, but must follow suit if possible ; if he can't 
follow suit, he must trump it ; if he can neither follow suit nor trump it, 
he can play any card he chooses. 

For example : if spades are trumps, and the jack of clubs is led, and the 
se'cond player holds the nine, ace, and the other jack of clubs, he can 
play the nine on the jack played, thereby keeping the ace of clubs to play 
on higher cards, such as the king or ten. 

The last player can play on the second player's card in the same way 
*s the second player plays on the first player's card. 

When a player plays a card of a different suit from the trump, and the 
second player cannot follow suit and has a trump in his hand, he must 
trump the first player's card ; if the last player has not a card of the same 
suit as the card played by the first, and has a trump in his hand larger 
than the trump played by the second player, he is compelled to play it on 
the trick ; if he has not a larger trump than the second player, and has a 
smaller trump in his hand, he must play the smaller trump • if he has no 
trumps nor a card of the same suit as the card played by the first player 
he can play any card he chooses. The player who takes the trick has to 
olav first for the next trick, and so on throughout the hand. 



PENUCHLE. 209 

COUNTING. (THREE-HANDED.) 

After all the cards are played, the players begin to count their points. 
The player who takes the last trick is entitled to 10 points. The player 
who played first at the first hand, deals the cards for the second hand of 
the game, thereby giving the player who played second at the first hand 
the privilege of exchanging the deace for the trump card turned up, thus 
securing each player the same privilege throughout the game. After each 
player counts his points, the game-keeper enters them to the credit of 
each player. 

If a player, when nearing the end of the game, has 940 points to his 
credit, and melts 80, and does not take a trick during the course of the 
hand, he is not out, and will have to play another hand, as a player can- 
not call out until he takes a trick. 

If a player has a high score, for example, 950 points to his credit, and 
on the next deal receives cards sufficient to melt out, he is obliged to win 
a trick before he can claim out ; after winning the trick needed to secure 
his game, he is obliged to play his highest trump card, and follow in rank 
with the others, so as to equalize the chances of the remaining players. 

If a player should obtain the required 1000 points before the other two 
players are out, the other two players will have to finish the game two- 
handed, according to the rules governing this game. 

After a game is ended and the play is continued, the cards are dealt by 
the player following the dealer who dealt the cards last in the game. 

FOUR-HANDED PINOCLE. 

All hands cut for deal; the player who cuts the ace deals; if a tie 
occurs, the players who tie cut again. 

The dealer deals each player twelve cards, four at a time, and turns 
up the bottom card, which is trumps. If it should be the nine, the 
dealer is entitled to 10 points. If it is any other card, and the first 
player has the nine of the same suit, ffcg has the privilege of ex- 
changing the same as in three-handed, and is entitled to 10 points. 
If the first player has not one of the nines which is called the Deace, 
and the second player has, he is entitled to the same privilege. If 
neither the first or second player has either of the nines and the third 
player has, he is entitled to the same privilege. If neither player but 
the dealer has the nines, he is entitled to 20 points — 10 for each 
deace, and keeps the card turned up. All the cards melted are to be 
placed on the board, and counted the same as in three-handed, and 
the game-keeper puts each player's melt down to his credit. 



2io PENUCHLE. 

Ng player is allowed to melt after the second card of the first trick is 
on the board. 

iooo points is the limit of the game. The cards count the same as in 
the three-handed game. The melting also counts the same. The same 
rule, in regard to following suit and going over trumps, applies to four- 
handed as in the three-handed game. 

The player who takes the last trick is entitled to 10 points. A player 
must take a trick, the same as in three-handed, before he can claim out. 

A player is supposed to play his cards after he is out the same as in 
three-handed. 

If one player should obtain the required iooo points, the three remain- 
ing players play three-handed. The same rules govern them as in a 
three-handed game. 

If another player should obtain the required iooo points, and at the 
end of the hand the other two players have some points to go, the two 
players must finish the game two-handed under the rules governing the 
^vo-handed game. 

When the players start another game, the cards are dealt by the playei 
following the player who dealt the cards last in the previous game. 

PLAYING PARTNERS. 

A person deals the cards round, one at a time, face up, and whoevei 
gets the first two aces are partners. 

Then two of the players, one player of each side, cut for deal, undei 
the same rule as in two-handed. 

The partners should not follow each other. 

The dealer gives twelve cards to each player, four at a time, and turns 
up the bottom card, which is trumps. 

The partner game has the same rules as those of the three and four- 
handed in regard to deaces. 

Each player places his melt on the board, and the partners count them 
together, and have them placed to their credit. Players have to follow 
suit, and go over in trumps the same as in a three-handed game. 

iooo points is the limit of the game. 

No cards can be melted after the second player plays a card on the 
board. 

The cards and melts count the same as they do in three-handed. 

One partner cannot loan the other partner any cards to assist him. A 
player cannot claim out until he has taken a trick. If a player should 
call out, and throw down his cards, and has not the required iooo points, 



PENUCHLE. 2T1 

he and his partner forfeit the game. If, when nearing the end of the 
game, one side has 60 points to go, and one of the partners takes the 
tricks, and the other partner calls out when he thinks they have enough 
points taken in to give them the required amount, and they count their 
tricks and find they have not the required amount, they forfeit the 
game. « 

If a player makes a misdeal, he must deal over again. 

If two players, one on each side, should call out together, and both have< 
the required 1000 points, or a few over, they must have a new deal, the 
deal going to the next from the last dealer, leaving each side count what 
they made in the interrupted hand, and playing 1250 points. 

After all the cards are played the partners count their cards, and each 
side has its count placed to its credit. 

If players from each side should call out together, and neither side 
have the required 1000 points, the cards should be dealt by the player fol- 
lowing the player who dealt them last, and each side shall keep to their 
credit the amount of points they had at the time of calling out. 

If one side is out, and the other partners want to play off two-handed, 
they pray under the same rules that govern the two-handed game. 

After the game is finished, and the players start another game, the 
cards are dealt by the player following the player who dealt the card* 
last in the preceding game. 



FARO. 



Faro is played on a table covered with green cloth. The dealer, who 
is called the Banker, sits at one side, and opposite to him one or mors 
assistants. The game may be played by any number of persons. 



THE LAY-OUT. 




*A* 

*A* 



*A* 



♦ 4 

A 

A A 



© 





















® 




® 




* 




* 








* 
4 * 




A A 



V 

♦ * 



The Lay-Out has certain conventional divisions, called by players 
the Big Square; this is made up of the ace, deuce, king and queen, 
and is sometimes designated as the First Square. The Second Square 
is the next four cards, the knave, ten, three, and four. The Third 
Square is the nine, seven, four, and five. The last three cards are 
called the Pot. In the Lay-Out, as represented, if a player were to 
place a check between the king and the queen, it would be under- 
stood that he was betting on both king and queen. If he were to 
Dlace it on the open space, exactly midway between the cards of the 
First Square, the bet would be made on all the four cards, king, ace, 
queen, and deuce. In the illustration, the check shows a bet on all 
the four cards, queen, jack, deuce, and trey. The check at the 
bottom of the four would embrace cards to the right and left, 
as the trey and five. The check under the ten would embrace 
the ten and four. When a check is put direct on a card, it 

(212) 



FARO. 213 

means a bet on that card only. There are many variations as to the 
methods of placing checks indicating character of wagers, which differ 
according to locality. 

Faro may be played with any number of people. As to betting, any 
of the cards are at the option of the bettor. He may take one or more 
as he pleases. 

The banker before the play indicates the limit of his game. Generally 
there is a limit as to the bet and to the amount, and this varies as to the 
betting on one, or two, or three, or four cards by the same player. When 
the plain limit is spoken of, its meaning is that the bank allows the player 
to wager $100 on one single card, and $200 on other cards in combina- 
tions ; another limit is as to the doubling of the money. Generally 
the banker limits this one-third of betting, and this limit is usually $100. 

DEALING. 

Cards are shuffled and cut by the dealer, who puts the pack face up- 
ward in a metal box, with a movable back to it, to which a spring is ad- 
justed, and this always keeps by its pressure the upper card in the case. 
There is a slit in the box, which allows only the top card to be taken 
from it at a time. Say the card exposed is a king, then the betting begins, 
the players making their wagers by means of checks on the Lay-Out. 
The first card that comes out after the king is the banker's card. Bets 
are made on a king. It is the banker's card, and the wagers on the king 
he wins. This is called the first turn. Then bets are again made. Say 
after the king is drawn out, a four appears. The four is for the bank, 
and the card under it for the players. Thus the game goes on. The 
first card exposed is for the bank, the next one for the player. As the 
banker draws out the cards he puts them in two piles, the banker's cards 
being close to the box, the players' on the further side. Should two cards 
of the same denomination be shown, as two aces, two kings, two deuces, 
this is known as "a split," and is to the advantage of the bank, as one- 
half of the amount wagered is taken. Should the player wish to reserve 
the method of betting and wager on the card turned by the banker, this 
can be done. A peculiar kind of chip — sometimes a piecje of metal, or a 
copper penny— is put on the chip, and it is then understood that the card 
turned for the banker is for the player. He bets then that the usual 
player's card will lose. When all but the last cards are drawn, a careful 
note of the drawing of the cards having been kept, there comes what is 
known as " calling the last turn." There are three cards left, and 



214 FARO. 

wagers are made as to their places in drawing;. Suppose a queen, a ten, 
and a four were the three cards in the box. These cards may come out in 
three different combinations. If they can be named, the player may get 
twice or four times his wager. It would be four to one if the cards were 
all different, but two to one if of the three cards left two of them are of 
the same denomination, as two fours and a single queen. When the 
three cards left are of this kind, the peculiar combination is known as 
" Cats." 

While the game is being played printed cards are distributed, on which 
all the cards which have been drawn can be noted. Cautious bettors can 
thus prevent, after a certain number of cards have been drawn, the 
chances of the split, — because if three cards of the same denomination 
have appeared, there can only be one left. Three kings having been 
drawn, there can be no split in the final king. In addition to the cards 
given to players, the game is kept by means of what is known as a cue- 
box. This is modelled after the Lay-Out. There are wires strung out 
from the cards, on which buttons, as in a billiard count, can be moved. 
What cards are in or out can thus be seen at a glance. 

FARO TERMS. 

The Hock, is the last card in the dealing-box. 

A Deal, means when the whole 52 cards have been played. 

A Turn, is when the two cards are drawn, one for the bank, the other 
for the player. 

Copper, is to bet on the banker's card. 

Barring a bet, is when a player tells the banker, without moving his 
check, that for the turn, he remains off — not betting. 

Last Call, this is when three cards remain in the box. 

The Cat, or Cat Harpen, is when the last three cards are in the box, 
two cards being of the same denomination. 

The Soda Card, is the first card shown in the box before the game 
begins, on which no bet is made. 

LAWS OF FARO. 



Whatever money, or the representative of it, placed on the Lay-Out, is 
paid in its exact equivalent, if the player wins, by the banker, and is taken 
by the banker if the player loses. The exception is when the player au- 
dibly informs the banker that the bet is barred. The bet is barred until 
ihe player informs the banker to the contrary. 



FARO. 215 

The banker once having arranged the cards in two piles as he draw* 
them from the box, must not shuffle or mix them. 

The banker has the same privileges as the player. He may stop play- 
ing when he pleases and close the bank. 

Dealers have by custom been the shufflers and cutters of the pack of 
cards used. 

[In respect to shuffling and cutting the pack of cards used in Faro by 
the dealer who is interested, many exceptions have been taken. In all 
games of chance it is natural for the dealer to shuffle, but not to cut. 
Where square games of Faro are played, the right of cutting of the pack 
by one or more players is never withheld. — Editors.] 

ODDS AT THE GAME OF FARO. 

The chance of splits varies according to the number of similar card) 
remaining among those undealt. 

The odds against the players increase with every turn dealt. 

When twenty cards remain in hand, and the player's card but once in 
it, the banker's gain is 5 per cent. 

When the player's card is twice in twenty, the banker's is about tha 
34th part of the stake. 

When the player's card is thrice in twenty, the banker's gain is about 
4 per cent. 

When the player's card is four times in twenty, the banker's gain is 
nearly the 18th part of the stake. 

When only eight cards remain, it is 5 to 3 in favor of the bank ; when 
but six are left, it is 2 to 1 ; and when no more than four, it is 3 to 1. 

TABLE OF ODDS AGAINST WINNING ANY NUMBER OP 
EVENTS SUCCESSIVELY. 

Applicable to Faro, Rouge et Noir, or other Games of Chance. 

That the player does not win his first stake is an equal bet 

That he does not win twice following, is 3 to 1 

Three following times, is # . 7 to I 

Four ditto, is 15 to 1 

Five ditto, is 31 to 1 

Six ditto, is 63 to 1 

Seven ditto, is 127 to 1 

Eight ditto, is 255 to x 

Nine ditto, is. 511 to x 

Ten ditto, is ». 1023101 



2T6 



FARO, 



A TABLE FOR FARO, 

Whereby the several advantages of the banker, in whatever circumstances 
he may happen to be, are seen sufficiently near at the first view ; 





The Number 0/ Times the Players Card is 


contained in 


Number oj 




the Stock. 




Cards in 








*ke Stock. 








- - -» 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 2 


** 


** 


** 


5° 


50 


** 


94 


65 


48 


*i 


48 


90 


62 


46 


46 


46 


86 


60 


44 


44 


44 


82 


57 


42 


42 


42 


78 


54 


40 


40 


40 


74 


52 


3f 


38 


38 


70 


49 


36 


36 


36 


66 


46 


34 


34 


34 


62 


44 


32 


32 


32 


58 


' 4 £ 


30 


30 


30 


54 


38 


28 


28 


28 


SO 


36 


26 


26 


26 


46 


33 


24 


24 


24 


42 


30 


22 


22 


22 


38 


28 


20 


20 


20 


34 


25 


18 


18 


18 


30 


22 


16 


16 


16 


26 


20 


14 


14 


14 


22 


17 


13 


12 


12 


18 


14 


XO 


10 


10 


14 


12 


8 


8 


8 


II 


9 


6 



Use of the foregoing Table. 

I. To find the gain of the banker when there are thirty cards remaining 
in the stock, and the player's card twice in it : In the first column seek 
for the number answering to 30, the number of cards remaining in the 
stock ; over against it, and under 2, at the head of the table, you will find 
54, which shows that the banker's gain is the 54th part of the stake. 

II. To find the gain of the banker when but ten cards are remaining 
in the stock, and the player's card thrice in it : Against 10, the number of 



FARO. 2iy 

cards, in the first column, and under number 3, you will find 12, which 
denotes that the banker's gain is the 12th part of the stake. 

III. To find the banker's profit when the player's cards remain twice 
in twenty-two : In the first column find 22, the number of cards ; over 
against it. under figure 2, at the head of the table, you will find 38, which 
shows that the gain is one 38th part of the stake. 

IV. To find the banker's gain when eight cards remain, and the play- 
er's card thrice among them : In the first column seek for 8, on a line 
with which, under the 3, stands the figure 9, denoting the profits to be 
i-9th, or 2S. <\d '. in the guinea. 

Corollary 1. From the table, it appears that the fewer cards there are 
m the stock the greater is the gain of the banker. 

Corollary 2. The least gain of the banker, under the same circum- 
stance, is when the player's card is but twice in hand ; the next greater 
when three times ; still greater when but once, and the greatest of all 
when four times. The profit of the banker is 3 per cent, upon all the 
sums adventured, supposing the player to stop when only six cards re- 
Main ; but with hocly it is full 5 per cent. 



DOMINOES. 



RULES GOVERNING THE VARIOUS GAMES. 

The dominoes are flat pieces of ivory, or bone, in the shape of a par- 
allelogram, or double square, and mostly have ebony backs. They are 
twenty-eight in number. The face of each is divided into two compart- 
ments, each being either blank (&to7/owhite), or furnished with pips, or 
black dots, numbering _\om one to twelve. The pieces are called by 
their numbers: 

Double-twelve, twelve-eleven, twelve-ten to twelve-blank. 

Double-eleven, eleven-ten, eleven-nine to eleven-blank. 

Double-ten, ten-nine, ten-eight to ten-blank. 

Double-nine, nine-eight, nine-seven to nine-blank. 

Double-eight, eight-seven, eight-six to eight-blank. 

The doubles run to double blank, which is the lowest domino. The 
double-ace suit is the lowest suit, consisting of two dominoes, double- 
ace and ace-blank. 

Before playing, all pieces are laid on the table, face down, and 
shuffled. 

The principal games played are Block, Draw, Muggins, Bingo, 
rcounce, Euchre, Bergen, I<oo, Matadore, Cyprus, etc. 

BLOCK. 
Seven pieces are drawn- by each player. The one who has the highest 
double leads first, and afterward, the players lead in rotation. The next 
player matches one or other end of the piece laid down ; or if several be 
down then the pips on one or other of the uncovered ends. If he can- 
not do this, he says so, and the other plays. When a player has played 
all his pieces before his opponent can get rid of his, he cries " Domino," 
and adds to his account the number of spots on the pieces in nis op- 
ponent's hand. If, at any time, neither can play, the game is said to be 
" blocked"; the pieces left are exposed, face upward, and the player 
having the smallest number of spots on the pieces he has left, adds the 
number of those in his opponent's hand to his count. The score, unless 
otherwise agreed on, is one hundred ; but the usual score among players 
is now set at fifty. 

UUP 



DOMINOES. 



2TQ 



DRAW. 

The only difference between the draw and the block game is, that in 
the former, when a party cannot play he draws frcm those on the table 
until he can find apiece to match. He may con tinue to draw after he 
has obtained the one wanted, but this is not considered courteous, though 
within ihe strict rule ; and it is better to make a special agreement not to 
do it before beginning to play. 

MUGGINS, OR FIVES. 

Five pieces are drawn by each player, the highest double leads first, 
and after the first hand the lead goes around in rotation to the left-hand 
player. If both parties forget who played last, it may be determined by 
drawing, the highest piece drawn winning the lead. After the first hand 
has been played the lead can be made with any piece chosen. If six-four 
or double-five be led it counts ten ; if four-ace, trey-deuce, or five-blank, it 
counts five. In setting, the player who can set a piece that will make 
the two ends count five, or any multiple thereof, adds that number to his 
score. Thus : five-deuce being led, and five-trey being set to it, the trey 
at one end is added to the two at the other, and counts five to the one 
who led the five-trey. 



• • • • • • 

• • • 
• • • • • • 



If six-trey or double-trey be now played it counts nothing, because the 
sum of the two ends is only eight, which is not a multiple of five ; but 



• . , ■ 
• • a • • • • 
• • • 

• • • • • • • 

• \ i i, 



if four-deuce or double-deuce be now played, the one who plays it will 
count ten, foi that is the sum of the ends. 






t • 







220 



DOMINOES. 



We will suppose the game now goes on, and the six-trey is next added. 
The next player sets the double-six. Then, if the player next in turn sets 
four-trey it will count him fifteen, or if double-four, twenty. If one can- 



• 

• 
• 


• 

• 
• 






• 
• 

• 




















• 
• 


• 
• 


• • • 

• • • 


• 

• 
• 


• 

• 
• 


• • 

• 

• • 


• 
• • 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 

• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 


• 
• 

























not play in his turn he draws until he can ; but, unlike the draw game, 
he must play when he has drawn one that will match. He who playi 
out first cries " Muggins," and, as in the block game, adds the spots in 
his opponent's hand to his score ; and the same rule prevails in case of a 
block, as in the other game. But in counting up it is always by a multi- 
ple of five. Thus, if the loser has six, ten, or twelve in hand, the winner 
only counts five of them, whereas if he has eight, or thirteen, the winner 
would have counted ten, or fifteen, and so on for any number. If there 
be a deuce-blank, or ace-blank, or double-blank, or double-ace left, it 
counts nothing, while a trey-ace, double-deuce, or deuce-ace counts five. 
The score is two hundred when two play, or one hundred and fifty if 
three or more are in the game. 

BINGO. 

This is the king of Domino games, requiring a deal of skill and a good 
memory to play well. There are seven pieces taken by each player, only 
two playing. The points of the game are seven. The score in each 
hand is seventy, and the first party arriving at that, a?id claiming it, 
scores a point. Before commencing the lead is drawn for, and got by 
the lowest piece. After each has taken his seven pieces, the one who 
does not lead turns one of the remaining pieces, and the highest figure 
on that is trump, the blank counting as seven, and being, of course, 
higher than the six. As soon as a trick has been taken the winner draws 
a piece from those left, and then the loser one. This continues until all 
have been drawn, the turned up trump domino being taken by the one 
who has the last draw. 

The elder hand plays. It is not necessary to follow suit, even where a 
trump is led, unless all the dominoes have been taken from the table. But, 
when all the dominoes have been drawn and are in the players' hands, a 
lead made must be followed, and if the opposite party cannot follow suit 
he must trump, if he has any in hand ; and he is not allowed to throw 
a^rav a poor domino not of suit. And, at any stage of the game, after a 



DOMINOES. 221 

player kas taken one trick, if he thinks he can make seventy, he may 
turn down the trump domino. There is no more drawing after that, 
each party depending on the hand he holds, and suit must be followed or 
trumps played, precisely as though there were no dominoes left on the 
table. 

Should a player turn down and not make seventy, his adversary scores 
two points ; and if his opponent had made no trick before he turned 
down and he loses, the opponent scores three. Should he make his 
seventy after he turns down, or without turning down, he counts one : if 
before his opponent has made twenty, he counts two ; if before hi* oppo- 
nent has made two, he counts three. 

A player having two doubles in his hand, when it is his turn to play, 
may lead one of them and call " Double," and this adds twenty to his 
score ; if he have three doubles, " Triplet," and this adds forty ; if four, 
" Double Doublet," and this adds fifty ; if five, " King," and this adds 
sixty ; if six, " Emperor," and this adds seventy, and so wins the point ; 
if seven doubles, it is an " Invincible," and takes three points. But if a 
double be taken, or be played without announcing it as one of a doublet, 
or whatever it may be, its value is lost. 

In counting, you reckon the doublets and triplets ; the double of trumps, 
which always counts twenty-eight, the double dominoes and the trump 
dominoes by the number of their spots, the blanks being considered to 
have seven spots ; the six-blank, double-five, and trey-blank always count- 
ing as ten, whether trumps or not ; and the doublet, or triplet, of which 
Bingo is one, counting ten more than its natural value, if announced as 
Bingo when the doublet or triplet is claimed. 

The Bingo is double-blank and is always highest, and takes any other 
piece, no matter what is trump. Its natural value in counting is fourteen, 
unless it is trump, when, like all double trumps, it counts as twenty-, 
eight. 

If the double of trumps be taken by Bingo, it scores a point for the 
party who takes it. 

After the first Hand has been played, the winner leads in the next hand. 

THREE-HANDED BINGO. 

This is played under the same rules as the two-handed game, but it 
is peculiar in this, that only two out of the three play at a time, one 
giving way to each hand. But the one not playing scores to himself 
the same points as the one who wins the hand. To give an example: 

A, B, and C sit down to play. A does not play, but B and C do, and 
B makes one point. The score stands: A, i ; B, i ; C, o. B now 



222 DOMINOES. 

gives way, A and C play, and i makes two points. The score new 
stands : A, i ; B, 3 ; C, 2 — the two points won by C being carried to the 
score ui the non-playing B. In the next hand C is out, and A and B 
play. B makes one point. The score now is : A, 1 ; B, 4 ; C, 3. A is 
now out, and B and C play. C makes three points. The score now 
stands : A, 4 ; B, 4 ; C, 6. B is now out, and A and C p\ay. C makes 
one point, and goes out. The score now stands : A, 4 ; B, 5. A and 
B now play it through. A makes two points, and the score stands : A, 6 ; 
B, 5. A turns down the trump ; but fails to make his seventy, and thuja 
loses two, which puts B out. 

FOUR-HANDED BINGO. 

In this game all the dominoes are taken, and the one on the right of 
the leader turns up for trump, and plays that domino as one of his own 
when he wants it. Suit must be followed, or trump played in case of 
being out of suits, all the dominoes being in hand. 

ROUNCE. 

This may be played by two, three, or four. The value of the pieces 
range downward from six ; doubles are the best of each suit, and trumps 
superior to the other suits. At the beginning the parties throw for position, 
and the one turning the highest piece is trump-holder for that hand. The 
dominoes having been now reshuffled, each player draws five, and the 
player at the right of the trump-holder turns a piece for trump. The 
highest number is the trump for that hand. When two or three play 
there are two dummies on the board, of six pieces each, and when four 
play, one dummy of seven pieces. The player to the left can now either 
discard his pieces and take a dummy, or pass. If he takes a dummy he 
m-jst discard, so as to leave only five pieces in his hand. The next can 
take a dummy, and so on until exhausted. If any pass, the next hand 
has the privilege of the dummy left. The tramp-holder, when it comes 
to his turn, may discard a single piece and take in the trump domino ; 
or, he may discard all and take up the dummy, in which case he leaves 
the trump on the table. The trump-holding passes to the left in suc- 
cession after the first hand. The score is fifteen, and as the game goes 
on each player wipes out one for every trick he holds. If a player fails 
to take a trick he is sent back five points and is said to be " Rounced.'' 
Each player must follow suit, and if he has a trump in hand must lead It 
after he takes a trick. But if a player cannot follow suit, he is not 
obliged to trump it. 



DOMINOES. 223 



EUCHRE. 

This is played by four players. He who draws the highest piece 
obtains the lead, and the leader has the right (the dominoes having 
been reshuffled) to draw the trump. Each party draws five dominoes. 
The double of trumps is Right Bower, the next lowest double is Left 
Bower. The value of pieces after that depends upon the spots, fol- 
lowing the trumps. Thus, if six be trump, double-six is Right 
Bower, double-five is Left Bower, six-five next, six-four next, and 
so on down. But if blank be trump, then double-blank is 
Right Bower, double-six is Left Bower, blank-six next, blank- 
five next, and so on down. In the lay suits the value goes 
from the doubles down, thus: Double-ace, ace-six, ace-five, and 
so on. The left-hand player may now "pass" or "order it up." If 
he does not feel confident of making three tricks, he passes. Then the 
dealer's partner may pass it ; or, if he have strength enough, with the 
aid of the exposed trump, to take three tricks, he may " assist," which is a 
direction to his partner to take it up. If taken up in any way, the party 
discards one from his hand, and the piece on the table belongs to him, 
and he takes it up and plays it when he needs it. If his partner passes, 
it goes to the third hand, who may order it up or pass. If he too passes 
then the dealer may "take it up" and discard one piece for it. Or ne 
may decline to take it up and throw down the trump. The eldest hand 
has now the privilege to make a new trump. If he decline he passes re 
to the next, and so on round to the dealer. If the dealer declines, ns 
"bunches"— turns his pieces face down on the table, the rest to do tn* 
same ; the dominoes are shuffled, and the deal passes on to the next 
But the lead follows the responsibility, and whoever orders up, takes up, 
or assists, always leads. When the lead is made, the one who takes the 
tricks leads, and so on through. The score is five. A party who takes 
it up, orders up, assists, or makes a trump, must take three tricks, which 
counts his side one, or if not, he is euchred, and the opposite side counts 
two on its score. 

If his side takes all the tricks, it is a M march," and counts two. If any 
one has a hand strong enough, he may " go it alone," that is, play it 
without assistance of his partner, who puts down his hand ; in which case, 
if he takes five tricks, he counts four. But he can only do this when he 
orders up, takes up, or assists. It involves personal responsibility. 
Hence, when a player " assists," his partner cannot " go it atoe." Bo- 
sides, the knowledge thus gained of the weakness of his opponents w^culJ 
give him an unfair advantage. In playing, parties must follow suit ix 



22 4 DOMINOES. 

tfeey have it ; but they are not obliged to trump when they cannot fol« 
low suit. 

TWO-HANDED EUCHRE. 

The game may be played by two or three, with the same rules, but 
eitner is an inferior game. 

BERGEN. 

Two, three, or four may play at this, each drawing six, and the lowest 
double leads. This is a u double-header" for the leader. After the first 
tead, the players lead in turn from left to right. If no one has a double 
tfhen it is his turn to lead, he plays the lowest piece he has. The object 
is for each player to set down a piece that will make both extremities of 
the line the same and give him a double-header, or triple-header. Thus, 
if six-three, three-four, four-five, and five-ace be down in a line, and A, 
whose turn it is to play, has six-ace, he can lay it at either end, and thus 
have the line terminated with aces or sixes, in either case a double-header. 
If, however, B, who plays next, has a double of the same kind, and plays 
it at either end, it makes a triple-header. If a player be not able to 
match from his hand, he draws from the pack. If he can now play he 
does so : if not, the next plays, or, unable to do so, draws. The one who 
gets out first wins the hand. If it be blocked the lowest count wins, 
unless it contains a double, and his opponent has none, in which case the 
lowest of those without doubles win. If all have doubles, the one with 
the least double wins. When one holds two doubles, though they be the 
double-ace and double-blank, and his opponent holds but one double, 
though it be the double-six, the latter wins. The score is fifteen when 
two play, and ten when three or four. A won hand counts one ; a double- 
header, two ; a triple-header, three. But when the score is ten, and either 
party is seven, a triple-header only counts two, and, if eight, neither 
double-header nor triple-header counts them more than one. W T hen the 
score is fifteen, and either party is twelve, the triple-header will count 
them but two, and if thirteen, neither double-header nor triple-header 
counts more than one. 

VINGT-UN. 

In this the deuce-blank, six-four, and spotted doubles count ten, and 
the all-blank, deuce-trey, trey-four, and five-six count either one or eleven, 
as a player elects. Each player puts up his stake, except the banker. 
The banker first draws two dominoes, the pack having been well shuffled, 
and then each draw two in turn — the banker turning up one domino, 
which is called the "burnt-piece." The players now examine theii 
hands, and the banker his. If the banker has a "natural," that is, if he 



DOMINOES. 225 

have a ten, ana either of the pieces that count eleven, he shows it, and 
receives from each player double the amount of his stake, except where 
the player can show a natural, when neither of those two take from the 
other. In the same way any or every player who has a natural shows it 
at once, and gets double stakes from the banker, unless the banker, too, 
has a natural, when it stands off. The dominoes are reshuffled and the 
players draw again. If a natural be shown by a player, and not by the 
banker, he becomes banker in turn, unless two or more show naturals, 
when the elder hand becomes banker. If no naturals are taken on the 
draw, the elder hand considers his play. If he is content to play at that, 
he says u content," and waits the show. If not, he takes one from the 
pack, or more, until he gets twenty-one, or as many pips as he desires. 
If he draw so many that it counts over twenty-one, he throws up his 
pieces when the show comes — having over-drawn, and loses his stake. 
After all have drawn the banker does so, or stands, as he chooses. If he 
over-draws, he pays each the amount of his stake, except those who have 
over-drawn. If he stands, he says, " I stand." The players show the 
faces of their pieces, and the banker the same. Those who have more 
pips in their hand than the dealer, receive the amount of their stake from 
the bank, and those who have less, pay the bank. The pieces are re- 
shuffled, and the game goes on. 

POKER, OR BLUFF. 

The double-ace and all the blanks are discarded, leaving twenty pieces. 
The relative strength of hands is as follows : 

1. An Invincible — Five doubles, or four doubles and a six, which 
beats everything. 

2. A Straight Six — A sequence of sixes. 

3. Fours — Four doubles. 

4. A Straight Five — A sequence of fives. 

5. Full — Three doubles, and two of any number ; as the double of 
deuce, trey, and six, with a four-deuce and four-five. 

6. A Straight Four — A sequence of fours. 

7. Threes— Three doubles. 

8. A Flush — Five of a number not in sequence, as five-ace, fivs-dauce, 
5ve-four, five-six, and double-five. 

9. A Pair — Two doubles. 

10. The highest leading dominoes : Thus, a hand led by a six would 
outrank a hand led by a five. But a double to lead makes the hand out- 
rank any hand of lay pieces. A hand led by a double-ace, for instance, 
would beat a hand led by six-five. 



226 DOMINOES. 

The pieces are shuffled, one piece is drawn by each player for deal — the 
highest piece winning, doubles being always higher than lay pieces. The 
pack being reshuffled, five pieces are drawn by each. An ante, or stake, 
as may be agreed on, is put up by each player in the " pot." The elder 
hand next the dealer examines his pieces. If his hand be indifferent, or 
he thinks he can excite the courage to bet of those who have a worse 
hand, he "passes," and it is the turn of the next in hand to determine 
what he will do. If, on the contrary, he thinks his hand justifies it, he 
bets a certain sum of money, and puts the amount in the pot, or pool. 
The next player can pass out, or " see it," that is, take the bet, or raise 
the bet higher. It thus goes round to the dealer. If the dealer bets 
higher, or any one else, it must be met, until the bets are even, when tha 
last player calls for a sight of the cards, and the bet is determined. 
Should they all pass, there is a new deal by the elder hand, the stakes re- 
maining on the board, and everybody " antes " as before. This is called 
" a double-header." To illustrate by example : D is the dealer. They all 
draw. A leads, and bets a quarter, which is the same as the ante. B 
says, " I'll see it," and puts down a quarter. C says, " I'll go a half bet- 
ter," and puts down seventy-five cents. D sees it, and puts down his 
seventy-five cents. A then, not being confident that his hand is strong 
enough, having neither pair nor sequence, passes out. B has a better 
hand, having a full — that is, double-five, double-six, and double-four, ace- 
three, and deuce-three, and believing this to be the best hand out, sees it 
and goes a half better, putting down a dollar. C, having a straight-six, 
sees the last bet, and goes a dollar better. D, havmg only a pair, passes 
out, being content to lose what he has put in rather than risk the loss of 
more. B, confident in the strength of his full, puts down a dollar, and 
says, " I see it, and call you." This " call " is a demand for a show of 
hands. C shows his hand, which, being a straight-six, and outranking a 
full, he takes all the money. 

When there is no limit to the betting, the player with the most nerve 
and money may sometimes bet so high on a weak hand as to shake the 
confidence of his opponents, and make them abandon their hands. This 
is called " bluffing." 

A "blind " is a bet made before any one has seen their dominoes, and 
is only the privilege of >ne to the right of the elder hand, nominally the 
dealer. In case he makes a blind the next may double it, the next strad- 
dle, the next double the straddle. But any player may pass the blind. 
If it be doubled, he must pass out unless he straddles. If, however, it be 
not doubled, any player may put as much in as the blind, and call it. If, 
however, any player, on looking at his hand, determines to "see "the 



DOMINOES. 22J 

blind, he can do so by making the blind good — that is, depositing in the 
pool the amount of the blind. The one who made the blind, in case it is 
doubled, straddled, and double-straddled, must raise his bet to the 
amount of the last double-straddle in order to come in. In seeing the 
blind, a man can go it better — that is, bet higher to any amount he pleases. 

QUINZE. 

This is a game for two players ; three may play. The deal is decided 
by drawing the highest domino. The non-dealer, or eldest hand, shuffles 
the dominoes ; the dealer then arranges them in single file ; the youngest 
hand, if three are playing ; if not, the non-dealer, cuts them (as at Vingt- 
et-un) by removing a number of dominoes from either end to the other. 
The dealer then gives one to his adversaries and one to himself. He asks 
if each are " content." If not, he deals one more round, and takes one, 
if he thinks proper, himself. This is repeated until all are " content." 
The dominoes are shown, and those at fifteen, or nearest to it, but below 
it, win. Those who are "burnt,"/. £., draw above fifteen, forfeit a 
single stake to the pool ; if all the players are burnt, the game is drawn, 
and fresh stakes are put into the pool, to be decided by the next game. 
The best dominoes to draw first time are 6, 7, 8, or 9. The latter is particu- 
larly good. If two dominoes make nine, always demand a third. At 
ten the ground becomes dangerous, and at eleven it is better to stand 
than draw. If you hold either double-six or six-five at first be " content," 
and stand. The game is simply one of chance, and is a fair substitute 
for two players for Vingt-et-un. 

SEBASTOPOL. 

This game is played with a whole set of dominoes, which are equally 
divided amongst the four players. The pool is formed by an equal con- 
tribution from each player. 

The pose or lead is taken by the person holding the double-six, and 
the game then goes round in the ordinary way, each player playing a six, 
which is placed at right angles with the double-six, so as to form four 
ends to play to instead of two. After the cross is made and those not 
able to play a six lose their turn, the players may place their dominoes at 
whichever corner they fancy, and whichever suits their hand the best. 
The one who has the last domino, or who has the greatest number oi 
dots, pays forfeit. The one who is first out takes three parts of the pool, 
the other two receive back their stakes, the forfeit being equal to the stake 
of one player. 



228 DOMIXOES. 

The peculiar appearance which this game presents is sh«wn in the zig- 
zag and eccentric form which the ground plan of a fortress presents. 

The principal points to be observed in play are : — i. To play the 
doubles at the earliest opportunity, which should be placed crosswise. 
2. To watch every corner with a view of getting out the heavier domi- 
noes. It is rather a rough-and-ready game than a scientific one. It wants 
a quick eye rather than calculation. 

MALAKOFF. 

In the restricted game which I have termed the "Malakoff" an ele- 
ment of uncertainty is introduced by three dominoes being left on the table ; 
six dominoes only being taken by each player. The double-six is laid 
down irrespective of any one's hand, and each player must play a six to 
it or lose his turn. The one who plays the heaviest domino is the elder 
hand ; and the game then proceeds in the usual way, playing, as in the 
previous game, to each corner, according to fancy. This game requires 
more consideration than when all the dominoes are out, and it is, per- 
haps, the original game, which we know by the name of Sebastopol. 

With respect to the pool, the player last out, or who has the greatest 
number of pips, pays forfeit, and the one first out takes it ; but it is best 
to play five games, and let the one who wins the greater number of games 
take the stakes. 

TIDLEY-WINK. 

This is one of the best round games of dominoes. Four, six, or eight 
persons can play with a set of double-sixes. If a larger party than eight 
wish to play, then double-nines must be used. 

Each player draws three dominoes at starting, and the one who has the 
highest double leads. The mode of procedure is this : Each player takes 
the three dominoes and holds them in his hand ; the double-six or double- 
nine is called for ; if no response, the next highest double, and then the 
game commences in earnest ; the left-hand player plays next, and so on 
round the table, he mentioning the numbers played. Thus, five-four, 
six-one, and so on ; for, whatever the domino played, it must be played 
to. The player who cannot go loses his turn. The marked difference 
between Tidley-wink and other games of dominoes is this : that every 
person who plays a double has a rierht of playing to it if he can do so. 
Thus, the one who has the highest double, say double-six, can play again to 
it if he has another six in his hand. The like privilege is accorded to every 
person who has a double. The one who first plays out all his dominoes 
calls '* Tidley-wink," and claims the pool. 



DOMINOES. 22i) 



SPECULATION. 

An excellent round game may be played with dominoes and counters 
thus : Three dominoes are given to each player by the dealer, who is first 
chosen by drawing the highest double ; or, in default of a double being 
drawn, the highest domino from the table. The pool is formed by each 
player placing a counter, as his stake, to the high pool, and the dealer 
pays three counters to the low pool. The winning domino is the highest 
of the numbers of the fourth domino turned up by the dealer. If it is a 
double, the holder takes both pools ; if it is not a double, then the highest 
domino of each number takes the high and low pool respectively. Thus, 
if there is a large party, a box of double-nines must be used ; and if the 
domino turned up is nine-eight, the double-nine and double-eight are the 
winning dominoes ; but if neither are out, the holder takes the high pool, 
and the holder of eight-blank, or the lowest eight, the low pool. If, how- 
ever, the turn-up is eight-blank, the double-blank would take the low pool, 
and the double-eight the high pool— the lowest denomination of the low 
number and the highest domino of the larger number being the winner. 
The mode of play is similar to the game of Speculation at cards ; the 
holder, either by purchase or otherwise, of the turn-up, is the eldest 
hand, and his left-hand player turns up one of his or her dominoes. If 
it has a higher or lower number than the turn-up, it is purchasable, and 
becomes a matter of speculation. If not, the next player proceeds to 
show one domino, and so on, one domino at a time, until the winners are 
determined. Some fun is made out of the purchase of various dominoes ; 
and it should be remembered that the purchaser of the best domino our 
becomes the eldest hand, and the next eldest goes on with the play. 
Doubles usually forfeit one to the low pool. 

A simpler form of Speculation is to have no low pool whatever, and 
simply play for the highest domino out. In this case the holder of double- 
nine or double-six is the winner, according to the dominoes played with ; 
and nine-blank or six-blank holds the winning place over double-eight of 
double-five, as the case may be. 



TERMS USED IN DOMINOES. 

BLOCK GAME. 

Block. — An impossibility for either partv while yet having pieces ia 
hand to play. 



230 DOMINOES. 

Domino. — The word to announce the playing of the last piece fa 
hand. 

DRAW GAME. 

Draw. — To take sufficient pieces to enable the player to match one 
exposed end. 

MUGGINS. 

Forfeit.— The loss of any amount made in playing: from failure te 
demand it. 

Five. — The five and blank, four and ace, or trey and deuce at separate 
ends, or the five-blank, four-ace, or trey-deuce led. 

Ten. — The double-five and blank, five and five, or six and four at each 
end, or the double-five or six-four led. 

Fifteen. — The five and double-five, or the double-six and three at 
separate ends. 

Twenty. — The double-six at one end, and the double-four at the 
other. 

Muggins. — The word to announce the playing of the last piece in 

hand. 

BINGO. 
Bingo.— Double-blank. 

Bingo. — The word to announce the possession of the double-blank. 

Double. — Two doubles in one hand. 

Double-Doublet. — Four doubles in one hand. 

Emperor. — Six doubles in one hand. 

Invincible. — Seven doubles in one hand. 

Forfeit. — The addition of a point to your score for improper conduct 

on the part of your opponent. 

XiN3. — Five doubles in one hand. 

Triplet. — Three doubles in one hand. 

EUCHRE. 

Adopt. — To exchange the trump-piece for an inferior one, by tha 
dealer, after every one has passed. 

Alone. — To play without your partner, when you have a hand that 
will probably take five tricks. 

Assist. — To order your partner to take up the trump, and discard 
some other piece. 

Bowers. — The double of trumps, and the next double below. 

Bridge. — When one side has four, and the other one or two. 

Call. — The right to demand the play of ap exoosed piece, 



DOMINOES. 231 

Cross t*Je Suit. — To make a trump not of the next below the suit 
turned down. 

Dealer. — The one who turns up the trump. 

Discard. — Putting a piece back in the pack when the trump card is 
adopted. 

Dutching It. — To make your trump of the suit next below the one 
turned down. 

Elder Hand. — The one to the left of dealer. 

Euchre. — The failure of one who orders up, takes up, assists, or 
makes a trump, to secure three tricks. 

Finesse. — When a player who holds the best and third best trump, 
plays the latter first, on the risk that his partner holds the second best, 
and his opponents do not. 

Force. — To lead a suit in which your opponents are deficient, in order 
to make them put a trump on it, or lose the trick. 

Forfeit.— The amount scored for information against the party,, or 
for a revoke. 

Go it Alone. — To play it alone. 

Guarded. — Having a strong piece behind your trumps. 

Left Bower. — The double next below the double of trumps. 

Left Bower Guarded. — The left bower protected by another trump, 
or a commanding lay piece. 

Lone Hand. — A hand that is so strong as to probably take five tricks 
If played alone. 

Lone Player. — The one who plays without his partner's aid* 

Making a Point. — Where the party taking up, ordering up, assist- 
ing, or making a trump, wins three tricks. 

Making a Trump. — Naming a new trump when the dealer haS 
turned the trump down. 

March. — All the tricks made by one side. 

Next in Suit. — The same as dutching it. 

Odd Trick. — The third trick won by a side. 

Ordering Up. — Requiring your opponent to play the trump as 
turned up. 

Pass. — To decline to. exercise the privilege of taking up, ordering 
up, or assisting. 

Pass Again. — To decline to make a trump. 

Play Alone. — To play one's hand without one's partner. 

Rank. — The pieces rank from the highest double down through the 
next highest double, to the lowest piece in trumps, and from the 
highest double down in the lay suits* 



23 2 DOMINOES. 

Responsible Party.— The one who takes it up, orders up, assists, or 
makes a trump. 

Right Bower. — The double of trumps. 

Right Bower Followed. — The double of trumps, accompanied by 
another trump. 

Ruff.— To trump a lay suit. 

Taking it Up. — The assuming the trump by the dealer, and discard- 
ing another piece in exchange for it, after all passed. 

Tenace. — When the player holds the best and third best of the pieces out. 

Turn-Down. — The trump-piece turned down. 

Under Play. — To follow suit with a low card, when you have one in 
hand higher than your opponent's. 

BERGEN. 

Double-He ader. — A double played out at first, or each of the two ex- 
tremities of the line of pieces having the same number of pips. 

Triple-Header. — A double at one end of the line of pi^es played 
and the same suit at the other. 

VINGT-UN. 

Bank. — The stakes put up. 

Banker. — The one against whom the rest play. 

Burnt-Piece. — The piece turned up. 

Dealer. — The banker. 

Natural. — Twenty-one drawn in two pieces. 

Standing. — Remaining content with a hand drawn. 

ROUNCE. 

Dummy. — The reserved set of pieces. 

Rounced. — Left without a trick. 

Trump-Holder. — The one who draws the highest trump at the begin 

aing of a round. 

POKER. 

Ante. — The stake of each player placed in the pot at the beginning ol 
the game. 

Ante Up. — To place the stake in the pot. 

Blind.— A bet made by the dealer before the pieces are drawn. 

Bluffing. — Betting high on a poor hand. 

Call. — To demand a show of hands. 

Chip.— To bet. 

Chips. — Counters representing the stakes. 



DOMINOES. 233 

Double-Header. — A double pot — the stakes of two rounds. 

Flush. — Five of suit not in sequence. 

Fours. — Four doubles. 

FULL. — Three doubles and a pair of lay-pieces. 

Going it Better. — Betting higher than your opponent. 

Going it Blind. — Making a blind. 

Invincible. — Five doubles, or four doubles and a six. 

Lay Piece. — Any piece except a double. 

Pair. — Two doubles ; but when part of a full, two of any suit 

Pass.— To decline to bet. 

Pile. — All the money of a player. 

Pool.— The stakes. 

Pot. — The stakes first put up. 

See. — To accept a bet. 

Show. — The display of a hand, or hands. 

Sight. — The right of a player making the first bet, when his opponent 
bets too high for him, and when he has put up all his pile, to call for a 
show of the hand. 

Straddle. — To double a blind. 

Straight. — A sequence of five of the same suit. 

Triple-Header.— A threefold pot. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
Count. — The amount of gains at any stage of a game 
Count. — To reckon the game. 

Dealer. — The one to the right of the leader, in general, though, hi 
dominoes, no one really deals. 
Decline Suit. — To be unable to play the suit led by your opponent. 
Double. — A piece having on it two sets of pips of the same kind. 
Draw. — To take the number of pieces to which a player is entitled. 
Faced Piece. — A piece with its face exposed in shuffling or drawing. 
Follow Suit. — To play the same suit as that led by your opponent. 
Game. — When a party makes his required points before his opponent. 
Hand. — The pieces drawn by each player. 
Head. — The best piece in hand. 

Information. — Unlawful indication to your Dartner how to play. 
Lay- Piece. — Any piece except trump. 
Lay-Suit. — Any suit not trump. 
Lead. — The first piece played. 
Leader. — The one whose turn it is to play first. 
Match. — To play a piece with the same suit as the one to be played ta 



234 DOMINOES. 

Making Ga*.*_. — Counting the game. 

Misdraw. — Under-drawing, or over-drawing, the number of pie-^s to 
which a player is entitled. 

Numerical Pieces. — Those not doubles. 

Pack. — All the dominoes used in a game. 

Partner. — The one joined with you in playing against an opponent 

Pips. — The spots on the pieces. 

Point. — One of the amount required for the game. 

Pool.— The stakes. 

Revoke. — Playing the wrong suit. 

Round. — All the pieces in a trick. 

Rubber. — The best two in three games. 

Ruff. — To trump a lay suit. 

Say. — The turn of a player to pass, play, or do any particular thing- 

Score. — The amount required for the game ; also, the amount gained 
by each player. 

Shuffle. — To mix the pieces face down. 

Spots. — Marks on the dominoes. 

Suit. — Each separate set of pieces of any one numbei of -pips 

Throwing Up. — Abandoning one's hand. 

Trump. — The commanding suit. 

Trump-Piece. — The piece turned up for trump. 

Turn-Down. — To reverse an exposed piece. 

Turn-Up.— The trump-piece. 



RULES. 

BLOCK. 

Rule i. — Where it is in doubt whose turn it is to lead the players draw, 
and the highest double leads. 

Rule 2. — Where a misplay has been made, and not discovered before 
three subsequent pieces have been played, it cannot be corrected. 

Rule 3. — A party having four of a suit, should lead off with the odd 
piece, not of the prevailing suit. 

DRAW. 
Rule i. — A party who draws when he can match, if he be discovered, 
forfeits the count. 



DOMINOES. 



235 



Rule 2. — A party, not having: the piece to match an exposed end, 
can draw all the pieces on the table, unless otherwise agreed on. 

MUGGINS. 

Rule i. — When a party in lead has five-blank and fcrer-ace, er trey* 

deuce, never lead the five-blank, as it gives an opportunity for your or> 
oonent, in case he has the double-five, to make ten to your five. Excep* 
(ton : When you have also the double-blank, for in that case you follow 
his ten by making another. 

Rule 2. — Never lead a double-six after the first lead, unless you hold 
che six-trey in your own hand. 

Rule 3.— You cannot draw on after you have obtained a piece that 
will match, unless you are a scamp. 

Rule 4. — Always make a block, if possible, when your pieces in hand 
have few spots, and there are as many pieces as yours on the table, which 
your opponent must draw. This you can determine, however, by examin- 
ing the pieces on the table, which, with an inspection of those in your 
hand, will tell you the number of points on the rest. 

Rule 5.— If anything be made by a set, it is lost if not claimed befor* 
the next player has matched. 

BINGO. 

Rule i.— Avoid playing a piece which leaves in your hand bat one ten, 

lest you have to lose it to an eleven. 

Rule 2.-^The blank-four and six-five are elevens when blank, six, fiv« 
or four are trumps, though they count nothing, and take the six-four, 
double-five, and trey-blank respectively. The six-five, when either six of 
five is trumps, takes the six-four, when it can be played on it, and th€ 
biank-four, when blank is trump, takes either of the others. 

Rule 3. — When certain of sixty, turn down the trump as quickly at 
possible. 

Rule \. — Keep your opponent's score in your mind as well as your own* 

Rule 5. — Keep a single double in your hand as long as possible, s« 
that if you draw another from the pack you may call a doublet. 

Rule 6. — You cannot call your doubles until it is your turn to play. 

Rule 7.— You cannot turn down until you have a trick in hand. 

ROUNCE. 

Rule i. — If a player can follow suit it is imperative, but he is not 

obliged to trump. 



236 DOMINOES. 



EUCHRE. 

Rule 1. — You can only play it alone when you take it up, order up, 
assist, or go it alone. 

Rule 2. — When the elder hand passes, and his partner offers to go 
it alone, he must put his pieces down and go out. 

Rule 3- — You must never expose the faces of your pieces when 
your partner goes it alone. 

Rule 4. — A player going; it alone must announce his intention in plain 
words — such as, " I play alone," or, " Alone," or, "I go it," or, " I try it." 

RULE 5. — A euchre on a lone player only counts two, as any othei 
euchre. 

RULE 6.— Never order up unless you are quite sure you can take three 
tricks. 

Rule 7. — When you are at the bridge, your opponents having one oi 
two, order it up whether you have trump or not, unless you have a trump 
to certainly make one trick. 

Rule 8. — If your right-hand opponent plays a piece out of turn, or 
show its face, you can call on him to lead it when his turn comes, and 
that suit is required by you, whether he like to do it or not ; and should 
he refusts, you add two to your score. 

Rule g. — Should your partner pass, or turn down, and it comes to you 
to make a trump, you do it in any suit except the one not lower in num- 
ber than that turned down. The only exception is when you have three 
tricks certain in the objectionable suit. 

Rule 10. — When you make a trump after your opponent turns down, 
you fix on the next lowest, unless you have a commanding hand in an- 
other. 

Rule ii. — In case of a misdraw by your opponent, you can have a 
new shuffle and draw if you demand it ; but you do not thereby lose youi 
deal ; nor if the misdraw be by yourself or partner, do you lose the deal 
But, if the pieces have not been examined, he may discard the super 
fluous ones. 

Rule 12.— The dealer can demand a new shuffle and draw if an oppo- 
nent shows a piece before he looks at his own pieces. 

Rule 13. — You must always discard your piece with the face down. 

Rule 14. — Discard so as to give yourself a chance to trump. Thus, 
if sixes should be trumps, and you have turned up the double-six, and 
have the double-five and six-ace as your trumps, and double-four, 
ace-deuce and ace-five as your lay pieces, discard the double-four, as 
it gives you a chance to trump fours with your weak trump. 



DOMINOES. 



237 



Rule 15. — If the eldest hand plays before the discarded piece has 
left the hand, the dealer may substitute another piece, the discard 
not being complete until the piece is on the table. 

Rule 16. — The penalty for indicating to your partner how to play 
is the addition of one point to your opponent's score. But your part- 
ner may ask you to draw the last piece you played before the trick 
is taken up, or inquire what is trumps. 

Rule 17. — A player making; the trump cannot change the suit after 
having once made it. 

Rule 18. — A player making- the trump, who names by mistake or oth- 
erwise the suit already turned down, passes his right to make a trump to 
the next in hand. 

Rule 19. — When a player revokes, his opponents add two to their 
score. 

Rule 20. — A revoke is incomplete until the next play is made. 

Rule 21. — A revoke may be corrected, but the piece exposed can be 
called like any other exposed piece ; and if the revoker's partner have 
played his piece it is in the condition of an exposed piece, but the one 
played by his opponent is not. 

Rule 22. — When a revoke is claimed, if the revoker, or his partner, 
throw up their pieces, it is a confession of the revoke* 

Rule 23. — If the revoke is on both sides, there is no forfeit, but a 
new deal. 

Rule 24. — A revoke is not to be claimed after a new deal has been 
turned up for. 

Rule 25. —The trump-piece must remain on the table until requirea 
for play. 

BERGEN. 

Rule 1. — One only can be drawn at a time from the pack, before 
the opponent has a chance to play or draw. 

Rule 2. — Retain the doubles in hand as long as possible for triple 
headers. 

VINGT-UN. 

Rule i. — The position of banker is first held by the one who draws the 
highest piece— but a double is always higher than a lay-piece — double- 
blank in the draw beating six-five. 

Rule 2. — The two pieces first drawn must remain face down until 
proclaimed, but the cards drawn afterward are drawn face up. 

Rule 3.— All bets are made before the pieces are drawn. 



238 DOMINOES. 

"Rule 4. — A misdraw can be corrected after the pieces have been 
examined, and the player loses. 

Rule 5. — A player having drawn two of a kind, may draw to each, 
but he pays, or receives a single stake on each, having thus two hands. 

Rule 6. — The holder of a natural wins the next deal. If there be two 
naturals, the elder hand wins. But the banker continues until the pack 
is exhausted, and after, if it be necessary, until the hands are full. 

Rule 7. — The player who over-draws must at once say so, and pay up. 

Rule 8.— Ties stand off. 

Rule 9. — After a stake has been put up it cannot be withdrawn. 

POKER. 

Rule i. — Any player can see the blind, and run over it in his turn. 
Rule 2. — The eldest hand only has the privilege of a blind, and can- 
not pass the right to another. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
RULE i. — The act or misconduct of one partner binds another. 
Rule 2. — Every player has a right to a shuffle in turn if he chooses. 

DOMINO LOO. 

The players play as at Loo, the hand consisting of five pieces. The 
dealer turns up trumps. Unless a double is turned, the end having the 
greatest number oi pips makes the trump suit. The pieces rank: 
Trump suit, which takes other suits; six suit; five suit, etc., down to 
blank suit. The double is the highest piece of each suit. The domino 
with the largest number of pips at its non-suit end takes pieces of 
the same suit with a smaller number. The leader to each trick an- 
nounces suit when he leads. For instance, if he leads 5-4 and an- 
nounces 5-4, five is the suit; while if he announces 4-5, four is the 
suit. If a trump is led the trump suit must be called. 

The leader plays and his adversary plays to it, the two dominoes 
constituting a trick. The winner of the trick then leads. 

The rules of play: If you have two trumps in hand, lead one, or, if 
not, any piece; after winning a trick, if you are able, lead a trump; if 
able, follow suit. A player is not forced to win a trick if he can 
legitimately play a losing piece. If a player is dissatisfied with his 
hand, he can discard it and take six new dominoes. He can, if he 
wishes to, discard one piece, making his hand five pieces. The dealer 
can exchange a piece for the turn up or he can discard his hand, but 
he cannot do both. 



DOMINOES. 



239 



A trick scores a point, and fifteen points constitute a game. A 
player is looed if he does not take any of the five tricks, and is set 
back five points. 

The game can be played by three or four players. With three in the 
game, there are two misses, of six pieces each, allowed. With four play- 
ing there is but one miss of seven pieces, two being discarded. The 
score may be arranged as for two players. The better plan is to form a 
pool. If played with a pool, each hand is a complete game. Each player 
contributes to a pool that is divisible by five, the dealer putting in double 
the sum added by the other players. Each player gets one-fifth the 
©mount of the pool for each trick. If a player fails to take a trick, he 
Is looed and must put into the next pool the amount of the last pool. 
Into the new pool the dealer puts half the sum he placed in the last 
pool, while the other players add nothing. To prevent the accumulation 
of large pools, no player can be looed for more than twenty with three 
players and twenty-five with four. 

Each player has the right to pass without taking a miss, in which 
case he loses the sum he contributed to the pool, and cannot be looed. 
He must declare his intention. If all pass but one and the dealer also 
wishes to pass, or if no miss remains, he must play his hand for the 
pool. All tricks he wins in this case go to the pool and he cannot be 
looed. He must declare his purpose or he will be considered as playing 
for himself. If all pass to the dealer he takes the pool. 

MATADORE. 

In this game there are four pieces, called Matadores — the Double- 
Blank, Six-One, Five-Two, and Four-Three. In the game each takes 
three pieces and the leader poses. His adversary must match with a 
piece containing the complement of seven at one end of the pieces posed. 
In other words, he must play Six to One, Five to Two, or Four to Three. 
Doubles count only the number of pips at one end. 

The Matadores may be played to any number posed with either end to 
either end, whether they match or not. While the Matadore can be 
played to any number, any number cannot be played to a Matadore. 
The opposing player must play a piece making seven with one end of the 
Matadore. The player of the Matadore can place it as he pleases, and 
the opposing player can play only to the exposed end. 

A player unable to match or pose a Matadore must draw until he can 
do one or the other. In case he can match or pose he can draw or not 
as he pleases, just as is the case in the Draw game. When the stack is 
exhausted and a player cannot play, he calls "go," and his adversary 



240 DOMINOES. 



must play if he can match. In scoring doubles, count the pips on 
each end. The mode of scoring and leading is the same as in the 
Block game. 

Two, three, or four persons may play this game. When two play, three 
pieces must be left undrawn, so that each player will not know just what 
is in the other's hand. With more than two all the dominoes can be 
drawn. In other respects the game is like the Draw and Block games. 

DOMINO POOL. 

Domino Pool can be played by three or more players. With three, 
six pieces are drawn; four, five pieces; six, three pieces. Each player 
contributes an equal sum to the pool. The leader poses and the player 
to the left follows suit. If he cannot he passes, and so until a play can 
be made. The game continues in this way until some player makes 
domino or all are blocked. In such cases the player making domino or 
holding the smallest number of pips clears the pool. If two players are 
equal the pool is divided. 

Another way to score is to set ioo or more as the game. Then a record 
is kept of each hand. Each player as he reaches ioo passes out, the last 
player being the winner of the pot. The first player to go out is per- 
mitted to "star," that is, to pay a certain sum to the pool, upon which 
his score is put back even with the next highest player. With four play- 
ing, the first two to go out are sometimes permitted to "star." A 
"draw" is at times permitted; a player not bemg able to follow suit is 
allowed to draw one domino from the stock, with this qualification, that 
the last two dominoes cannot be drawn. 

DOMINO WHIST. 

Domino Whist is played by four persons and is played after the manner 
of Whist. In one form of the game the twenty-eight dominoes are drawn 
in the beginning, but the more interesting way is for each player to take 
six, four remaining in reserve. When partners are selected they arc 
drawn for, and the two drawing the smallest number of pips are partners. 

After the pose the game is played from left to right. When a player 
cannot match at either end of the figure, he passes, forfeiting his turn. 

The best method of scoring is for the pair holding the smaller num- 
ber of pips to score the aggregate number in the hands of their adver- 
saries. 

A player should pay strict attention to the "pose" of the dominoes, 
ao that, if it be possible, he can outwit his opponents and aid nis partner. 



DOMINOES. 241 

It is always better to get rid of the "heavy dominoes," unless by so doing 
one is playing into his adversary's suit. When a player has a good 
hand and it is his lead, he must try to win, regardless of his partner's 
pose; so if the first player has a poor hand and it is his partner's pose, 
he must sacrifice his chances to aid his partner. It is always wise to 
play from your strong suit, thus keeping your partner informed, while 
the partner will display his suit and help to establish the first to the best 
of his ability. 

DOMINO DRAW POOL. 

This game is a variation of Domino Pool and is considered to be a 
better game than the latter. The rules are the same, except that in this 
game, if a player cannot match, he is obliged to draw one domino from 
the stock, after which, if he is unable to match, he passes. Two domi- 
noes must be left in the stock in this as in other draw games. 

ALL-THREES. 

All-Threes is a variation of "Muggins," the only difference being that 
three and its multiple score, instead of five. The opportunities for scor- 
ing in this game being so much greater than, in the other, stricter at- 
tention is required of the player. It is better to make the game a higher 
number than that used in Muggins. Three, six, nine, twelve, fifteen, and 
eighteen are the scoring numbers in this, and count one, two, three, four, 
five, and six. The highest score is eighteen. 

CYPRUS. 

In this variation of the Block game a double-nine set at least must be 
used. Four players or more may play, and the dominoes must be posed 
in the form of a star. The holder of the double-nine — or, if double- 
twelves are used, the double-twelve — has the right to pose and must 
put down that domino. In the first round each player must play a nine 
or pass. When the star is formed there will be eight ends to match in 
continuing the play, any of which may be carried on, irrespective of the 
state of the others. It is not essential that the star be completed before 
the other ends are begun, for the necessary dominoes of the first suit 
"posed" may still be in the "reserve." 

If four players are in the game, each should take thirteen dominoes, 
leaving three in reserve; when five or six play, eleven and nine dominoes 
make the hand; seven players, seven dominoes; eight or nine, six; ten, 
five; and when double-twelves are used the division qaji be according to 
the same rule. 



AL.J..-FOURS. 



The name All-fours is derived from the characteristics of the game 
itself — the four chances or points consisting of high, the name given to 
the best trump ; low, the designation of the smallest trump played in the 
round ; jack, the knave of the trump suit ; and game. 

All-fours is probably the oldest of American games, and came to the 
New World when the first Dutchman settled in New Amsterdam. 

There are two distinct varieties of All-fours, in one of which the first 
card played by the non-dealer from his hand is the trump ; and in the 
other, the trump is turned up from the pack. The last is known generally 
as All-fours — in fact as Blind All-fours. Certain terms are common to 
both games, the general characteristics being similar. 

TERMS USED IN THE GAME. 

High. — The highest trump out ; the holder scores one point. 

Low. — The lowest trump out ; the original holder scores one point, even 
if it be taken by his adversary. 

Jack. — The knave of trumps. The holder scores one point, unless it be 
won by his adversary, in which case the winner scores the point. 

Game.— The greatest number that, in the tricks gained, can be snown by 
either party ; reckoning for — 

Each ace four toward game. 
44 king three " " 
•' queen two u *• 
11 knave one ■■ M 
m ten ten «* ** 

The other cards do not count toward game; thus it may happen 
that a deal may be played without either party having any to score 
for game, by reason of his holding neither court-cards nor tens. In 
such a case, or in case of equal numbers — ties — the elder hand, the 
non-dealer, scores the point for game. 

Note: All-four is known under other names such as Old Sledge and 
Seven-up. In the South it is almost as popular under these names as 
poker. Negroes play it and like it better than poker. A modification 
is sometimes known as "Five-up." Five-up is played in the same 
way, but the first player to make five points wins the game. 
(242) 



ALL-FOURS. 243 

Begging is when the elder hand, disliking his cards, uses his privilege, 
and says, " I beg": in which case the dealer must either suffer his ad- 
versary to score one point, saying, " Take one," or give each three cards 
more from the pack, and then turn up the next card, the seventh, fof 
trumps ; if, however, the trump turned up be of the same suit as the first, 
the dealer must go on, giving each three cards more, and turning up the 
seventh, until a change of suit for trump takes place. 

METHOD OF PLAYING ALL-FOURS. 

The game is played with a full pack of fifty-two cards, which take rank 
as at Whist, the ace being the highest and the deuce the lowest. Any 
number of points may be played for ; but it is common to fix on an un* 
even number, as five, seven, nine, or eleven ; the last two being most 
common. 

The players cut for deal, the lowest card having the deal. As in Whist 
and other games, the ace is lowest and the king highest ; the other cards 
taking their regular order. Ties cut again. The dealer then gives six 
cards to each, one at a time, and turns up the thirteenth, if there be two 
players ; and the twenty-fifth if there be four. The turn-up is the trump. 
The non-dealer then looks over his hand, and either holds it for play or 
begs, as already explained. If the knave turn up it belongs to the dealer, 
who scores one for it ; but in case it be taken in play by a higher card — 
ace, king, or queen of trumps — then the point is scored by the winner. 
The non-dealer having decided on his hand (it is not allowed to "beg" 
more than once, without it being previously agreed to do so), he plays 
a card of any suit. Then the dealer plays another card to this, and if 
it be higher, he wins the trick, and plays another card; and so on 
throughout the six tricks. It is not incumbent on the player to head 
the trick with one of the same suit or a trump. When the whole of 
the tricks are played out, the points are taken for high, low, jack, or 
game, as the case may be. Thus one player may score a point for high 
and the other for low; the greatest number counting on the court- 
cards, aces and tens in each hand, reckoning for game. The winning 
the knave, the making the tens, and the taking your adversary's best 
cards, constitute the science, of the game. The hand in which the 
knave of trumps is eventually found, is the one which scores the 
point for the jack. The high and the low always belong to the ori- 
ginal possessor of those trumps. 

LAWS OF ALL-FOURS. 

1. A new deal can be demanded, if in dealing an opponent's card *> 
faced, or if the dealer in any way discover any of his adversary s 



244 ALL-FOURS. 

cards; or if, to either party, too few or too many cards have been 
dealt. In either case, it is optional with the players to have a new 
deal, provided no card has been played, but not afterward. 

2. If the dealer expose any of his own cards, the deal stands good. 

3. No player can beg more than once in each hand, except by previous 
.nutual agreement. 

4. Each player must trump or follow suit if he can, on penalty of his 
adversary scoring one point. 

5. If either player score wrongly, the score must be taken down, and 
the adversary shall either score four points or one, as may have previously 
been agreed. 

6. When a trump be played, it is allowable to ask the adversary if it 
be either high or low. 

7. One card may count All-fours ; for example, the eldest hand holds 
the knave, and stands his game ; the dealer having neither trump, ten, 
ace, nor court-card, it will follow that the knave will be both high, low, 
jack, and game. 

All-fours is played by either two or four players ; the same rules apply- 
ing in this four-handed, equally as in the two-handed game ; the deal is 
taken by each player alternately ; and the cut for dea? f aking place at the 
commencement of each game- 

BLIND ALL-FOURS. 

This is the more generally played game for two persons. In fact, it is 
the usual game all over the country, and cannot boast any very par- 
ticular patronage. Each player has six cards, the first one played by 
the non-dealer being the trump. There is no begging, and the points 
are usually seven or nine. Although very simple, All-fours is by no 
means an uninteresting game. At Blind All-fours some reject the sixes 
and sevens, and count all the pips on all the cards for game. 

The score is usually made with a cribbage-board, or by means of two 
cards taken from the pack. 

ALL-FIVES. 

This game is played with an entire pack, in the same way as All-fours. 
But instead of nine or eleven, sixty-one points are played for to constitute 
the game, which is marked on a cribbage-board. For ace of trumps the 
holder marks four points when he plays it ; for king of trumps, three : 
for queen, two ; for knave, one ; for the five of trumps, five ; and for the 
ten of trumps, ten. If the knave, ten, or five be taken ii> play by superior 



ALL-POURS. 



245 



tards, the points belonging to them are scored by the winner. Im count- 
ing for game, the five of trumps is reckoned as five, and all the other 
aces, kings, queens, knaves, and tens, are counted as in All-fours. A 
good deal of skill is necessary in order to play this game well ; the pro- 
ficient holding back a superior card to catch the ten or five. Trump after 
trick is not compulsory unless previously agreed to. The first card played 
by the non-dealer is the trump. The rest of the rules are the same as in 
All-fours. It may be played by four persons, either as partners or singly. 

COMMERCIAL PITCH. 

Commercial Pitch, known sometimes as "Auction" or "Auction 
Pitch," is All-fours, into which the element of bidding is introduced. 

The score is ten. Each player has a slate on which two St. Andrew's 
crosses are made. As he scores, he wipes out one portion of the cross. 

Deal is determined as in All-fours, six cards being given, three at a 
time. 

The dealer does not turn up a trump-card, for the trump is not made 
this way. The person who will give the most points buys the right to 
declare the trump, or as it is called, " Pitching the trump." 

This bidding begins with the player after the elder hands, the second 
from the dealer. It is the elder hand who puts up the privilege of mak- 
ing the trump at auction. 

The elder hand, who is the seller, may not wish to accept the bid, and 
plays. All the points he can make then are, of course, his own. If, 
however, he does not make that number of points he was offered, he has 
added to his score just that number of points. Suppose he had ten 
points, was offered three and declined the bid, then made two points. 
He would now have, three more points added to his score, and he would 
have to work off thirteen points in all. The two he made would not 
count. If he had only one point to make to get out, and was bid three, 
and made two, he could not win, at least during that round. 

If the buyer fails to make the number of points his bid calls for, he is 
put back just that number. The rule works for him exactly as it did for 
the elder hand who declined selling. 

When a bid is accepted, the scoring must be made at once. 

The player wiping out his ten first wins the game. The points are as 
in All-fours, high, low, jack, and the game, and subjected to the same 
rules. 

When a " pitch " is sold the buyer must lead, and lead trumps. Leads 
are as in All-fours. If not able to follow suit, trumping is not compul- 



246 ALL-FOURS. 

sorj. Roles in regard to revokes are the same as tnose governing 
All-fours. 

PITCH. 

This is All-fours reduced to its simplest expression. There are no 
trumps turned ; you do not beg, and it is the eldest hand who makes the 
trump. When ties are made, it is a stand-off. In every other respect it 
is played like All-fours. 

CALIFORNIA JACK. 

California Jack is a modification of All-fours. It is played with a full 
pack. Two or four players engage in the game. Deal is determined' as 
in All-fours. Every player receives six cards, which are given two at a 
time, and when all are served, the remainder of the pack is placed face 
upward on the table, and the card exposed is the trump. The trump 
card having been seen and fixed upon, the dealer takes this trump card 
and puts it about in the middle of the packet. In some cases, the packet 
containing the trump is shuffled. This packet, called the stock, the 
faces of the cards being visible, is now put in the middle of the table. 

The elder hand now leads, and the game proceeds as in All-fours, 
values of cards being the same, only after each fall of two or four cards, 
if two or four are playing, and the trick is made, each player in his reg- 
ular order takes one card from the packet. 

There has been dealt six cards to each person, and by taking one more 
card the player has still six cards. 

This taking of cards from the packet continues until the cards on the 
table are exhausted. 

A card of the exposed stock is given by the dealer, first to the person 
making the trick, and then to the other players in regular order. 

Suits are followed. If a player has not the suit, he is not obliged to 
trump. Generally ten points count for a game, as in All-fours. 

Ace of trumps is High. 

Deuce of trumps .... is Low. 
Knave of trumps .... is Jack. 
The highest number of points is Game. 

Game is counted precisely as in All-fours. There is this exception to 
All-fours, that the Low belongs to the person who makes it, or secures 
it in the trick. 



"ALL-POURS. 247 



SHASTA SAM. 

Thl9 game is precisely like California Jack, save that the trump 
being made as in California Jack, the stock is shuffled, placed face 
down, and the cards taken as in California Jack. There is in Shasta 
Sam more uncertainty than in California Jack, as it is only the player 
who, receiving the card from the stock, knows what it is. 

RUSTLE. 

There are endless modifications of All- r ours. There is a game in 
Montana called Rustle where the first six cards given to each player 
are exposed, laid on the table, and as in California Jack, the trump 
is made from the card when the stock is turned. The remaining 
twenty-eight cards are then dealt, which are seven to each. The score 
is made as in California Jack, the deuce low, belonging to the party 
who wins it. Rustle is by no means an easy game to play, as the 
twenty-four or twelve cards first played should be remembered. 

SANCHO PEDRO. 

Sancho Pedro can be played by any number of persons from two to 
eight, but is better adapted to four or five persons. Each plays for 
himself. 

A full Whist pack is used, and the cards rank in their natural order, 
viz. : ace, high ; deuce, low, etc. Six cards are dealt, three at a time to 
^ach player, commencing with the one at the left of the dealer. The 
<teal is determined by cutting, the lowest card winning the deal. No 
<rump is turned. After the first deal it passes in regular order to the left. 

The player on the left of the dealer can then bid for the privilege of 
making the trump by offering one or more points to the dealer. (He 
may, of course, refuse to bid anything.) The player next in order then 
may bid, and so around, until the bidding ceases. Any player has the 
right to raise his original bid, or, having first refused, may bid when it 
again comes around to him ; the object of the dealer being to sell as high, 
and that of the other players to buy as low, as possible. 

When the highest bid has been reached the dealer may accept it, or 
refusing, make the trump himself. If he accepts, the amount bid is added 
to his score. If he refuses, and then fails to make as many points as the 
highest number offered, that number must be deducted from his score, 
and the points he did make are not credited to him. 

If the dealer accepts the highest bid, the player making that bid TMist 



248 ALL-FOURS. 

make as many points as he offered, or be set back that number of points, 
and such points as he made are not credited to him . 

Any points made by the other players are, of course, credited to them. 

The player who makes the trump plays first, and must lead a trump. 

The points to be made are : High (the highest trump out), low (the 
lowest trump out), knave of trumps, and game (ten of trumps), which 
each count one point ; Sancho (nine of trumps), and Pedro (five of 
trumps), which count for their face — making a total of eighteen, which 
may all be made in one hand. These all count to the player holding 
them, after the hand is played out. 

The score should be kept by one person on a sheet of paper, with the 
names of the players at the top, and their scores underneath, thus adding 
or subtracting as they make or lose. The last figures in the columns 
will show the state of the game. 

The game is usually a hundred points, but may be varied as agreed 
upon. Some players begin at one hundred, and count down to nothing. 
In such a case a set-back should be added. It is also played with an 
indefinite score, the one counting highest at the end of play being de- 
clared the winner. 

If two players should both be ninety-nine, and both count out on the 
same hand, the points count in the order named ; that is, the one holding 
high takes the precedence, although the other may hold Sancho or Pedro. 

The dealer, having once refused a bid, cannot afterward accept it ; and 
a player having made an offer, stating that he will give no more, cannot 
make a higher offer. 

If a player has no trumps he throws down his hand, and does not play ; 
and any one having played all his trumps should throw down his hand, 
unless by taking the previous trick he is obliged to lead. 

Some players count low to the player to whom it was originally dealt, 
as in high, low, jack. It is also customary with some players to name 
the suit on which they bid ; thus two players might bid on the same suit, 
each thinking that he could make more than the other, which would make 
the bidding more spirited. 

In playing, any one may follow suit, or trump ; but, holding the suit 
led, cannot throw on a card of another suit not trumps. Not having the 
suit led, he may play anything he chooses. 

When three persons only are playing, it makes the game more inter* 
esting to deal nine cards instead of six. 



ALL-FOURS. 249 



DOM PEDRO. 

This is a variation from Sancho Pedro, which is in itself a modification 
of All-fours. In Dom Pedro is introduced the Joker. It is always a 
trump. The hand that keeps it counts it for fifteen points. The Joker 
may be taken by any trump, even by the lowest. One hundred points 
constitute the game. When a four-handed game is played the threes may 
be discarded. When eight play, six cards are used. 

PEDRO. 

This game is played exactly like Sancho Pedro, except that Sanclio is 
omitted. Pedro consists of twenty-one points, and but nine points can be 
made in the play of one hand. If four persons are playing, the four 
threes can be thrown out when twelve cards are dealt to each player. 
If eight play, six cards dealt to each will cause the same result. 

DRAW PEDRO. 

Draw Pedro, with a few exceptions, is exactly like Cinch. The ex- 
ceptions are: The omission of the cinch card; Pedro, the five of trumps, 
being the only five to score. This makes it impossible to score but nine 
points in a single hand; twenty-one points is the game. Five or six per- 
sons may play and in the original deal but five cards are dealt; if a less 
number than five play, six cards are dealt. The player naming the trump 
lesds, but, after the first trick, is not forced to lead *r»,»mp. 



CINCH, OR HIGH FIVE. 

Sancho Pedro (page 226) having been described, Cinch, or High 
Five, is a variation from Sancho Pedro. In Sancho Pedro, the basis of 
the game being derived from All Fours, the new elements in the count 
were Sancho, the nine of trumps, and Pedro, which was the five of trumps. 
Vi Cinch, Pedro, the five of trumps, is retained, but Sancho, the nme of 
trumps, has no specific value. In its place, a Five, of the same color as 
the trump suit, has a fixed value of five points. If then clubs be trump, 
Pedro is the Five of clubs, and the Five of spades is the Cinch. Vice 
versa, if spades be trump, the Five of clubs is the Cinch. If hearts is 
the trump, the Five of diamonds is the Cinch. If diamonds are trumps, 
ihen the Five of hearts is the Cinch. The variation then from Sancho 
Pedro is but slight. There are then six points to be made, and their 
order is as follows : 

The highest trump designated High is worth one point. 
The lowest " " Low " " 

The Knave " " Jack " " 

The Ten of trumps " Game " " 

The Five " " Pedro " five points. 

The Cinch, the Five of the color of the trumps designated as 
Cincli, :s worth five points. 

Fourteen points can therefore be made in one hand. As in All Fours, 
the High and the low score for the original holders of them. The Jack 
is taken by a higher trump as in All lours, as are the Ten (game), the 
Five (Pedro), and the Cinch (the Five of the color similar to, the trump). 
If clubs are trumps it is the Five of spades which is the Cinch. If 
spades are trumps it is the Five of clubs, and the same for hearts or 
diamonds. 

Just as in Sancho Pedro a full pack is used, but instead of six cards 
being dealt, there are nine cards given. The cards are dealt in the same 
way* three at a time. There is the same bidding: as in Sancho 

(250) 



CINCH. OR HIGH FIVE. 25 1 

Pedro. The player on the left of the dealer bids for the privilege of 
making the trump by offering one or more points to the dealer. The 
player next in order may bid. The dealer has a right to offer his bid for 
making the trump, but once a player having made a bid he cannot in- 
crease it. If it happens that no player makes a bid, it is obligatory on 
the part of the dealer to make a bid and the trump. 

In giving nine cards, the game being played with only six cards, as in 
All Fours, each player must then discard three cards. Supposing 4 are 
playing, then 36 cards are dealt. Then there are 16 cards left . Players have 
a right to discard more than the three cards. There being 16 cards left, 
each one may take four, though a first player in his turn might get the 
six new cards. Sometimes— for there are innumerable variations of Cinch, 
depending on locality — the trump is not declared, nor does the bidding 
open until each player has 13 cards. 

As in Sancho Pedro any one may follow suit or trump, but if holding 
the suit led, a player cannot throw on another suit not trumps. Having 
no trumps, or the suit led, then any discard is permissible. 

The discard may contain points, and this is often the case. After the 
round is played the discard is examined. It may be added to the score of 
those who made the trump, providing they had discarded the cards, other- 
wise the point or points they represent belong to the other side. 

There is no fixed number of points which rrake a game. Usually 51 
points is decided upon. In some sections of the counuy 75 points or 101, 
vin the game. * 

The rules for Cinch differ in no respect from those of All Fours or 
of Sancho Pedro. Even the playing with 9 cards instead of 6, is 
sometimes found in Pedro-Sancho. 

Cinch is a good game, but only a variation of Sancho Pedro. 

Sometimes Cinch is prone to engender contest, on account of want 
of care on the part of players as to the discard. This discard, unless 
precautions are used, may become mixed. 

Any 'familiar with All Fours can understand Cinch after a few 
hands are played. 



SPOIL-FIVE. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

Turn game of Spoil-five is played with a complete pack of fifty-two 
cards. Any number may play from two to ten ; but about five makes 
the best game. 

DEALING. 

The deal being determined (see Laws), the pack is cut to the dealer by 
his right-hand adversary. The dealer reunites the packets, and gives 
five cards to each player, generally by two or three at a time to each (see 
Laws). 

The card which remains at the top of the pack after the hands are 
dealt is the trump card, and is placed face upward on the pack. 

When only two play, the game is sometimes varied by Jiving \t — i. e., 
if the non-dealer is not satisfied with his cards, he asks the dealer if he 
will five it. If the dealer agrees, the trump card is removed, and the next 
card turned up for trumps. 

ROBBING. 

If the turn-up card is an ace, the dealer has the privilege of robbings 
i. e., he discards from his hand any card he pleases (placing it face down- 
ward on the table or under the pack), and substitutes for it the ace turned 
up. The suit to which the ace belongs still remains the trump suit. The 
dealer must discard before the eldest hand plays (a reasonable time being 
allowed), so that he may not gain the additional advantage of seeing 
what suit is led before he discards ; but the rob should not be completed 
(i. e. % the turn-up card should not be removed from the top of the pack) 
until it is the dealer's turn to play to the first trick. 

If an ace is not turned up, and any player holds the ace of the trump 
suit in his hand., he must rob — i. e., he must reject a card from his hand 

(252) 



SPOIL-FIVE. 253 

and take in the] turn-up. A player is not bound to declare that he is 
about to rob till it is his turn to play ; but he must declare the rob before 
he plays his first card. The usual way of making the declaration is to 
place the rejected card face downward on the table. If the player 
neglects to do this before he plays the power of robbing becomes void, 
and he is liable to a penalty (see Laws). 

Some players do not exact any penalty for neglecting to rob ; or make 
robbing optional, which amounts to the same thing ; or omit robbing 
altogether. But this leads to concealment of the ace, and is not recom- 
mended. 

The card put out in robbing, whether by the dealer or by another play- 
er, rem^s face downward on the table, and no one is allowed to inspect it. 

PLAYING. 

Each player plays one card at a time in rotation, commencing with the 
player to the dealer's left, the dealer playing last. The player of the highest 
Spoil-five card (see Order of the Cards) wins the trick. Trumps win 
other suits. The winner of the trick leads to the next, and so on till the 
hand is played out, or till three tricks are won by one player. 

When a trump is led the players must follow suit, except with special 
cards presently to be mentioned (see Reneging). 

When a suit not trumps is led, any player may trump -the trick, even 
though able to follow suit ; but a player holding no trump must follow 
suit if he can. This is usually expressed, " a player must either follow 
suit if able, or play a trump," but this is not quite correct, as a player 
holding none of the suit led may trump or not at his option. 

Provided the foregoing rules are complied with, a player is not bound 
to head the trick unless he likes. 

A player who wins three tricks in one hand wins the game. If no one 
wins three tricks, the game is said to be spoilt. When only two play, 
one must win three tricks, consequently no spoil can take place with two 
players. 

THE POOL. 

Before the play of the hand commences, each player pays to the pool a 
certain sum or number of counters agreed on. Should the game be won 
in that deal, the winner takes the pool ; but if a spoil occurs the pool 
remains, and each player puts an additional sum (generally a half or a 
third of the original stake) into the pool. This is repeated after every 
spoil till a game is wo7 



2^4 SPOIL-FIVE. 



ORDER OF THE CARDS 

The order of the cards differs in the red and black suits, and again in 
the trump suit. 

In suits not trumps, the order of the cards is as follows, beginning 
with the highest : 

In Red Suits. — King, queen, knave, ten, nine, eight, seven, six, five, 
four, three, two, ace. 

In Black Suits. — King, queen, knave, ace, two, three, four, five, six, 
seven, eight, nine, ten. 

The order of the cards below the knave is thus commonly expressed, 
11 the highest in red and the lowest in black." 

The ace of hearts always ranks as a trump. Therefore, in the above- 
mentioned order for red suits not trumps, the ace must be omitted from 
the heart suit. 

In the trump suit, which includes the ace of hearts, the order of the 
cards is as follows, beginning with the highest : 

In Red Suits. — Five, knave, ace of hearts, ace of trumps, king, queen, 
ten, down to the six, four, three, two. 

In Black Suits. — Five, knave, ace of hearts, ace of trumps, king, 
queen, two, three, four, six, down to the ten. 

The order of the cards in trumps below the knave adheres to che rule 
" highest in ted and lowest in black." Of course when hearts are trumps 
there is only one ace in the trump suit. It is as though the ace of hearts 
were thrust into all the other trump suits, between the knave and the a«e 
of that suit. 

RENEGING. 

The five of trumps, knave of trumps, and ace of hearts, may renege— 
i. e., they are exempt from following suit when an inferior trump is led. 

The five of trumps may renege to any trump led. No trump can renege 
when the five is led. 

The knave of trumps can renege to any trump led except to the one 
superior to it, viz., the five. If the five is played (not led) the knave can 
renege. If the knave is led, no trump can renege except the five. 

Similarly, the ace of hearts can renege to any trump ied, except to the 
trumps superior to it, viz. , the five and the knave. If the ace of hearts 
is led when hearts are trumps, the five and knave are entitled to renege. 
If the ace of hearts is led when hearts are not trumps, a player holding 
no trump need not play a heart. Some players require hearts to be 
played, but the rule first given is preferable. 



SPOIL-FIVE. 255 

TWENTY-FIVE AND FORTY-FIVE, 

Sometimes spoils are dispensed with altogether, and the game 
is made a fixed number (either twenty-five or forty-five), each 
trick gained any player counting five to him. At Forty-five, but not 
at Twenty-five, the trick won by the best trump out counts ten in- 
stead of five; if tricks are won sufficient to make game before the 
holder of the best trump plays it, the tricks win the game. Robbing 
is always compulsory. 

In addition to this, a player at Twenty-five or Forty-five who wins 
all five tricks wins the game. This is called jinking it. Properly 
the jink belongs only to these games, but sometimes by agreement 
jinking is allowed at Spoil-five, the winner being paid, in addition to 
the pool, the amount originally staked by each player. 

When jinking is allowed at Spoil-five, if a player, having won three 
tricks, continues to play for a jink, and fails to win every trick, he 
scores nothing that hand, and cannot, therefore, win the game that 
deal. It is optional on the player's part whether he will run the risk 
of scoring nothing for the chance of obtaining a jink. It requires 
considerable judgment at Spoil-five to know when to play for a jink, 
and when not. 

It is sometimes agreed (but generally not) that the winner of a 
jink may claim a wheel-out — i. e., that he may start for the next 
game with the score he had previous to playing the hand that made 
the jink. Wheeling-out is better omitted. 

At Twenty-five robbing is sometimes permitted with the king of 
trumps as well as with the ace, the latter taking precedence. This, 
however, occasionally leads to the exposure of the king, and is better 
omitted. When the king is empowered to rob, jinking is not allowed. 

Twenty-five and Forty-five are good partner games, and are often 
played with partners when only four meet. Spoil-five is never played 
with partners. 



HINTS TO LEARNERS. 

The principal interest at Spoil-five consists, odd as it may sound, 
in spoiling the game. Each player, if unable himself to win three 
tricks, should try to prevent any other player who may have won, 
say two tricks, from winning another. The player at Spoil-five must 
make himself a sort of human dog-in-the-manger, and exert himself, if 



2 5 $ SPOIL-FIVE. 

he has no reasonable expectation of placing; the game to his own credit* 
to thwart the player who seems most likely to obtain it. 

i. The deal is an advantage. The dealer is led up to the first trick, 
and his chance of robbing is greater than that of any other player. 

2. It is generally right to begin by leading your worst card, so as to 
throw the lead into the opponent's hand. It is considered better play to 
reserve your good cards till the third trick, than to risk the game by 
eagerness to obtain the first or second. 

3. If you hold two or three cards of a suit not trumps, generally lead 
the lowest of them. You thus exhaust the suit from your adversaries' 
hands, and those of it remaining in your own may by and by prove very 
useful. 

4. When not leader, if you hold one trump that cannot renege, gener- 
ally trump with it. But with two trumps, it is in most cases better, if no 
one has two tricks, to pass any but a winning card, reserving the trumps 
to spoil the strong hand. 

5. When last player it is seldom good play to refuse to win the tack, 
and never witn a weaic hand. For example : you nave ten and eight o£ 
trumps, nine of spades, four of hearts, and three of diamonds. These 
cards are no good : you have no chance of winning the game ; therefore 
make the eight or tev, of trumps if you have the fall cf the trick. By 
taking the trick you lessen the chances of the adversaries; and your own 
being nil is not hurt. 

6. When holding one trump that can renege, and having no chance c; 
the game yourself, retain the trump in your hand. It is almost certain 
to come in at the critical moment, spoiling the game, and keeping 
alive your interest in the pool. Trumps which cannot renege should not 
be reserved in this way, as they are liable to fall without effect if a trump 
card is led. 

7. Never throw away a high next best card of a suit not trumps, as 
& queen upon a king. Rather take the trick with a trump and lead 
the queen. Returned leads are generally puzzlers. 

8. Rarely allow any player to make a second trick. The most un- 
likely man (to all appearance) often steps to the front, and secured 
a third trick and the pool. 

9. At Spoil-five, when jinking is played, and you hold but one good 
card, say a five, and you see from the course of play that a certain 
player must make three tricks, do not win a trick with your good 
card, but endeavor to lure the adversary into going for a jink. If he 
goes for a jink, you may succeed at the very last moment in spoiling 
the game by the opportune appearance of your commanding cardv 



SPOIL-FIVE. 257 

LAWS OF SPOIL-FIVE. 

SHUFFLING. 

1. Each player has a right to shuffle the pack. 

Note. — Generally only the dealer exercises his privilege. 

2. The pack must not be shuffled below the table, nor so that th 
faces of the cards can be seen. 

DETERMINATION 01- DEAL. 

3. The first deal is determined by lot, sometimes by cutting, bu* 
generally by dealing the cards face upward, one at a time to each 
player, until a knave is dealt. The player to whom the knave falls 
has the deal. 

CUTTING TO THE DEALER. 

4. In cutting to the dealer, at least four cards must be cut, and at 
least four left in the lower packet. 

5. If a card is exposed in cutting to the dealer, the pack must be 
reshuffled and cut again. 

6. If the dealer exposes a card in reuniting the packets after the 
cut, the pack must be reshuffled and cut again. 

DEALING. 

7. The dealer must give five cards to each player, by two at a time 
and then by three at a time, or vice versa. If the dealer commences 
by giving two cards, he must give two all round, and then three all 
round; if he commences by giving three, he must give three all 
round, and then two all round. 

8. The cards must be dealt to each player in rotation, beginning 
with the player to the dealer's left. 

9. The trump card (». c., the card which remains at the top of the 
pack after the players are served) must be turned face upward by 
the dealer and placed on the top of the stock. 

10. If a card is faced in the pack (not by the dealer) there must 
be a fresh deal (the same dealer dealing again), except the faced 
card happens to be the trump. 

11. If there is a misdeal the deal passes to the next dealer. 
It is a misdeal — 

(a) If the dealer deals without having the pack cut. 

(&) If the dealer shuffles the pack after it is cut with his consent. 

(c) If the dealer deals out of order {c. g., gives two cards where 
he should give three, or misses a hand, or exposes a card in 
pealing, or gives too many or too few cards to any player.) 



o^o SPOIL-FIVE. 

Note. — Sometimes in the case of a misdeal the dealei is allowed to 
deal again, on paying to the pool the amount of the original stake. 

The mistake of giving too many cards is frequently arranged by draw- 
ing a card ; of giving too few by completing the hand from the stock. 
This is a loose and unsatisfactory method ; it will be found better in the 
long run to play a strict game. 

12. If the dealer gives too many or too few cards to any player, and 
«ihe error is not discovered until the hand is partly or wholly played out, 
it is still a misdeal (see also Law 16). 

13. The player to the dealer's left has the next deal. Each player is 
entitled to a deal — i. e., the game must not be abandoned except at th< 
conclusion of a round, unless there is a spoil in the last deal of a roun \ 
when the deal continues in order until a game is won. 

14. If a player deals out of turn he may be stopped at any time before 
the trump card is turned. If not stopped the deal stands good, and the 
rotation of dealing proceeds to the dealer's left as though he had dealt 
in turn. 

ROBBING. 

15. If a player neglects to declare his power of robbing before he plays 
to the first trick, he loses the right of robbing and forfeits the hand — ». <?., 
he cannot win the game that hand, but he may play his cards and try tG 
spoil it. 

PLAYING. 

16. If a player robs without the ace, or leads or plays out of his turn 
or leads without waiting the completion of the trick, or exposes a card, 
or omits to play to a trick, or revokes when not entitled, or reneges when 
not entitled, or plays to the first trick with too many or too few cards i» 
his hand, he forfeits the pool — i. e., he cannot win the game that hand, 
and he cannot play again for that pool. 

Xote. — This is called hanging the hand, and is equivalent to loss of the 
game. A severe penalty is necessary, because the faults enumerated in 
Law 16 may be attended with serious consequences to the other players 
Thus : suppose A, B, C, and D are sitting in this order round the 
table. B has already won two tricks. A leads ; B plays and beats 
him. Now should D play out of his turn, even by accident, and not 
win the trick, it is a clear intimation to C to win the trick if he can. 
This is an unfair combination against B. The penalty of calling ex- 
posed cards would often be no punishment at all ; and, similarly, the 
penalty of forfeiture of the hand may be no punishment. For instance, 
D in the example may have no chance of the game himself The same 



SPOIL-FIVE. 259 

applies to reneging when not entitled ; the player may have no chance ml 
the game himself, but by reneging he may spoil it for some one else. 

INCORRECT PACKS. 

17. If a pack is discovered to be incorrect, redundant, or imperfect, the 
deal in which the discovery is made is void. All preceding deals stand 
good. 



JINKS. 

Jinks, or, as it is sometimes called, Jink Game, is derived from Spoil-five. 

The game is won when all five tricks are taken. Failing to make five 
tricks by the player, the penalties are the same as in Spoil-five. When 
a king or ace are turned they do not count five. The aces can be robbed. 
If in dealing an ace is turned, the dealer may discard any card and take 
this ace. What it makes it counts. 

FORTY-FIVE. 

There is little difference between Forty-five and Spoil-five. The 
value of the cards and the way of play remains the same. Game being 
forty-five, hence the name. If two or four engage, the first side making 
forty-five wins. To turn up a king gives five points to the score. Rob- 
bing takes place as in Spoil-five. The holder of the king of trumps, when 
it is his turn to play, places on the table a card which he substitutes for it. 
He can ask for the ace. If the ace is not in the hand, the trump be- 
ings to the player having the ace. 



CALABRASELLA. 

INTRODUCTORY. 
The game of Calabrasella is played with a pack of forty cards, th« 
tens, nines, and eights being discarded from a complete pack. It is 
more convenient to use two packs, the packs being dealt with alter- 
nately. The game can only be played by three players; but a fourth 
player may cut in at the conclusion of a round — i. e., when the deal 
returns to the original dealer. 

DEAUNG. 
The players having cut for deal (see Laws), the player to the 
dealer's right cuts the pack. The dealer reunites the packets and 
distributes the cards by two at a time to each player, first dealing 
two to the player to his left, then two to the next player, and then 
two to himself. He continues to deal in this order until each player 
has twelve cards. Four cards (called the stock) remain over. These 
are placed face downward in the middle of the table. 

ORDER OF THE CARDS. 
The cards rank in play in the following order: Three (highest), 
two, ace, king, queen, knave, seven, six, five, four (lowest). As will 
be presently seen, their value in counting is different from their rank 
in play. 

DECLARING TO PLAY. 

The deal being completed, the eldest hand (player to the dealer's 
left) looks at his hand and declares whether he will play alone or 
not. saying, "1 play," or, "1 pass." If he passes, the next player has 
the option; and if the second player also passes, the dealer has the 
option. If all three pass the hand is thrown up, and the deal goes to 
the next player, the one on the dealer's left. 

If a player declares to play his hand, the other two become allies 
and play against him. The single player is entitled, before he plays, 
to strengthen his hand, thus: 

I. H«» «^*v ask for any one three he chooses. The player holding the 

(260) 



CALABRASELLA. 2~6l 

card named is bound to surrender it, receiving a card in exchange 
from the single player's hand. If the three asked for is in the stock, 
of course that fact will appear by the non-surrender of the card. Ne 
other card can in this case be demanded. If the single player happen* 
to have all the threes dealt him, he may then, and then only, ask for 
a two. 

2. The single player next has to declare how many cards he will ex- 
change for cards in the stock. He is bound to exchange one, and, of 
course, cannot exchange more tha>i four. He discards from his hand the 
number he desires to exchange, and places them face downward on the 
table. He then turns the stock face upward, and selects from it the num- 
ber required to supply the places ot the discarded cards. 

The other players have a right to see the stock when turned up; but 
they must not look at the cards put out by the single player. 

The cards discarded, together with those (if any) not taken from the 
stock, form a second stock called the discard. The discard remains face 
downward on the table, and belongs to the winner of the last trick, as 
will appear presently. 

PLAYING. 

The play of the hand then commences. The eldest hand (whether 
single player or not) has the first lead. Each player plays one card in 
turn, the dealer playing last ; the three cards thus played constitute a 
trick. The highest Calabrasella card of the suit led wins the trick (see 
Order of the Cards). There are no trumps. The players are bound to 
follow suit if able : but if not, may play any card. A player is not bound 
to head the trick unless he likes. The winner of the trick leads to the 
next, and so on, until all the twelve tricks are played out. 

The single player makes a heap, or pack, of all the tricks he takes, 
and the allies make a pack of theirs, each trick being turned face down- 
ward when complete. There is no occasion for a player to keep his tricks 
separated, as the value of the tricks made does not depend on their num- 
ber, but on the cards they contain. 

The winner of the last trick takes the discard and adds it to his heap. 

SCORING. 

vVhen all the cards are played out, each side counts the points in 
their respective packs. The points accrue from the cards in the tricks 
and discard and from the last trick* as in the following table : 



262 CALABRA SELLA. 

Each side for each Ace in their tricks counts 3 

" " Three " " 

•* " Two " M 

•« " King " " 

« M Queen " « 

u i« Knave M M 

The winner of the last trick counts ... 3 

The total number of points is thirty-five ; but the number reckoned if 
the difference between the respective scores. For example : If the single 
player has twenty points and the allies fifteen, the former wins five points 
from each of the allies. On the other hand, if the single player has fif- 
teen points and the allies twenty, the single player loses five points to each 
of the allies. Each hand is a complete game in itself. No markers are 
required ; but each player is generally provided with a certain number ot 
counters, and receives or pays the number won or lost at the end of each 
hand. 



HINTS TO LEARNERS. 

1. With average cards the eldest hand should elect to play, as th? 
chances are in favor of his making more than half the game, after 
asking for a three and taking in from the stock. 

2. In discarding it is seldom right to put out more than two cards, 
as the chances are that two of the cards in the stock will be of but 
little value. 

3. In playing the hand it must not be forgotten that the ace, which 
is the highest counting card, is not the highest in play. Skilful play- 
ers endeavor as much as possible to make aces in their own tricks, 
and to entrap the aces of the opponents. 

4. When your ally has won, or will win the trick, you should 
generally throw a counting card to it (see Ex.). 

6. During the play count how many cards of each suit are out, 
that you may know whether you have the command of it or not. 

6. Much judgment is required in playing for the last trick. It 
counts three in itself, is generally rich in good cards, and takes the 
discard and all points in it. It generally makes a difference of twelve 
or fourteen points. It is often right, therefore, to reserve good cards, 
and to refuse to win tricks with them in order to secure the last trick. 
This is called playing back If, however, you can insure eighteen 



CALABRASELLA. 263 

points by playing forward, and there is a suit against you, it is not 
advisable to run any risk for the sake of the last trick. The great 
secret of Calabrasella is to knotf when to play forward and when to 
play back. 



LAWS OP CALABRASELLA. 

CUTTING. 

1. The players cut for deal; the lowest Calabrasella card deals. 

DEAUNG. 

2. Each player deals in turn, the right of dealing going to the left. 

3. There is no misdeal. If there is any irregularity in dealing, on 
discovery, there must be a fresh deal, even though the hand has been 
played out. 

DISCARDING. 

4. The allies have a right to count the discard face downward, and if 
they find it to contain too few cards, they have the option of requiring 
the single player to make up the deficiency from his hand, or of throw- 
ing up the hand, the deal passing. If the discard is found to contain too 
many cards, the single player cannot win any trick to which he is unable 
to play. 

5. If the single player asks for a two, when he has not all the threes 
dealt him, the adversaries have the option of standing the deal or not. 

6. If a card is asked for and is not surrendered, and it is found that 
the card asked for is not in the stock, the single player (not having the 
card asked for in his own hand) may again require its surrender, and 
may alter his discard, notwithstanding that he has seen the stock. 

PLAYING. 

7. The players are bound to finish the round before leaving. The 
found is- finished when the deal returns to the original dealer. 

8. If the single player exposes a card there is no penalty. 

9. If the single player leads or plays out of turn there is no penalty. 
The card led in error must be taken back, and the right player must 
lead. If the second player has played to such lead he must aiso take 
back his card ; but if all three players have played, the trick is complete, 
and the hand proceeds as though no error had been committed. 

xo. If either of the allies exposes a card the single player may caU it 



CALABRA SELLA. 

(txcept as provided in Law 9). The call may be repeated at every trick 
until the exposed card is played. 

11. If either of the allies leads out of turn, and the error is discovered 
before the trick is complete, the single player may call a suit from the 
right leader (or, if it is his own lead, may call a suit the first time he loses 
the lead), or he may refrain from calling a suit, and treat the card led in 
error as an exposed card. If a suit is called and the leader has none of 
it, he may play any card he pleases, and no further penalty can be de 
manded, 

12. When the single player leads, it is unfair for the third player to play 
before the second. 

N.B. — No penalty is attached to this offense. The only remedy 
is to cease playing with those who commit it. 

13. If a player does not follow suit when able, the opponent may take 
nine points from the score of the side offending and add them to his own. 

14. When a trick is complete it must be at once turned and quitted. 
When a trick is quitted no one has a right to see it during the (day of thf 
kand* 



ROUGE ET NOIR. 



Rouge et Noir, or Red and Black, is a modern game, so styled, not 
from the cards, but from the colors marked on the tapis, or green cloth, 
with which the table is covered. 

The first parcel of 
cards played is usually 
for Noir, the second for 
Rouge, though some- 
times the cards are cut 
to determine which shall 
begin. All the terms of 
this game are French, 
and that language is 
used in playing. Any 
number of persons may 
play, and the punters 
may risk their money on 
which color they please, 
placing the stakes in 
the outer semicircle; but 
after the first card is 
turned up, no other 
stakes can be laid for 
that coup. 

The tailleur or dealer 
and croupier, the person 
who pays out or takes in 
the wagers, being seated 
opposite each othe**,with 
a basket for receiving 
the cards of every coup 
after dealing, placed on 
the middle of the table ; 

the tailleur, then passing round six packs of cards to be shuffled and 
mixeo confusedly all together by the company, afterward finally shuffles 
(265) 




266 ROUGE ET NOIR. 

tiaem, and inserts all the end cards into various parts of the 312, till he 
meets with an honor, which being placed upright at the end, is offered to 
a punter, who, putting the same into any part of the pack, the tailleur 
there separates it, and lays that part which was below the said honor 
uppermost ; and taking therefrom a handful of cards, and placing a 
weight upon the remainder, proceeds to deal, taking afterward other par* 
eels from the heap as they may be wanted, till all are dealt out. He 
looks at the first card, and puts its face downward ; two others, one red, 
the other black, are then laid back to back, and that placed conspicuously 
uppermost which is of a similar color with the said first card ; these two 
cards are turned according to the color of that card which afterward may 
be first dealt in each succeeding coup. When the stakes are deposited, 
the tailleur cries Noir, turns the top card, and places each succeeding one 
in a row, till the points of those so turned shall exceed 30 ; he then 
declares the numbers, at trente et une, one-a?zd-thi?'ty ; or if above that, 
up to 40, he only says, deux, trois, quatre, cinq, six, sept, huit, neuf, two y 
three j four \ five, six, seven, eight, nine ; and when forty, quarante. 

Another parcel is then dealt in a similar mode for Rouge, and the punt- 
ers win who had staked on that color the points for which were 31 or 
nearest to it, which the tailleur declares, by saying, Rouge gagne, Red 
wins ; or Rouge perd, Red loses. These two parcels, one for each color, 
make a coup. When the same number is dealt for each, the tailleur says, 
apres, after, which forms un refait, or Doublet, by which neither party 
loses, except it is un refait trente et un, one-and-thirty, when the tailleur 
wins half the stakes punted on each color, which half the punters may 
either pay, or have their stake moved into the middle semicircle of the 
color they then choose, called la premiere prison, the first prison, to be 
determined by the next event, whether they lose all or are set at liberty ; 
but if un refait second trente et un, a second Doublet ofo?ie-and-thirty, 
should occur in the next succeeding deal, the punters lose only one-half 
i*f their remaining moiety, making three-fourths of their original stakes 
and are removed into the smallest semicircle, styled la seconde prison 
(ne second prison, and the next coup determines whether the punter loses 
all, or is to be removed again into la prei7iiere prison. 

Punters, after winning, may paroli, etc., and pursue their luck to a 
soixante, as at Faro ; but as no livrets are used at Rouge et Noir, they 
cannot make either paix or pont. 

At this game a banker cannot refuse any stake not exceeding his fund ; 
which the punter declares, by saying, Je vais a la Banque, Va la Banque, 
or Va Banque, / am playing at the Bank. Bankers generally furnish 
punters with slips of card paper, ruled in columns, each marked N. or R 



GO-BANG. 267 

at the top, on which accounts are kept by pricking with a pin; and when 
tin refait happens, the same is denoted by running the pin through the 
middle line. Some bankers give up the profit of le refait during the 
first deal. 

The odds against le refait being dealt, are reckoned 63 to 1, but bankers 
expect it twice in three deals, and there are generally from 29 to 32 coups 
in each deal. 



GO-BANG. 



Go-Bang is one of the oldest games that we know. It was first played 
in China more than two thousand years before Christ, although its exact 
origin is shrouded in mystery. In Japan the game is known as GO- 
MUTCHIB. The Chinese and Japanese games require soecial apparatus. 
The English game is played on an ordinary chessboard or checkerboard 
with the men used in backgammon. 

The game is played by two persons, who take from twelve to fifteen 
counters each, or any other number agreed upon, the counters of each 
player being uniform in color, but of a color distinct from that of his 
opponent. The lead is decided by drawing or by agreement. The 
leader plays a counter on any square he chooses. His antagonist puts a 
man on any unoccupied square. After this each player in turn puts 
down one of his men until all have been placed. 

If, while the men are being placed, either player can get five men in a 
line, either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally, he calls, "Go-Bang," 
and is the winner of the game. 

This very seldom happens when the players are anywhere near equal 
in skill. When the men have all been placed the players move alternately 
on unoccupied squares, seeking to get into a winning position. The 
players should play to get three men in line with unoccupied spaces at 
each end. If this is not blocked at once, they become winning positions, 
as can easily be figured out by even the novice at the game. The English 
game is not as scientific as the Japanese, as the board is smaller. With 
# a regular Go-Bang board there is, however, very little difference. 

In the second stage of the game — after all the men have been placed 
en the board — there are no general laws for playing. Each player can 
choose the position he thinks the best for winning. He can make a 
feigned attack on a distant part of the board to draw men away from 
the position where he really wishes to make Go-Bang. 

A player will often find himself handicapped in the second stage of 
the game by the poor way in which he placed the men in the first 
stage. A little experience will soon teach him. It *s a game that 
grows on one. 



HEARTS 



The game of Hearts is of recent date, and has only been playeot in the 

u'nited States during the last five years. Hearts is probably of German 
origin , although there is some slight resemblance between it and the 
Miseries, played in Boston. Any one then familiar with the game of 
Boston, will at once understand Hearts. 

It has, too, the same fundamental rules as Whist, is played in exactly 
the same manner, only that there are no partners, each one playing for 
himself, and that the number of tricks taken do not count, and also that 
there is no trump. 

To play Hearts well requires, perhaps, less study than Whist, and is 
more agreeable on that account ; but still a certain amount of skill is nec- 
essary, and the run of the cards must be remembered. 

The best encomium that can be passed on Hearts is, that it is interest- 
ing enough as a game of cards, to be played as is picquet or cribbage, 
without any money stakes. 

The rules for Hearts are few, easily acquired, the mental power called 
into play by no means fatiguing, and in the course of play, the surprises 
are constant. Hearts, then, combines in itself all the requirements of an 
amusing and entertaining game of cards. 

The regulation game cf Hearts is played by four persons, each one 
taking care of his own interests. 

A full pack of fifty-two cards is used. 

The ace is the highest card, next the king, then queen, jack, ten, eight, 
Aeven, six, five, four, three, and two. 

Cards are shuffled , and cut by the player to the right of the dealer, the 
person to the left receiving the first card, the deal continuing as in Whist, 
every player receiving thirteen cards. The dealer does ?iot turn up the 
last card, for there is no trump. 

In case of a misdeal, the dealer loses, and the deal passes to the left. 

If cards are faced in the pack, the dealer reshuffles, the pack is cut as 
before, and he deals over. 

The first player to the lett of the *W*J*r lead? as in Whist. Placers 

(268) 



HEARTS. 269 

must follow suit. If they have no cards of the suit, they may discard 
as they please. 

The person taking a trick has the lead. Should a player revoke, he 
has to pay a penalty in chips to the other players. The character of 
this penalty varies, as may be determined upon by previous arrange- 
ment, and this penalty will be afterward explained. A player, how- 
ever, making a revoke cannot win. 

Hearts is not a continuous game as is Whist, where a certain num- 
ber of points have to be scored in order to win the game. When 
each person has played the thirteen cards the game ends with that 
round. The penalties are paid and the next round begins. 

Reduced to its simplest expression, the object of the game of 
Hearts is to get rid of the hearts held in one's hand. 

You may take any number of tricks in other suits, but as long as 
you have taken no heart or hearts, you will have no penalties to pay. 

You must follow suit just as in Whist, and the high cards take 
tricks precisely as in that honored game, but you must try and take 
no hearts. 

As the player has the privilege to discard hearts, when a suit is 
played, in which he is short, he naturally discards his hearts, or, if he 
takes a trick in some other suit, and fears that with the lead he may 
give his adversaries an opportunity to discard their hearts, to his dis- 
advantage, he may, if he wishes to, lead a small heart, and so give 
four hearts to another player. To get rid of your hearts, and not to 
take any, is the sole object of the game. 

The penalties of the game may now be explained, and at once 
readily understood. Counters or chips are used. Each player takes 
twenty-five or fifty chips, or as many as he pleases, which may or 
may not have a money value. 

The round being ended, the hearts each player may have taken 
are counted. There are thirteen hearts in the fifty-two cards. If one 
player has taken them all, he pays thirteen chips to the three other 
players, that is four to each, making twelve in all, and there is one 
chip over. This chip is left on the table, and is added to the total 
payments made at the next round. 

Suppose with the four players, 

A has one heart. C has four hearts. 

B has two hearts. D has six hearts. 

It is A who wins, for B pays him two, C four, and D six; and A 
gets twelve chips. 



270 



HEARTS. 



To take another case, 



A may have two hearts. C may have three hearts. 
B " two hearts. D " six hearts. 

Then A and B having the same number of hearts, C pays for three 
hearts, D for six hearts, and A ana B divide the penalty, which is nine 
chips, each taking four. Sometimes, in playing for chips, a few counters 
of half values are used, so that the division can be made every time. 

The rule of payment can at once be understood, which is that the per- 
son or persons taking the least number of hearts win. Thirteen not 
being divisible by four without a fractional remainder, there must always 
be an odd number of hearts in somebody's hand. 

Now can be better explained the penalty for a revoke : 

If a player, to save his extreme penalty, which would be thirteen chips, 
providing he took all the hearts, revokes, he has to pay for this error, in- 
tentional or otherwise, by more chips than had he taken all the hearts. 
The ordinary penalty is that a player making such a revoke, shall pay to 
the other players eight chips each, or twenty-four in all. 

THE DOUBLE, OR THE EAGLE GAME OF HEARTS. 

Of late, what is called the Double Game of Hearts is played. The 
rules of dealing, and everything else, are just the same as have been 
described, only there is increased value given to the hearts taken, 
and in this way: 

The Ace counts 14 chips. 

The King " 13 " 

The Queen " 12 " 

The Knave " 11 " 

The Ten 10 " 

The rest of the cards according to their spots, the deuce being two. 
It can be seen at once how the game augments when these extra 
values are given. 

Another way of counting is to make: 

The Ace counts • • 5 

The King " 4- 

The Queen " 3 

The Knave " ........ 2 

The remaining cards one chip each. 



HEARTS. 271 

For beginners the regular game (each heart counting one) is the best 
to commence with. 

When revokes are made in the Double or Eagle Game of Hearts, the 
penalties are, in proportion, much heavier than when the simple game is 
played. Forty chips to each of the other three players are exacted. For 
a revoke, when the ace counts five, the king four, the queen three, and 
the knave two, fifteen chips to each of the other players is the penalty re- 
quired. 

GENERAL PHILOSOPHY OF THE GAME. 

At the first conception of the game it would seem to be quite simple to 
play it ; but to play Hearts well requires a certain amount of study and 
observation. 

The player sorts his cards just as in Whist, and can generally at a 
glance tell whether he has a good hand or not. 

Differing from most other games, a low hand is a good hand, especi- 
ally a long suit which ends with a three and a deuce. On the contrary, 
a longish suit with high cards, ending, say, with an eight, is a bad one, 
for once a player has been forced to acquire the lead, he will take all the 
tricks in that suit, and his adversaries having no cards of that suit., will 
load him down with their hearts. 

A typically-good hand would be to hold the thirteen hearts, providing 
it was not your lead. Then no one could make you take a heart ; where- 
as, if it were your bad fortune to have the lead, you would be forced to 
take every card. The same would, of course, happen had you thirteen 
cards of any other suit, providing you had or had not to lead. 

Singletons, only one card of a suit, give you ample opportunity to lead. 
A single ace, or single king, queen, or jack of any suit not hearts is a 
good card. Suppose you do take the tricks with your ace or king, if it is at 
the first or second round, then the next time it is played you can discard. 

Though the main object of the game is to get rid of hearts, supposing 
you had the low hearts, it would be bad play to throw them out save 
under special circumstances, to be presently explained. 

If you have low hearts your danger does not lay there, but in the other 
suits. 

Eleven diamonds might have been played, leaving only the two and 
the three of diamonds in, and you might hold this small three. Your 
adversary has counted the diamonds, and will be certain to jplay the two, 
when you would be forced to take it with the three of diamonds, and the 
other two players would get rid of each a heart on your trick. 

rt ny suit not ending with a two you may take a trick in hand as a 
corollary, no suit is absolutely safe that has not a deuce in it. 



2J2 HEARTS. 

Threes, fours, and fives, etc., are the lowest, of course, when the 
deuces have been once played. 

Everything depends on the judgment shown in the leads and on the 
skill in the discard, and this judgment can only be acquired by keeping 
accurate account of the cards which have been played. 

Sometimes, with a hand, deliberate judgment may be taken as to how 
it is to be played, but before the first three rounds are made very little 
can be told as to the future. 

If suits are evenly divided, your idea of how the game will affect your 
hand may come nearly true and to your advantage ; but should an adver- 
sary be long on the same suit and the others short, your winning game, 
as you supposed it would be, may turn out disastrously for you. 

The hearts which fall to your adversaries must be carefully counted, 
The cases where the penalties have been described, inform the reader 
how two of the players may each have one heart, and the others, more 
hearts. A good player will scheme so as to give the person who has but 
one heart, another one, and tften when the game is closed, the skilful 
performer having but one heart, and all the rest more than one, he takes 
all the chips and does not divide. Sometimes a good player will take a 
risk to carry out this plan, and may succeed, and, as often as not through 
greed or bad luck, will get worsted, and, instead of dividing the penalties, 
lose himself. This is the case where the discard of even a low heart may 
be given sometimes with telling effect. 

If a player's cards other than hearts are high, it is wise to take tricks at 
once, because later on when other suits are led, adversaries may have 
discarded hearts, having managed to get short of some suits. 

There is always a tendency in Hearts to keep back hearts until the 
last few rounds, which is as often as not an error. 

A thirteenth card will, of course, bring three discards, or if at the 
end of the round you have three winning cards in your hand, you nec- 
essarily take the tricks, and the obnoxious hearts are showered on you. 

Sometimes in a hand you may have the king of hearts and the 
deuce, and hearts may be led up to you, you being the last player. It 
is a question whether you should take the trick or pass it. If you 
take it, you will certainly have to pay for four hearts. If you do not 
and hearts are led again, you have refused to take the first trick 
having put in the deuce, then you will take the second trick with the 
king, for it is not likely that the ace will oe played. How to play with 
these two cards, king and deuce or a high and low heart, will depend 
on the other cards you hold. 

If you are short of a suit, it is wise to trust to fortune, for tht 
person having taken four hearts, may have enough and change t* 
something else. 



HEARTS. 273 

Having, however, 4 hearts, taken by you in a trick, unless you have 
all the winning hearts, it is wisdom to drive the suit home, and divide 
your load, for it is more economical to pay a penalty for four hearts 
than for eight or more. 

Sometimes want of courage ends in disaster. 

There is a constant element of luck in all games of cards, and 
sometimes an apparently bad hand in Hearts turns out quite well, 
and you may take no hearts at all or only one or two, whereas on 
opening your hand, you firmly believed that the bulk of the hearts 
would be yours. 

You have had a chance to discard, and have discarded with skill. 

It often happens that two skilful players pick out one another as 
antagonists, and each holding a long suit are determined to wreck their 
respective fortunes. This is to your advantage, and you seize on the 
opportunity to disgorge your dreaded hearts to their detriment. 

Suddenly they awaken to the consciousness that you are getting the 
better of their duel, and one of them gives you a heart. Now you 
have discarded your last heart, and you respond to their lead, by 
throwing off a high card of another kind. 

When a suit is led, and a player responds with a deuce, it is to be 
understood that it is the last one he has, or next to the last, or thar 
he is afraid to put in his higher card, fearing there may be a discard. 
On general principles this may be understood at the beginning of the 
g^me as a declaration of shortage. 

If you have a long suit, beginning with the highest and ending 
with the lowest cards, there can be no use taking the trick, because 
you cannot be forced to take that lead in the suit unless you wish to. 
This however, requires a careful study of the rest 01 your hand, for 
if, unfortunately at the conclusion of the game you took a trick, 
and then were left with your long suit, you would have the game all 
your own; plentifully supplied with the hearts, your adversaries would 
shove «n you. 

Heatrs, it may bt remarked, is very amusing, because it is a game 
of p'ire selfishness, everybody looking out for himself. 

There is no rule to be followed by the first player, for he changes 
his may according to circumstances. 

Tli« last player, of course, if he has to take the trick, secures it 
witk his highest, because he, like all the rest of the players, wants to 
get i*d of his highest cards. 

A first-class player, at the opening of the game, may lead a king 
witr impunity. Somebody, having the ace, will be pretty certain to 
taK* it, unless he be very long; then the person who leads must reflect 
wl\ is long in that suit. It is wise to stop the lead, and to find out 



274 HEARTS. 

by other play and subsequent developments, who holds the particular suit 
with him. 

The worst hand at Hearts is one with three or four high cards in every 
suit, in which case it is in exact opposition with Whist. 

Single cards are excellent leads, whether high or low, for they are not 
to be considered as indications, like in Whist. 

The skill in the game lies not alone in the leads, but more particularly 
in the discards. 

The best player is one who always knows what cards are in, and, just 
as in Whist, there are Heart experts, who, with talented performers, can 
call the last eight cards in their adversaries' hands. 

TO PLAY HEARTS WITH MORE THAN FOUR PERSONS 

Five persons can play Hearts, but the dealer does not give himself an) 
hand, he playing only once in four games. As one of the charms oi 
Hearts is its rapidity, the dealer has never long to wait before he plays. 

Five may, however, play Hearts, each person receiving ten cards, and 
the last two cards, being concealed, turned face downward, or the two 
deuces of spades and clubs can be left out. 

When three play, one suit may be left out, each player taking thirteen 
cards. 

A better way is to take out the deuce of spades or any other deuce, a \c 
to give each player seventeen cards. It should be remembered then that 
one suit has only twelve cards. Another variation is to dea 1 seventeen 
cards to each of three players, and to leave unturned the last card. 

To conclude, Hearts is a mos* pleasant game, highly provocative ot 
laughter, and is so entertaining that honest amusement can be found in 
it without any money stake. 



PROGRESSIVE HEARTS. 

As in Euchre, Progressive Hearts is an interesting game. There are 
twelve players at three tables. Four losers retire and there are eight. The 
sifting process takes place until there are only four players. The four 
play. There may be four prizes, the person losing the least chips having 
awarded to him the first prize. The prizes of less value may be given to 
the other players in proportion to their points. A booby prize presented 
to the person having lo« most points, adds to the amusement of the 
game. 



VINGT-UN. 



VlNGT-UN (twenty-one) may be played by two or more players ; about 
six or eight is the best number. The cards bear the same respective vah 
ues as in Cribbage. The tens and court-cards are each reckoned for ten ; 
but the ace in each suit may be valued as one or eleven , at the option of 
the holder, according to the exigencies of his hand. 

Having determined the deal by lot — which may be done simply by 
shuffling the pack, and then giving each player a card, the first possessor 
of the knave having the deal — counters or small stakes having been de- 
termined on, the dealer holds the pack with their faces beneath, and pro- 
ceeds to give a single card to each player, and one to himself, all face 
downward. Each player then places his stake on his card, and the dealer 
distributes a second card all round, beginning in each case with the elder 
hand— his left-hand neighbor. The players then examine their hands, 
and the dealer looks at his own two cards, v/hen, if he thinks fit, he may 
M challenge the board," receiving or paying from all whose hands are less 
or more than his own, up to twenty. Failing, however, to do this, he 
asks each one in succession if he wishes to have another card, or stand on 
the two he has. The usual phrase is — u Do you stand ?" If the elder 
hand is content with his hand, he says *' Content," and places his cards 
on the table, face downward, to await the result of the dealer's own cards. 
If he wants one or more cards he says so, and the dealer gives him from 
the top of the pack as many as he requires. If the court-cards, tens 
etc., exceed twenty-one in number when added together, the player is 
said to have "over-drawn," in which case he must throw his cards into 
the centre of the table, and deliver his stake to the dealer. But if the 
pips and tens on all his cards make, when added up, twenty-one or less, 
he puts them face downward on the table, and waits the event of 
the round. And so with each player till all are served. The dealer 
then lays his own cards face upward on the table. He, too, has 
the privilege of taking other cards from the pack, should the num- 
ber be not near enough to twenty-one to allow him to stand When 
(275) 



276 VINGT-UN. 



he is satisfied with his hand, he says, "I stand," and all the players 
face their cards n the table. To all those whose hands are twenty- 
one or nearer to twenty-one than his own, he pays a stake equal to 
that originally placed on the single card: while he receives the stakes 
from all whose hands are less in number than his own, including ties. 
But to any player or players having an ace and a tenth card — which 
is termed a "natural Vingt-un" — he pays double stakes. The "natural" 
must always consist of the two cards first dealt. Should, however, 
the dealer himself have a "natural," he receives double stakes from 
all the players, and single from the ties. In this way the deal goes 
on till one of the players turns up a "natural," when he becomes 
dealer, and proceeds as before. 

Twenty-one. whenever it consists of an ace and a court card, dealt 
in the first two rounds, entitles the player to double stakes from the 
dealer; and similarly from the players to the dealer, when the latter 
happens to get a natural. In the latter instance, the round is at an 
end on the dealer taking his second card, and he receives double 
stakes from all the players without the necessity of giving them a 
third card or more. 

Ties pay to the dealer the stake ventured ; but directly the player re- 
ceives his second card he should look at it, and if he has obtained a natu- 
ral he should declare it immediately. Thus he would get his vingt-un 
before the dealer had received his second card, and would therefore be 
entitled to be instantly paid, even though the dealer himself were fortu« 
nate enough to get an ace on his ten, or a tenth card on his ace. 

The dealer has also the privilege of insisting on all the players doub- 
ling tbeir stakes/ This he commonly does if he has an ace or a tenth 
card m the first round, or when the stakes are too low to please him. 

It is the duty of the younger hand to gather up the cards at the cor*, 
elusion of each round in readiness for the next deal. In some compa- 
nies the whole pack is dealt out before the cards are shuffled, the cards 
belonging to each round remaining on the table till the whole pack is ex- 
hausted. Generally, however, the pack is gathered up at the end of each 
deal, shuffled by the player at the left of the dealer, and cut by the player 
at his right. Sometimes, when the party is large, two packs are in use 
at the same time — one being shuffled and cut while the other is being 
dealt ; or the two may be mixed together and played in the same man- 
ner as a single pack. 

The dealer and each of the players has the privilege of making two 
hands, if the first two cards given him be of like character — as two nines, 
kings, aces, etc. In this case each party pays and receives on both hands. 
But in the case of a " natural " occurring in^gjjoubled hand, the hoidei 



VINGT-UN. 277 

tires only a single stake on each, because to obtain a "natural" tfce 
first two cards only may be counted. 

Again: The dealer has the privilege of looking for the brulet at the 
commencement of each deal. The brulet consists of the top and 
bottom cards of the pack after it has been shuffled and cut. If a 
"natural" occurs in the brulet, the dealer receives double stakes from 
all the players except the ties, from which he takes singles. Of course 
he must not declare his "natural" till all the players have staked. 
But if he take the brulet, he is not compelled to stand upon it; but 
after he has dealt all the players as many cards as they demand, he 
may add to his own pair as many as he thinks fit. 

The odds at Vingt-un of course depend upon the average number 
of pips and tens on two cards under twenty-one. 

If the two cards in hand make fourteen, it is seven to six that the one 
next drawn does not make the number of points above twenty-one ; but 
if the points be fifteen, it is seven to six against that hand. Yet it would 
not, therefore, always be prudent to stand at fifteen, for as the ace may 
be calculated both ways, it is rather above an even bet that the dealer's 
two first cards amount to more than fourteen. A " natural" vingt-un 
may be expected once in eight coups, when two, and twice in eight, when 
four people play, and so on, according to the number of players. 

This is Vingt-un as most generally played ; but in some companies the 
" natural " receives double stakes from all the players, and treble from 
the dealer. 

One of the great advantages possessed by the dealer is the taking cf 
all stakes on the ties. The game is therefore played occasionally with a 
provision that ties are exempt from payment. Again, it is generally ac- 
mitted that the occurrence of a " natural " during the first deal does not 
cause its forfeiture, the dealer being allowed to continue his deal. This 
and other regulations must, however, be made by agreement among the 
players at the commencement of the game. 



RULES OF VINGT-UN. 

'me rules of Vingt-un are by no means fixed; we give them, how- 
ever, as the game is generally played. — Editor.) 

1. The first deal must be determined by chansc — as by cuttimg tht 
cards, obtaining the first knave, etc. 



278 VINGT-UN. 

2. Previous to the deal the youngest hand shuffles, and the eldest hand 
cuts. 

3. The stake must be placed on the first card previous to the second 
round, and allowed to remain till the round is completed and the dealer 
exposes his cards. 

4. In case of a misdeal, the stakes must be withdrawn and the cards dealt 
over again. 

5. All ties pay to the dealer, except in the case of a " natural " being 
declared previous to the dealer obtaining his second card. Then the 
holder of the "natural" is entitled to receive double stakes immediately, 
before another card is played. 

6. The holder of a " natural," after the first round. v~ entitled to the 
deal. 

7. The dealer is at any time allowed to sell, and any player to purchase, 
the deaL The dealer may also pass the deal to any one desirous of hav- 
ing it. 

8. The " natural " must consist only of an ace and a tenth card dealt 
in the first two rounds. In the case of double or treble hands, an ace 
and a tenth card form " acquired " and not " natural " vingt-uns, and re- 
ceive or pay only single stakes. 

(The brulet) or drawing a card from top and bottom, is rarely- 
played in the United States. — Editor.) 

9. The player who over-draws must immediately declare the fact, and 
pay his stake to the dealer. 

10. In taking brulet the dealer is compelled to retain those two cards, 
but he may add to them if he wishes after all the players are served. 

n. No stake can be withdrawn, added to, or lessened, after it has 
been once laid on the card ; but it must be allowed to remain till the 
dealer declares he stands. 

x2. No stake higher than that agreed to at the commencement of the 
game is allowed. 



QUINCE. 



Quince is played by two persons, with a full pack of cards. The cards 
are shuffled by both players, and when they have cut for deal, which falls 
to the lot of him who cuts the lowest, the deader has the liberty to shuffle 
them again. Ace is lowest. 

When this is done, the adversary cuts them, after which the dealer 
gives one card to his opponent and one to himself. 

Should the dealer's adversary not approve of his card, he is entitled to 
have as many cards given to him, one after the other, as will make 
fifteen, or come nearest to that number ; which are usually given from 
the top of the pack. For example, if he should have a deuce, and draw 
a five, which amounts to seven, he must continue going on in expectation 
of coming nearer to fifteen. If he draw an eight, which will make just 
fifteen, he, as being eldest hand, is sure of winning the game. But if he 
over-draw himself, and make more than fifteen, he loses, unless the dealer 
should happen to do the same ; which circumstance constitutes a drawn 
game ; and the stakes are consequently doubled ; in this manner they 
persevere until one of them has won the game, by standing and being 
nearest to fifteen. 

At the end of each game the cards are packed and shuffled, and the 
players again cut for deal. 

The advantage is certainly on the side of the elder hand. 

Quince may be played by more than two players. 



(279) 



SPECULATION. 



Speculation is played with a whole pack, each card having the sanw 
value as at Whist. Counters are used. Three cards are dealt to each play* 
er, one at a time, face downward, the last being- turned up as trumps. No 
player may look at his cards, or turn up out of his turn. The highest 
trump clears the pool. Previous to the deal the dealer stakes five, an& 
each player three counters, or any larger number that may be agreed on ; 
and the holder of every knave and five of each suit except trumps pays 
one counter to the pool. When the deal is completed, the eldest hand 
turns up his top card, and if it happen not to be a trump, the next player 
exposes his top card, and so on till a trump superior in value to the turn- 
up is shown. When a trump appeal's, its holder offers to sell, and the 
various players bid for it, and it then becomes the property of its pur- 
chaser, and the player next him to the right turns up, and so on till a 
etter trump is shown, which its owner again offers and sells if he 
jjeases ; the holder of the highest trump in the round, whether held by 
purchase or in hand, winning the entire pool. The holder of the trump 
card has always the privilege of concealing his hand till a superior trump 
appears, or of selling either hand or trump. No person looking at his 
card out of turn can be allowed to take the pool, even if he hold the best 
trump. To play Speculation requires some judgment and memory, in 
remembering the cards out in the last deal, and the chances are against 
their reappearing in the round. 



(280: 



MATRIMONY. 



THE game of Matrimony is played by several persons— by any num* 
ber, in fact, from five to fourteen. The game consists of five chances, 
marked on a board or sheet of paper : 

Best. 
The Ace of Diamonds turned up. 



.8 

3 "8 
a* 

o tuo 



INTRIGUE ; 

OR, 

QUEEN AND KNAVE. 



<* IF 
5 3 - 

3 



Pairs. 
The Highest. 

The deal is given to the lowest card cut. The stakes are determined — 
counters are generally used — and the dealer proceeds to place on each or 
any chance the sum he wishes to venture. The other players stake in 
like manner, but one counter fewer than the dealer. Then, if he stakes 
ten, they each place nine counters on the chance. Two cards are then 
dealt to each player, beginning with the elder hand (the left of the deal- 
er), face downward. A third card is then dealt round, face upward. If 
ace of diamonds (best) be turned up, the holder of that card clears the 
board ; but if it be merely held in hand, it ranks as the other aces, but 
if there be no ace of diamonds turned up, then the king or the next high* 
est card in that suit wins the chance called best. The hands are then 
turned up, and the holders of intrigue, matrimony, etc., take the stake., 
placed on those points. When two or more players happen to hold like 
cards- -as pairs, king, and knave, etc. — the elder hand wins the stake; 
but if any chance be not gained it stands over till the next deal ; but the 
stakes may be increased on any unclaimed point. Remember that ace 
of diamonds is best ; king and queen matrimony ; king and knave cvn^ 
federacy ; and any pair the highest, 
WO 



CONNEXIONS. 



Three or four persons may play at this game. The cards bear th« 

same value as at Whist ; and s*f Ihree play, ten cards are dealt to each ; 
but if four, then only eight Diamonds are always trumps, and the sev- 
eral connexions are : 
i. The two black aces. 

2. Ace of spades and king of hearts. 

3. Ace of clubs and king of hearts. 

The pool is made up by each player contributing a certain sum equally ; 
and then, whea the cards are dealt, each person takes up his hand. Sup- 
posing twelve cents be staked by each one, the holder of the first connexion 
is entitled to three cents ; of the second to two cents ; and of the third, 
or of the greatest number of tricks, a penny for each, or in similar pro- 
portion according as higher or lower stakes are agreed on. 

A trump played in any round where there is a connexion, wins th» 
trick — otherwise it is gained by the player of the first card of con- 
nexions ; and after a connexion, any following player may trump with- 
out incurring a revoke, whatever suit may be led ; the person holding a 
card of connexion is at liberty to play it, but the others must, if possible, 
follow suit, unless one of them can answer the connexion, which should 
be done in preference. 

No money can be drawn till the hands are finished; then the 
possessors of the connexions are to take first according to precedence, 
and those having the majority of tricks take last. 

(282) 



CASINO 



Two, four, or six persons can play Casino. They can play partners 
or against one another. Twenty-one points is the game usually. The 
usual deck of fifty-two cards is used. 

In dealing it is always better for the dealer to deal two to his ad- 
versaries, and two to the board, and then two to himself until all 
hands have four cards. Sometimes four at a time are dealt around, 
but this is not a good way. 

If a card is faced or exposed during the deal, a new deal can be 
insisted upon. If in the last round a card is exposed, the player to 
whom the card belongs can force the dealer to take the card. 

The player to the left of the dealer plays first. He can take any 
card from the board if he has a like card in his hand. He can place 
an ace and nine, a five, and a five, a six and a four together and take 
them with a ten. He can combine cards in this way, and if he holds 
a card equal to the combination he can take all the cards used in the 
combination. 

He can also build; that is, place upon a five on the board a five 
from his hand, announcing the build as ten or as fives. In the first 
case he must take it with a ten from his hand; in the latter, with a 
five. If his build amounts to nine, an adversary can play an ace 
from his hand upon it and call it ten, if he also has a ten in his 
hand. An adversary can only raise a build with a card from his 
hand. 

If a player makes a build he cannot raise it, but he can have several 
builds on the board at the same time. If he has a build, and cannot 
take a card nor make another build on his turn to play, he must take 
the build. If in building the player fail to call the build, his ad- 
versaries have the right to disperse the cards and to use them as they 
see fit. 

When all the cards have been dealt out and played, all the cards 
Wt on the table belong to the player taking the last trick. 

The game is scored in this manner: 

The player holding a majority of the cards counts three. 
(283) 



284 CASINO. 



The player capturing Great Casino (ten of diamor..^, counts tw*. 

The placer holding a majority of spades counts one. 

The player capturing L,ittle Casino (two of spades) counts one. 

Each ace counts to the player holding it one. 

The winner of a sweep counts for each sweep one. 

A sweep is counted where all the cards are taken from the board. 

The total number of points, not counting sweeps, possible on a 
hand is eleven. 

If each player holds an equal number of cards, cards are not 
counted. 

A variation of the game is to count knave as eleven, queen as 
twelve, and king as thirteen. With this exception the game is playad 
as described. 

TWENTY-ONE POINT CASINO. 

Generally twenty-one points are agreed upon to constitute a game. 
It is not general to-day to count sweeps: but sweeps should be scored, 
as there is fine play made in the scoring of them. 



THREE AND FOUR HANDED CASINO. 

This game is played precisely like the two-handed one. The player 
who makes the points agreed upon first is winner. In the four- 
handed games there are partners. 



POPE JOAN. 

This game is played by any number, from three to a dozen, who 
use a round board, divided into compartments. 

The eight of diamonds is first taken from the pack, and after 
settling the deal, shuffling, etc., the dealer dresses the board, by 
putting the counters or other stakes, one each to ace, king, queen, 
knave, and game', two to matrimony, two to intrigue, and six to the 
nine of diamonds, styled pope. This dressing is, in some companies, 
at the individual expense of the dealer, though, in others, the players 
contribute each two counters. The cards are then dealt round 
equally to every player, one turned up for trump, and about six or 
eight left in the stock to form stops; as, for example,, if the ten of 
spades be turned up, the nine consequently becomes a stop. The four 
kings and the seven of diamonds are always fixed stops, and the 
dealer is the only person permitted, in the course of the game to refer 



POPE JOAN. 285 

occasionally to the stock for information, where other cards are stops 
in their respective deals. If either ace, king, queen, or knave hap- 
pens to be the turned-up trump, the dealer may take from the board 
the counters deposited in those compartments; but if Pope be turned 
up, the dealer is entitled both to that and the game, besides a stake 
for every card dealt to each player. Unless the game be determined 
by Pope being turned up, the eldest hand begins by playing out as 
many cards as possible; first the stops, then Pope, if he have it, and 
afterward the lowest card of his longest suit, particularly an ace, 
for that never can be led through. The other players follow, when 
they can, in sequence of the same suit till a stop occurs, when the 
party having the stop becomes eldest hand, and leads accordingly; 
and so on, until some person parts with all his cards, by which he 
wins the pool (game), and becomes entitled, besides, to a countei 
for every card not played by the others. The holder of Pope, then 
in hand, is excused from paying. King and queen form Matrimony ; 
queen and knave make Intrigue, when in the same hand. But 
neither these, nor ace, king, queen, knave, nor Pope, entitle the 
holder to the stakes depositd in their several compartments unless 
played out. No claim can be allowed after the beard be dressed for 
the succeeding deal. In all such cases the stakes remain for future 
determination. This game requires a little attention to recollect the 
stops made in the course of he play; as for insance, if a player be- 
gins by laying down the eight of clubs, then the seven in another 
hand forms a stop, whenever that suit be led from any lower card, 
or the eldest hand may safely lay it down, in order to rid himself 
of his cards. 



NEWMARKET. 

This is a modification of Pops Joan, and is played with 51 cards, 
the eight of diamonds, as in Pope Joan, having been taken from the 
pack. From another pack of cards, the ace of spades, the king 
of hearts, the queen of clubs, and knave of diamonds are taken, and 
secured to a board. Sometimes, when the game is regularly played, 
these cards are painted on a slip of canvas, which is placed on the 
table. As in Pope Joan, any number of people can play. The deal is 
determined by the person receiving the first knave. Prior to deal- 
ing, the players may make bets, by putting what counters they 
please on the four cards, ace of spades, king of hearts, queen of 
clubs, and knave of diamonds. They may put up chips on any 
one, or all of them. It is, however, optional, whether players 



286 SARATOGA 



shall put up stakes on these four cards. The pack is dealt in rotation, 
as in Pope Joan, one at a time, one more hand being given, which is 
for stops. The stop hand is given after the dealer has his cards, just 
as all other hands. The person after the dealer begins, and can 
select any suit he may like, but it is obligatory that it shall be the 
lowest card of a suit. As he puts the card on the table, he must call 
it. Then the person holding the next card in suit, announces his 
having it, and puts it on the table, naming it. Say a four is the 
lowest card of a diamond suit the player after the dealer has com- 
menced with. Then the person having the five of diamonds follows, 
then the person having the six, and so on. This is obligatory. Stops 
naturally occur, as when the last of a suit is played — as the final 
kings, or when the seven of diamonds is put on the table, because 
there is no eight of that suit. In the stop hand are of course the 
wanting cards. When a stop is reached, then the playing of that suit 
closes. All cards played so far are faced, and the person who had 
the last stop card begins anew. When one player has been able to 
follow suit, and has no more cards left, he announces it by saying, 
"out." Then the game is closed, and the person who is out receives 
one counter for each card the other players still hold. 

As to the four cards on which wagers have been made, the stakes 
on tliem belong to the player who happens to have the exact card, 
when he succeeds in making a stop with it. Say he has the king of 
hearts. A player before him has put up a queen of hearts, and he 
follows with the king of hearts. Having that king entitles him to 
take down all the wagers on the king. Should it happen that in the 
stop cards there be any of these special cards, the stakes wagered on 
them remain, and serve their purpose for the next round. 

Newmarket requires some judgment to play properly. Having ac- 
quired Pope Joan, however, the methods of good play are the same. 



SARATOGA 



Tins is a modification of Newmarket. The putting up of counters 
on the four cards, ace of spades, king of hearts, queen of clubs, and 
knave of diamonds, is obligatory. Each player furnishes a chip. 
The total is made into four parts and one portion put on each card. 
The game proceeds as in Newmarket. If on any of the cards the 
chips remain after the round is played, they stay there, with the new 
additions, until they are won. All els is as in Newmarket. 



BACCARAT. 



Baccarat is a game of pure chance, and bears some resemblance tn 
Vingt-et-un or Twenty-one, but is much more rapid. The banker or 
the players win or lose as they approximate to a point, which is nine. 

To- play Baccarat a large oval table is used. Generally directly in 
front of the dealer or banker, a line is drawn across the table dividing it 
into two equal portions. Sometimes from a radial point before the bank- 
er lines are drawn to the edge of the table. 

Any number of persons can play. They take places to the light c 
of the line, the banker being in the middle. All who are on his 
make their bets on two cards, all those on his left on two other cards. 
These two cards, to the right and left players and to the banker, m 
supplemented by a third card to each, as will be presently explained. 
Differing from Vingt-et-un, only one new card can be taken. 

In France, Baccarat is played with one pack of fifty-two cards ; in the 
United States with three full packs. Whether one or three pad. 
used, the chances in the game remain the same. The only advantage of 
using throe packs is that less time is lost in shuffling. 

DEALING. 

The cards are shuffled, and cut by as many of the players as may wish. 
The dealer may, at his option, say, " I will throw off three or four or six 
cards before opening the deal "—and can place these face upward on the 
table. These are dead cards, and do not affect the game in any way. 

When the dealer begins, he gives first one card to his left to the j 
A, then one card to the player Q, both being the elder hands, then a 
third card to himself. He gives a second card to A, a second to Q, and 
a third to himself. There are only six cards given in this preliminary 
stage of the game. 

Before any cards have been given bets are made. All the players on 
the left make their bets on the cards to be given to A, as do the players 
on the right, who make their bets on the cards Q is to receive. 

After this the first round, it is B on fhe left and P on the right who 
t^et the next two cards second round, C and O, and so on, unti) 

(&7) 



288 



BACCARAT. 



finally the most distant players from the dealer, I and J, get their two 
cards. Then the dealer, who is the banker, begins with A and Q again, 
lext to B and P, as before explained. 

A BACCARAT TABLE. 
Players. 




X is the Dealer, or Banker. 

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, are players to the left of the dealer, X, and 
ail bet on two cards given them. 

J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, players to the right, bet on two other cards 
given them. 

X is the dealer. He takes also two cards. 



&A CCA RAT. 



289 



OBJECT OF THE GAME. 

Players and the banker try to get the point of nine. If the right* 
hand players have made a seven, the left-hand players a five, and the 
banker six, the bank would pay all the wagers made by the right-hand 
players, and would win all the wagers made by the left-hand players. 
The banker's six was one point less than the players on the right who 
had seven, and one point more than the players on the left, who had five 

HOW THE CARDS COUNT. 

Nine is the highest winning point. Cards count ace, one ; deuce, two, 
and so on according to their spots. The tens and all the picture-cards 
count ten. But a ten has no value in Baccarat. It neither increases nor 
diminishes the value of the cards. 



Example. 



S? 




One and three make four. If a ten were given as the third card, one 
and a three and ten would be fourteen. Deduct ten from it, the total 
would still be foui. The holder of the one three, and ten, has four. 
But the combination of ten may entirely destroy the value of the points 
found in the first two cards. 

Example. 



O 

o 

o 



<? 


V 


<? 


9 


<? 


V 



The first two are the cards given, the total is four. Another card is asked 
tor, and a six — any six — say the six of hearts is received. This counts as 
six ; an ace is one, a trey is three, and a six is six — one and three and 
six make ten. Ten has no value, and the player has zero, or nothing. 
This point of ten is called Baccarat. 

Take the case where the addition of a card may make the winning 
point, an ace and a three is four. If a five be received, then i-f 3+5-=9, 
and nine is the winning point of Baccarat. 

A player may receive two tens as the first two cards, and get, if he 



BACCARAT* 

for it, a third card, which is a ten, and he will have thirty— or three 
, which counts for nothing. He may, however, get a nine, or twenty- 
all— then the tens counting nothing, he has the best point in 
game, which is nine. 
The leading hands are any combinations in which two cards make 
, or by ten being deducted from them leave nine. Thus a five and 3- 
four are a natural nine, as are one and eight, or two and seven, or three and 
six, or four and five, or two and seven, or three and six, or a ten or a 
picture-card and a nine. Two nines, being eighteen, deducting the ten 
is a good point, being eight. 

This being understood, we will suppose that the game has been opened. 
The left-hand players have made their bets before taking any cards, and 
the right-hand players having done the same thing, the banker accepting 
the bets, cards are dealt, as before explained, one at a time, the left, 
the right, the banker, each getting a first card, then a second one. 

The player A looks at his cards, and he represents the interests of all 
the left. The cards show a king and a deuce. The point a two. A 
must draw, for his point is seven less than nine. He gets an eight. He 
has twenty in count, which is nothing. Q, on the other side to the right, 
has an eight and a two, which is ten, or nothing. He draws a card — it 
is a nine. He has then nineteen. Deducting the ten, he has nine, which 
is the winning point. The banker draws a card or not, as he pleases. 
He may have a five and a two, which is seven. He stands. It would be 
.too dangerous for him to expect to draw an ace or a deuce, to make him 
eight or nine. Should he draw a trey, that card would make him ten, or 
nothing. If it were a four, 5 + 2+4=11, would make him one point only. 
He does not draw. He stands. The cards are shown after the point* 
are announced, and the banker wins all the money staked on one side 
where there is twenty or nothing, and pays on the other side where 
there is nine. 

Players should draw a card when they are four. The banker's game it 
ilifferent. He judges whether the players' hands have been augmented 
or diminished by the fall of the cards. He might stand at four and win, 
because the other sides have taken cards and may have not augmented 
their hands. If the ddes stand, it is supposable they have at least five. 
When either the players or the banker has a natural eight or nine, it 
must be announced at once, and shown. Example : The left has a two 
and a six, or a four and a five. The player announces eight or nint 
the case may be. The banker looks at his card, does not announce any. 
thing. The right-hand play or eight, or it would have 

been announced. He asks for a card, and ■ ~ V© nine with the third 



BACCARAT. 291 

-ard The banker may draw a card and make kJnc He pays the 
natural eight or nine, and it is a stand-off with the others who have 
made the same point. 

No combination of three cards, if it even makes nine, is as good as 
u natural eight or nine. No double payments are made for naturals. 

LAWS. 

Only one card can be taken after the two original cards have been 

received. 

Calling a hand, and making a mistake, brings with it no penalty, 
because, as in Poker, nothing is taken for granted. The cards must 
be shown. 

Nine cards may be necessary when the last round is played. If 
there are only eight cards the play ceases. Cards are all gathered 
in, and a new deal begins. 

Eight or nine made in the first two cards must be at once an- 
nounced, as "eight," or "nine," and placed face up on the table. 

The person representing the side of the table where he holds the 
cards, has a right to decide whether he will take a third card or not. 

The banker must have money enough to met any bet. If he has 
not he must retire. 

The banker can decline continuing his bank when he pleases. 

If the dealer turns over a card given to the player, he is bound to 
expose one of his own cards. 

If he exposes two cards in dealing, he must show both his own 
cards, and then the players have the option of withdrawing their 
bets, or holding the banker to them. 

BACCARAT CHEMIN DE FER. 

This game is different from Baccarat Banque in that it is played with 
six packs of cards. The arrangement of the table and the players is 
the same in each game. Players draw lots for seats. Beginning with 
the croupier, each player in turn shuffles the cards. When they have 
made the round of the table, the croupier offers the cards to the player 
or the left to cut. He then takes part of the pack and passes them to 
the player on the right, who for the time is the dealer. The play from 
this point on is practically the same as in Baccarat Banque. If the 
banker should "pass the deal," the other players in rotation have a 
right to take the amount in it upon the retirement of the previous 
banker, but must open the bank with it. Should none care for the 
deal it goes to the player next to the right of the retiring banker, who 
an start the bank with any amount that suits him. The late banker 
Ss now regarded as the last in order of rotation. A player who has 
gone bank and lost is entitled to do so again on the following hand. 
although the deal may have passed to another player. 



£ CARTE. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. 

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

The game of Ecarte is played by two persons. A pack of cards is 
required from which the sixes, fives, fours, threes, and twos have been 
thrown out. It is more convenient to have two packs, each being used 
alternately. The packs should be differently marked or colored on the 
backs. 

If three wish to join in the game they can do so by playing a pool. 
Each contributes an equal sum to the pool. All cut ; the lowest is out ; 
the other two play the first game. The loser of this game adds to the 
pool a sum equal to what he put in at first, and the person who was out 
takes his place. If the winner of the first game loses the second, he puts 
a stake in the pool and retires ; and so on, till one player wins two games 
consecutively, when he takes the pool. 

DEALING. 

The players having cut for deal the pack is shuffled, and the non-dealer 
cuts it. The dealer reunites the packets, and gives five cards to each 
player. The cards are not dealt singly, but by two at a time to each, and 
then by three at a time to each, or vice versa. In whichever manner the 
dealer commences to distribute the cards he must continue throughout 
the game. He may change the order at the commencement of a subse- 
quent game on informing the non-dealer before the pack is cut. 

The eleventh card, now the top of the pack, is turned up for trumps. 
Should it happen to be a king, the dealer marks one ; otherwise the turn- 
up is of no value ; it merely indicates the trump suit for that deal. The 
remainder of the pack after the trump card is turned up is called the 
stock. The stock should be placed to the dealer's left. 



ECARTE. 293 



DISCARDING AND PLAYING. 

The players now look at their hands. Should the non-dealer be 
satisfied with his cards, he may at once proceed to play them. But if 
he considers it to his advantage to exchange any or all of them, he 
proposes, saying, "I propose," or "Cards." 

If the non-dealer proposes, the dealer has the option of changing 
any or all of his cards, and he signifies his intentions of doing so by 
saying, "I accept," or "How many?" But if the dealer is satisfied 
with his hand he may refuse to give cards, saying, "I refuse," or 
"Play." 

If the non-dealer plays without proposing, the dealer noist also play 
without exchanging any cards. 

When a proposal is accepted, the non-dealer separates t-om his hand 
the number of cards he desires to exchange, and places thera face down- 
ward on the table to his right, at the same time naming the number dis- 
carded. The dealer also separates his discard, and places it to his right. 
The trump card is put aside, and the cards required by the non-dealer, to 
restore the number in hand to five again, are given him from the top of 
the stock. The dealer then helps himself to the number he has discarded. 

If the non-dealer is still dissatisfied, he may propose a second time, 
saying, " Again," and the dealer may accept or refuse as before ; and so 
on until the non-dealer has a hand that he wishes to play, or until the 
dealer refuses. 

The next thing in order is for the non-dealer, if he holds the king of 
trumps in his hand, to mark one. He must announce the king before 
playing his first card, unless the card first played is the king, when he 
may announce it before it is played to. 

After the discard, or, if there is no discard, after the deal, the non- 
dealer leads any card he thinks fit. His adversary plays a card to it ; the 
two cards thus played constitute a trick. 

If the dealer holds the king of trumps, he must announce it before 
playing, unless it is the card he first plays, when he may announce it 
before playing again. 

The second player must not renounce if he holds a card of the suit led> 
— 1. e., he is bound to follow suit, if able ; and he must win the trick, if he 
can. The highest card of the suit led wins the trick. The cards rank in 
the following order, beginning with the highest, king, queen, knave, ace, 
ten, nine, eight, seven. Trumps win other suits. Failing the suit led, the 
second player, if he has a trump, must win the trick by trumping. The 
winner of the trick leads to the next, and so on till the hand is played out. 






&CART& 



SCORING. 

The score accrues from turning up or holding; the king, as before ex- 
plained, and from winning the majority of tricks. 

player who wins three tricks out of the five gains th& point, and 
scores one. If he wins all five tricks he gains the vole, and scores two. 
Winning four tricks is no better than winning three. 

If the non-dealer plays without proposing, and fails to make three 
tricks, his adversary scores two, just the same as though he had won a 
vole. Losing the vole is of no further consequence in this case, as wheth- 
er the adversary makes three tricks or five, he scores two. 

Similarly, if the dealer refuses cards, and fails to win three tricks, his 
adversary scores two. 

The rule as to playing without proposing and as to refusing, only ap- 
plies to the first proposal or refusal in each hand. Playing without pro- 
posing a second time, or refusing a second proposal, does not entail an> 
penalty. 

The game is five up, — z. e., the player who first obtains five wins the 
game. 

The score is most conveniently marked by means of counters, four be- 
ing required by each player. The score should be marked to the player's 
right ; and the counters not in use should be placed to his left. 

HANDS TO BE PLAYED WITHOUT PROPOSING. 

It is generally deemed advantageous to risk hands where the odds aie 
two to one, or nearly so, in favor of winning the point. These hands, 
called Jeux de Regie, and the mode of playing them are as follows : 

[Spades are trumps throughout. The score is assumed to be love-all " 

No. i. — Any hand with three or more trumps. 
Lead the highest trump. 



No. 2. 



V 


IV 

♦ * 







s? 


9 




9 


<p 


<p 




9 


V 


<p 




Two trumps, and three cards of a suit. 

Lead the highest card of the suit not trumps, and continue until 

ped. 
If one of the trumps is the king, ask for cards, 



&CARTE. 



295 



No. 3. 




V 




o o 

[o o 



4. A 

4. 4. 

4. * 



Two trumps, queen and another of a suit, and a small ccrd of a third 
suit. 

If the trumps are high, lead the guarded queen ; if low, lead the single 
card, in hopes of forcing, and of being led to in the guarded suit. 

If one of the trumps is the king, ask for cards. But with king and an- 
other trump, queen and another, of the second suit, and an honor in the 
third, the hand should be played. 

With queen in each of the three suits, begin with the queen of trumps, 
as, if the king is encountered, the other suits are led up to. 

If the guarded plain card is a king, lead the king. 



No. 4. 



* * 




V 

* * 




s? 

9 V 




S? 




Two trumps, eight, seven of a suit, and king of a third suit. 

Commence with the highest guarded plain card, and if it wins continue 
the suit. 

If one of the trumps is the king, ask for cards. 

With similar but rather stronger hands — as, for example, king and an- 
other trump, queen, knave of the second suit, and a knave — commence 
with the guarded queen, and then, if it wins, play the king of trumps. 

Hands of intermediate strength between No. 3 and No. 4 should be 
played, viz. : two trumps, knave, ace of one suit, and eight of another ; 
or ace, ten of one suit, and ten of another ; or ten, nine of one suit, and 
knave of another ; or nine, eight of one suit, and queen 01 another. Lead 
the highest guarded plain card. 



No. 5. 












o 



ol 



Two trumps, a king, a knave, and a seven of different suits. Lead the 
single king. 

Similarly, hands containing king, ace, nine, of different suits, or king 
and two tens of different suits from the king, should be played. 



296 



&CART± 



Also hands containing two queens ; queeu, knave, ace of different 
s'iits ; or three court cards. In all these hands the highest single card 
should be led. 



No. 6. 



A A 


|C?](gf 


A 


~« V 


♦ ♦ 


w 


♦ ♦ 


ijrSkk 




* + 



One trump, a tierce major, and a small card of a third suit. 

Lead one of the tierce, and continue the suit. If trumped, the lead is re 
gained with the trump. If not trumped, play the tierce major and then 
the trump. 

If the trump is the king, commence with the trump. 

If the trump is the queen, and the king is not declared after the lead v 
then play the queen, except at the point of four (see Effect of Score). 

With king, queen, and a small card of the strong suit, the hand should 
not be played unless the other card out of trumps is an honor, or the cards 
he!d are king, queen, ace. and eight or nine of the third suit ; or ki»g, 
queen, ten, and another ten. 



No. 7. 



A A 






0°0 







0% 









One trump, and king with three small cards of the same suit as 
the king. 

I,ead the king, and continue the suit. 

If the trump is the king, ask for cards. 

If the trump is the queen and the king is not declared after the 
lead, then play the queen, except at the point of four (see Effect of 
Score). 



No. 8. 



A% 









One trumpr,~5 queen single, and a queen with two small cards. 

Start with the guarded queen, and continue the suit; if trumped, 
play it again on obtaining the lead. 

If the trump is the king, ask for cards, unless the guard to the 
queen is at least as high as the ten. 

If each queen is singly guarded, ask for cards, unless one of the 
guards is at least as high as the ten. 



ScartR 297 

No. 9. — Four court cards, except the four knaves ; but play four knaves 
if the knave of trumps is guarded (Jeu de Regie No. 5). As a general 
rule, commence with the guarded card of the strongest suit out of trumps. 

No. 10# — Hands from which only two cards can be discarded without 
throwing a king or a trump ; also hands guarded by a queen in three suits. 

The same general rule as before. Thus, with no trump and three 
queens, begin with a guarded queen. 

If the king of trumps is not in hand the discard of two cards is almost 
aiways bad, as the adversary has the advantage of being able to exchange 
five cards against two. But with the king of trumps in hand a player 
may discard more freely until he gets cards that answer his purpose, as 
pointed out in the list of Jeux de Regie. 

Hands stronger than those enumerated should be played without pro- 
posing. There is one exception to this rule. If the non-dealer holds 
cards which insure the point, he should propose even for one card, unless 
he holds all court cards and trumps. For by proposing he has the chance 
of a refusal, which gives him two points for three tricks ; and if the pro- 
posal is accepted, and he takes in one good card, it may give him the vole. 

Also, having proposed once, and holding the point certain, it is often 
good play to propose again, for the chance of the vole. It is almost 
always right for the non-dealer to ask for cards a second time if he has 
queen of trumps single and a weak hand. 

When a player does not play his hand, he should throw out all cards 
except trumps and kings. 

HANDS WITH WHICH TO REFUSE. 

The general rule for the dealer is to accept, unless he is guarded in 
three suits, or is guarded in two suits, and has a trump. A queen in each 
of three suits is a sufficient guard . 

Jeu de Regie No. 1.— Refuse, unless one of the trumps is the king. 

No. 2 should not be played unless the plain suit is headed by a court 
card. AcceDt with king in hand. 

Nos. 3 and 4, and the intermediate hands, should be played; but 
if the king is in hand, accept. Play No. 5. 

No. 6 should not be played unless the single card is a court card. 
With similar hands (see Jeu de Regie No. 6), accept, unless the 
single card is king or queen. 

Nos. 7 and 8 are too weak to be played. But refr.ze on No. 8 if 
both queens are singly guarded. 

Also, play one trump, queen of one suit, and knave guarded of ar> 



298 



rtA 



other, if the fifth card guards the queen, or is a court card : accept if me 
trump is the king. 

Play one trump and two kings : or one trump, with king and queen of 
jifferent suits, one being guarded. Accept if both are unguarded, unless 
<vith a card at least as high as ace in the fourth suit. 

No. 9.- It the court cards are of three different suits refuse, but if not, 
£ive cards. 

No. 10. — Refuse with three queens if two are 'singly guarded, otherwise 
accept. Also, refuse on hands from which only two cards can be dis- 
carded without throwing a king or a trump, unless king of trumps is in 
hand. 



GENERAL RULES FOR PLAYING. 

The general system of play is to lead from two or more of a suit, and 
to lead the highest. The lead from a strong suit is the one most likely to 
force the adversary ; and, if the trumps are equal, the first force will 
probably win the point. 

But, when playing a weak hand after a refusal, with no hope of the 
point, and fear of the vole, it is right to lead the strongest single card, so 
that the guarded suit may be led up to. The rule does not apply to a 
king, which in such case should be played out at once. Having only one 
queen guarded, or one knave guarded, it is never right under these cir- 
cumstances to lead the guarded card. For example : with a queen single, 
a queen guarded, and two worthless cards. Cards are refused. Lead 
the single queen. A further advantage of leading in this way is that the 
player will not be embarrassed at the end of the hand as to which Queen 
he shall keep. 

If the strong suit led is not trumped, it should, as a rule, be persevered 
with. But if the leader lias the king of trumps, or queen (king not hav- 
ing been declared in the other hand), or knave and ace, it is advisable to 
take out a trump before going on with the suit (see, however, Effect of 
Score, last par.). 

Another exception to persevering with the suit is when playing for the 
vole with a weak trump, and high cards in the other suits. In this case 
the play is to change the suit each time, as the best chance of avoiding a 
ruff. If three tricks are made in this way, then the single trump should 
be played. 

When playing with two trumps and an unguarded king, it is usually 
recommended to begin with a low card rather than with the king. If the 



Aids are of the same suit, it is the game to begin with them ; but il 
of different suits, the king; is the best card to play. 

Trumps should not be led at starting, even though the best suit in hand, 
unless the leader holds king ; or queen, knave ; or knave, ace ; with court 
cards out of trumps (see also Jeux de Rhgle for hands with which to 
commence with a trump). Holding three trumps, the two highest being 
m sequence, it is always the game to commence with a trump. 

If cards are refused, it is better to play from two small consecutive 
cards than from a high tenace. Thus : the leader has king, nine of hearts, 
king of clubs, and eight, seven ot diamonds. Spades are trumps. He 
proposes and is refused. He should lead a diamond. Again : the leader 
has king of spades (trumps), eight and seven of clubs, and queen, and 
seven of hearts. He proposes and is refused. He should lead the king 
of trumos and then a ciub. 

Having made two tricks and remaining with the queen of trumps and 
two small ones (the king having been declared in the other hand), the 
leader, by playing a small trump, must make the point. 

Having made two tricks, and finding the adversary has no trump, it is 
better to lead a king than a trump. Then lead the trump, and the ad- 
versary, if he has another card of the kii ill be in 
to keep that suit or not ; whereas, ha 

itatingly have kept the suit in which he 

the king should equally be played if 

hen the of course keep 

EFFE •: SCORE. 

When the dealer is at four, any hand should be played withoul 
posing, which gives an even chance of three tricks — e. g. , a queen, a guard- 
ed knave, and a guarded ten ; or, in the language of the card-table, " play 
a light hand against four." If the point is lost, the adversary wins the 
game in any case, and by not changing cards all chance of his taking the 
king is avoided. When the non-dealer is at four, the dealer should also 
refuse on a light hand ; but he ought to have some protection in three 
suits, as for instance three knaves, or a knave and two guarded tens. 

The dealer being at four, it is advisable for the non-dealer to play any 
hand which contains one trump, unless the cards out of trumps are of 
different suits and very small ; and also for the dealer to refuse cards if he 
holds a trump when his adversary is at four. With one trump and four 
small cards of a suit the non-dealer should play at this point of the 93vme* 
Uut the dealer should not. 



3°0 &CART& 

Again : if the dealer is at four, the rule to ask for &.n&a with three cer- 
tain tricks in hand does not hold, unless the player proposing has the 
king of trumps. 

If the non-dealer plays without proposing when he is at four to the 
dealer's three, the dealer if he holds the king ought not to mark it ; for 
if he wins the point he scores two and the game ; and marking the king 
would but unnecessarily expose his hand. The same rule applies to the 
2on-dealer, if the dealer refuses cards when he is at four and his oppo- 
nent at three. 

At the same score (dealer four to three), the dealer should refuse on a 
light hand, notwithstanding that the loss of the point will then lose him 
the game. The reason is that the player proposing at this score must 
have very bad cards. This rule, though important, is ofter. disrt^araed, 
even by players of some experience. 

At four a forward game should not be played in trumps, as tnere is no 
advantage in winning the vole. Thus, with yeu de Regie No. 6, if the 
trump is the queen the leader should continue the suit and not play the 
trump after passing the king of his suit. By playing in this way it is pos- 
sible to make three tricks, even against two trumps in the other hand. 
For if the adversary holds knave and another trump, and trumps the sec- 
ond card of the strong suit, he will probably lead his knave to pass his 
other cards. If he does so he loses the point. 



HINTS TO BEGINNERS. 

Always shuffle your adversary's pack so as to separate every card. The 
reason is that the cards get packed in suits in the course of play, and if 
the pack is not well shuffled the trump card will not improbably be of the 
same suit as the cards immediately preceding it, which cards are in the 
dealer's hand. 

For a similar reason, it is to the advantage of the dealer to deal the 
hands by two and by three rather than by three and by two. 

A player having the king in his hand, should not announce it till the 
last moment. The non-dealer should not announce the king till in the 
act of leading his first card ; and the dealer should not announce the king 
till after his adversary has led. 

If about to propose with doubtful cards, it is important to propose 
quickly, as hesitation exposes the nature of the hand. It is especially 
necessary to be prompt when proposing with the point certain. 



&CARTK 



30i 



THE ODDS AT fiCARTE. 

The deal is of no advantage at Ecarte, notwithstanding that the dealer's 
chance of marking the king, as against the non-dealer's, is 66 to 35, or 
not quite 2 to 1. This advantage, however, in the opinion of experienced 
players, is more than counterbalanced by the advantages of the lead and 
of the option of proposing. 

When the scores are equal, even money is commonly laid. At unequal 
scores, the odds — in the language of Ecarte players — are always " on the 
table " — i. e. , the score each player has to make is laid against him. For 
instance, at one to love, the betting is 5 to 4 on the player who has scored ; 
at three to one, the betting is 4 to 2 on the player who is at three ; and so 
on. The layer of odds is considered to have a slight advantage through- 
out, except at the point of three with the deal against two, when 3 to 2 
is a bad bet to lay : also at four with the deal to three, 2 to 1 is bad for 
the layer. 

TABLE OF ODDS. ' 



SCORE. 


ODDS. 


•SCORE. 






ODDS. 


I.ove all 


Even 


2 all 






Even 


1 to 


5 to 4 


3 to 2 






*3 to 2 


2 to 


5 to 3 


4 to 2 






3 to 1 


3 to 

4 to 


5 to 2 
5 to I 


3 all 

4 to 3 






Even 
+2 to 1 


1 all 

2 to 1 


Even 
4 to 3 


4 all 






Even 


3 to 1 

4 to 1 


4 to 2 

4 to 1 


* Bad to lay if 3 
t Bad to lay if 4 


has the deal, 
has the deal. 



LAWS OF ECARTE. 

These laws are condensed from Cavendish's rules, which have been 
adopted by all the leading clubs of England. 

Each player may shuffle the cards. A cut must consist of not less 
than two cards. If more than one card is exposed there must be a 
new cut. The player cutting the highest Ecarte card deals and has 
choice of cards and seat also. 

If the dealer exposes an opponent's card the latter can demand a new 
■deal, if he makes demand before looking at his cards. A faced card 
ivoids the deal, unless it happens to be the eleventh or trump card. If a 
mistake in dealing is made and discovered before one trump card is 
turned, the non-dealer may demand a new deal. If either player deal out 



-02 EC ARTE. 

of turn or with the wrong pack, the deal is void. After the deal is com- 
pleted it must stand. If two or more cards are turned up by the dealer. 
Ins adversary, if he has not looked at his hand, can decide which . 
shall be trump or he may demand a new deal. 

If a non-dealer finds that he has too many cards when the deal is com 
pleted, he may demand a fresh deal or discard his extra cards, provided 
he has ncit' r proposed nor led a'card; if he has too few he may demand 
a new deal o is hand completed from the stock. If the dealer has 

too many or too few cards, the non-dealer can demand a new deal, or 
draw the extra cards from the dealer, or permit the dealer to nil his hand 
from the stock. This can be done only in ca^e the non-dealer has not 
refused, accepted, nor played the first trick. 

A player cannot look at the cards he has discarded. If a player takes 
more cards than he has discarded, his adversary can demand a 
deal. If he takes fewer cards he must play with his hand incomplete. 
If more cards or fewer cards are given the non-dealer than he asked for, 
it is optional with him whether he demand a new deal. The same rule 
applies to the dealer. If the elder hand, after several changes of cards, 
proposes again, and the dealer accepts without considering whether there 
are enough cards in the stock, the former may take as many cards ti 
from as lie wishes. The dealer may then take the remainder. 

After discarding, both players are entitled to see any faced card 
the deck. If a king is turned up the dealer can mark it at any time 
before the trump card of the succeeding deal is turned up. If eil 
player has king of trumps he must announce it before playing his 
card or he cannot mark it. If either player play with au hacomp] 
hand, his' adversary can count as tricks cards which his opponent ca 1 

r. A player leading a card in turn cannot take it up again,, unless it 
is led in reply to a lead, when it can be retaken before another cai 
led, if the player has revoked or failed to win a trick he could have v 
, player play turn he must take up his card, unless it is 

holds good. A player who throws down 
point if he has taken a trick, and two if he 

own them down if he lowers then 
as to give his adversary the idea that he has given up. When a pk 
kes or underfaces, his opponent may demand that the cards be pla 
over 

In England bystanders are not permitted to interfere, while in 
e coverin may call >la 

■ 



ROUNCE 



A Full pack is used. The values are as in Whist, and a trump is 
turned. Five players make a good game of Rounce; more than nine 
cannot play. The deal is determined by cutting for the highest card. 
Five cards are dealt by. twos and threes to each person, but the dealer 
gives a sixth hand before helping himself, and this is a dummy com- 
posed of six cards. When all have five cards each, and the dummy 
six, then the last card is turned, which is the trump. The deal goes 
to the left. The object is for each player to make as many tricks 
as he can. The age may take the dummy or not, as he pleases, or he 
may be contented with his five cards. If he elects neither to play 
nor to use the dummy, he says, "I pass." If he plays, he says, "I 
play." If the player passes he has no interest in the pool, to which 
every player has contributed one or more chips. If the dummy is 
taken, there being six cards, one is discarded. If every player says, 
"I pass," and the dealer chooses to play, the elder hand is forced to 
play. The dealer has the right to the turned up trump, discarding 
one of his cards. 

The game is fifteen. Generally it is played with a bit of chalk, on 
a table. Three St. Andrew's crosses are made, like this XXX. As 
a point is scored, a portion of the crosses effaced thus [ X X, would 
mean that the player had made five points. Every trick made score? 
one point, and must be marked at once. If a person playing makes 
no trick at all, he adds five points to his score. Thus, starting with 
fifteen, a player may have twenty points to make, or five more to get 
rid of than what he commenced with. 

In playing, the age leads, the rest following suit. It is optional 
to trump or not to trump. Suits must be followed. The player win- 
ning a trick must follow with a lead of trumps, providing he has one. 
If he has no trumps, he may lead what he pleases. 

(303) 



304 ROUNCB. 



RULES. 

The rules of dealing are as in Whist, but the penalties for mistakes 
are that the dealer adds five points to his score, and is rounced. 

The exposure of a card, or playing out of turn, makes the player 
rounced. 

If no one will play against the dealer, he takes off five points from 
his score. 

A revoke brings with it rounce. If a player does not lead trumps 
after taking a trick he is rounced. 

The pot belongs to the first player who has effaced his fifteen 
points. 



JACK-POT ROUNCE. 

This is played in the same way as regular Rounce, only the dealer 
foregoes the advantage of his trump, if he desires to do so, and no 
one is forced to play against him. Then each player contributes one 
chip more to the pot, and the game continues as before. Another 
variation of the game is to oblige every one to play on the third 
round, and in this way the game is brought more rapidly to a con- 
clusion. 

SHORT RAMSCH. 

Ramsch is a modification of Rounce. It may be played just as in 
Rounce, with thirty-two cards, four or five persons, with a dummy 
of six cards; the last card being a trump. 



GERMAN RAMSCH. 

This is like Rounce, and played with thirty-two cards. A player 
after taking one trick, leads trump; but if he takes a second trick 
consecutively, he need not play trumps. Occasionally what is called 
Blind Rounce, is played. A player then has no trump, but takes the 
lowest card in his hand, places it face down on the table, when the 
other players must put on their trumps. The modifications of Ramsch 
are endless. 



ROUNCE. 3°5 



SKAT RAMSCH. 

(See Skat.) The four matadores are the highest cards, in their regular 
order. Jack of clubs, then spades, hearts, and last diamonds. After 
that the aces, then the kings, queens, and tens. Aces and tens count, 
however, as in Skat. The player having the highest number of points 
loses ; paying, if he has all the points, fifteen chips to each player, but 
less than all the points, ten chips to each. By general consent Ramsch is 
not played in the game of Skat. 

ORDER OF PLAY AT SKAT. 

As Skat is being played in the United States, and the beauties of the 
game discovered, the tendency is to make the declares not backwards as 
in Germany, but in the same direction as are all games of cards played in 
the United States. Why should you deal at Skat to your left, and de- 
clare to your right ? This is the only innovation as to declarations 
which the Editors of Hoyle's Games can allow, in a game in which they 
believe they have helped to introduce into the United States. 



MONTE 



Tms is the favorite Mexican and Cuban game, and is played with 
Spanish cards. Whereas our cards number fifty-two, Spanish cards, 
/eaving out the tens, eights, and nines, have forty cards. After shuffling, 
the banker takes two cards from the bottom of the pack and lays them 
on the table, face up, putting them close together. These two cards are 
known as the bottom lay-out. The punters now bet on these two cards. 
The dealer next takes two cards from the top of the pack and places 
them on the table. The punters may bet on these if they wish to, or any 
card in the lay-out. The pack is now taken and held in the banker's 
hand, face upward. What was the bottom card is now on top. This is 
Known as the top card. There being four lay-out cards, if the card 
shown on the top be of the same kind, the punter wins one-half of his 
stake. If it is not, the banker wins the entire stake. The banker draws 
the cards one by one, until the whole thirty=six cards have been shown. 
This concludes a deal. A punter may wager what he plea Inst the 

bank, the only limit being what amount is in the bank. The percent- 
age in favor of the bank is very large. If eqUal amounts were always 
wagered on the four cards of the lay-outf it would be even more in his 
favor. 



(306), 



SLOBBERHANNES. 



A EUCHRE pack is used, and is dealt two at a time to four players, 
each player receiving eight cards. No trump is made. It is not a game 
of partners. The value of cards is as in Whist. Suits must be followed ; 
if not, any card may be put on a trick. 

Slobberhannes is a game where the endeavor is made to take no tricks 
of make no points. Ten being the losing score, tricks and certain cards 
count points against the player who secures them. To make ten first is 
to lose the game. 

Taking the first trick counts one against the player making it, The 
last trick made counts another. Any player making the queen of clubs 
has a point scored against him. Should a player take the first trick, the 
last one, and get the queen of clubs among his tricks, instead of three, 
he has one more point added to his score, and is declared Slobberhanneii. 
In some respects Slobberhannes resembles Hearts. 

If a player revokes he is further penalized and one point is added to 
his score. 

(307) 



QUADRILLE. 



The game of Quadrille is played by four persons, and the number of 
cards required is forty ; the four tens, nines, and eights being discarded 
from the pack. The deal is made by distributing the cards to each player, 
three at a time for two rounds, and four for one round, commencing with 
the right-hand player — the elder hand. 

The trump is made by the person who plays, with or without calling, 
by naming spades, clubs, diamonds, or hearts, and the suit so named be- 
comes trumps. 

The two following tables will show the rank and order of the cards 
when trumps, or when not so : 

RANK AND ORDER OF THE CARDS WHEN TRUMPS. 



CLUBS AND SPADES. 



HEARTS AND DIAMONDS. 



Spadille, 


the ace of spades. 


Spadille, the 


ace of spades. 


Manille, 


the deuce of spades or of 


Manille, the 


seven of hearts or of 


clubs. 




diamonds. 




Basto, the ace of clubs. 


Basto, the ace of clubs. 






Punto, the ace of hearts or of dia* 






monds. 




King. 


Six. 


King. 


Three. 


Quee*. 


Five. 


Queen. 


Four. 


Knave. 


Four. 


Knave. 


Five. 


Seven. 


Three. 


Deuce. 


Six. 




ii in all. 




12 in all. 



'30tt 



QUADRILLE. 3°9 



RANK AND ORDER OF THE CARDS WHEN NOT 
TRUMPS. 





CLUBS AND SPADES. 


Hear 


rS AND DlAMC 


King. 


Five. 


King. 


Three. 


Queen. 


Four. 


Queen. 


Four. 


Knave. 


Three. 


Knave. 


Five. 


Seven. 


Deuce. 


Ace. 


Six. 


Six. 




Deuce. 


Seven. 




o in all. 




10 in all. 



Thus it will be seen that spadille and basto are always trumps ; and 
that the red suits have one trump more than the black, the former twelve, 
and the latter only eleven. 

Between spadille and basto there is a trump called manille — in black 
the deuce, and in red the seven ; they are the second cards when trumps, 
and the last in their respective suits when not trumps. Example : the 
deuce of spades being second trump when they are trumps, and the 
lowest cards when clubs, hearts, or diamonds are trumps, and so of 
the rest. 

Punto is the ace of hearts or diamonds, which are above the king, and 
the fourth trump when either of those suits are trumps, but are below the 
knave and ace of diamonds or hearts, when they are not trumps. The 
two of hearts or diamonds is always superior to the three ; the three to 
the four ; the four to the five ; and the five to the six ; the six is only 
superior to the seven when it is not trumps ; for when the seven is manille 
it is the second trump. 

There are three matadores, viz., spadille, manille, and basto, whose 
privilege is, when the player has no other trumps but them, and trumps 
are led, he is not obliged to play them, but may play what card he thinks 
proper ; provided, however, that the trump led is of an inferior value : 
but if spadille should be led, he that has manille or basto only is com- 
pelled to lead it, which is the case with basto in respect to manille, 
the superior matadore always forcing the inferior. 

TERMS USED IN QUADRILLE. 

To ASK leave is to ask leave to play with a partner, by calling a 
king. 

Basto. — The ace of clubs, always the third best trump. 

Bast is a penalty incurred by not winning when you stand your 
game, or by renouncing; in which cases you pay as many counters as 
are down. 

Chevilu- is being between the eldest hand and the dealer. 



31 QUADRILLE. 

Codille is when those who defend the pool make more tricks than 
those who defend the game, which is called winning the codille. 

Consolation is a claim to the game, always paid by those who lose, 
whether by codille or demise. 

Dkyou: is when he who stands the game makes no trick. 

DoueeU is to play for double stakes with regard to the game, the 
consolation, the sans prendre, the matadores, and the devole. 

Force. — The ombre is said to be forced when a strong trump is 
played fur the adversary to over-trump. He is, likewise, said to be 
forced when he asks leave, and one of the other players obliges him 
to play sans prendre; or pass, by offering to play sans prendre. 

Forced SpadillE is, when all have passed, he who has spadillc 
is obliged to play it. 

Forced Sans Prendre is, when having asked leave, one of the play- 
ers offers to play alone, in which case you are obliged to play alone 
or pass. 

Friend is the player who has the king called. 

Impasse. — To make the impasse is when, being in cheville, the 
knave of a suit is played, of which the player has the king. 

ManillE is, in black, the deuce of spades or clubs; in red, the 
seven of hearts or diamonds, and is always the second best trump. 

Mark means the fish put down by the dealer. 

MiEEE is a mark of ivory which is sometimes used, and stands for 
ten fish. 

Matadores, or MaTTS, are spadillc, manille, and basto, which are 
always the three best trumps. False matadores are any sequence of 
trumps, following the matadores regularly. 

Ombre is the name given to him who stands the game, by 
calling or playing sans appeler or sans prendre. 

Party is the duration of the game, according to the number of 
tours agreed to be played. 

Pass is the term used when you have not either a hand to play 
alone, or with calling a king. 

Ponto, or Punto, is the ace of diamonds, when diamonds are 
trumps; or hearts, when they are trumps, and is then the fourth trm 

Pooe. — The pool consists of fish staked for the deals, or the 
counters put down by the players, or the basts which go to the game. 
To defend the pool is to be against him who stands the game. 

Prise is the number of fish or counters given to each player at 
the commencement of the game. 

REGLE is the order to be observed at the game. 

Remise is when they who stand the game do not make more tricks 
that] they who defend the pool, and then they lose by remise. 



QUADRILLE. 31 I 

Renounce is, not to play in the suit led when you have it; like- 
wise, when not having any of the suit led, you win with a card that 
is the only one you have of that suit in which you play. 

Reprise is synonymous with party. 

Report is synonymous with reprise and party. 

Roi rendu is the king surrendered when called and given to the 
ombre, for which he pays a fish; in which case, the person to whom 
the game is given up must win the game alone. 

SpadileE is the ace of spades, which is always the best trump. 

Sans Appeler is playing without calling a king. 

Sans prendre is erroneously used for sans appeler, meaning the 
same. 

Tenace is to wait with two trumps that must make when he who 
has two others is obliged to lead, such as the two black aces against 
manille or punto. 

Tours are the counters, which they who win put down, to mark 
the number of coups played. 

VoeE is to get all the tricks, either with a friend or alone, sans 
prendre, or declared at the first of fhe deal. 



LAWS OF QUADRILLE. 

i. The cards are to be. dealt by fours and threes, and in no other 
manner. The dealer is at liberty to begin by four or three. If in 
dealing there is a faced card there must be a new deal, unless it is 
the last card. 

2. If there are too many or too few cards, it is also a new deal 

3. For dealing wrongly, the dealer must deal again. 

4. He who has asked leave is obliged to play. 

5. Xo one should play out of his turn; if, however, he does% he 
is not basted for it, but the card played may be called at any time 
in that deal, provided it does not cause a revoke; or either of the 
adversaries may demand the partner of him who played out of his 
turn, or his own partner, to play any suit he thinks fit. 

6. Xo matadore can be forced but by a superior matt; but the 
superior forces the inefrior, when led by the first olayer. 

7. Whoever names any suit for trumps must abide by it, even 
though it should happen to be his worst suit. 

8. If you play with eleven cards you are basted. 

9. If you play sans prendre, or have matadores, you art to demand 



3T2 QUADRILLE. 

them before the next dealer has finished his deal, otherwise you lose the 
benefit. 

10. If any one names his trump without asking leave, he must play 
alone, unless the youngest hand and the rest have passed. 

n. If any person plays out of his turn, the card may be called at anj 
time, or the adversary may call a suit. 

12. If the person who won the sixth trick plays the seventh card, he 
must play the vole. 

13. If you have four kings, you may call a queen to one of your kings, 
or call one of your kings ; but you must not call the queen of trumps. 

14. If a card is separated from the rest, and it is seen, it must be 
played, if the adverse party has seen it, unless the person who separated 
it plays sans prendre. 

15. If the king called or his partner plays out of his turn, no vole can 
be played. 

16. No one is to be basted for a renounce, unless the trick is turned 
and quitted ; and if any person renounces and it is discovered, if the 
player should happen to be basted by such renounce, all the parties are to 
take up their cards and play them over again. 

17. Forced spadille is not obliged to make three tricks. 

18. The person who undertakes to play the vole has the preference of 
playing before him who offers to play sans prendre. 

19. The player is entitled to know who is his king called, before he de- 
clares for the vole. 

20. When six tricks are won, the person who won the sixth must say, 
" I play — or do not play — the vole "; or u I ask "; and no more. 

21. He who has passed once has no right to play after, unless he has 
spadille ; and he who asks must play, unless somebody else plays sans 
prendre. 

22. If the players show their cards before they have won six tricks, they 
may be called. 

23. Whoever has asked leave cannot play sans prendre, unless he h 
jorced. 

24. Any person may look at the tricks when he is to lead. 

25. Whoever, playing for a vole, loses it, has a right to stakes, san* 
prendre, and matadores. 

26. Forced spadille cannot play for the vole. 

27. If any person discover his game he cannot play the vole. 

28. No one is to declare how many trumps are out. 

29. He who plays and does not win three tricks, is basted alone, unless 
forced spadille. 



QUADRILLE. ^ 

30. If there are two cards of a sort, it is a void deal, if discovered 
before the deal is played out. 



MAXIMS FOR LEARNERS. 

When you are the ombre, and your friend leads from a matt, play yout 
best trump, and then lead the next best the first opportunity. 

If you possess all the trumps continue to lead them, except you hold 
certain other winning cards. 

If all the other matts are not revealed by the time you have six tricks, 
do not run a risk in playing for the vole. 

When you are the friend called, and hold only a matt, lead it ; but if 
it is guarded by a small trump, lead that. But when the ombre is last 
player, lead the best trump you possess. 

Punto in red, or king of trumps in black, are good cards to lead when 
you are best ; and should either of them succeed, then play a small 
trump. 

If the ombre leads to discover his friend, and you have king, queen, 
and knave, put on the knave. 

Preserve the suit called, whether friend or foe. 

When playing against a lone hand, never lead a king, unless you have 
the queen ; nor change the suit : and prevent, if possible, the ombre from 
being last player. 

You are to call your strongest suits, except you have a queen guarded : 
and if elder hand, you have a better chance than middle hand. 

A good player may play a weaker game, either elder or younger, than 
middle hand. 



MODE OF PLAYING QUADRILLE. 

Hoyle has the following directions for playing the game of Quadrille 
scientifically ; 

The first thing to be done, after you have seen your cards, is, to ask 
leave to pass, or play, sans prendre ; and if you name a wrong trump 
you must abide by it. 

If all the players pass, he who has spadille is obliged to play; but 
if he does not take three tricks, he is not basted. 



3 i4 QUADRILLE. 

The player ought to have a fair probability of winning three tricis 
when he calls a king, to prevent his being basted. 

Therefore we will set down such games only as give a fair chanc* 
to win the game by calling a king, with directions at the end of each 
case what trump you are to lead. 

Various calculations and examples of games arc then given. Thesf 
lowever, arc ;oc engui; for my purpose. 



SI XTY-SIX, 



INTRODUCTORY. 

The game of Sixty-six is usually played by two persons, with a pack 
of twenty-four cards, the twos, threes, fours, fives, sixes, sevens, and 
eights being thrown out from a pack of fifty-two cards. 

DEALING. 

The players having cut for deal (see Law 3), the pack is shuffled, and 
the non-dealer cuts it. The dealer reunites the cut packets, and gives six 
cards to each player by three at a time, commencing with his adversary. 
The thirteenth card, now the top of the undealt cards, is turned up for 
trumps. The trump card is placed face upward between the players, and 
the remainder of the pack (called the stock) is placed face downward by 
the trump card and slightly spread, so that cards may be easily taken 
n it durinp the play. 

PLAYING AND DECLARING. 

The non-dealer now leads any card he pleases from his hand. The 

dealer plays to it any card he pleases from his hand, without restriction 

as to suit or value. The two cards thus played constitute a trick. The 

hest card of the suit-led wins the trick, the cards ranking ace (highest),, 

ten, king, queen, knave, nine (lowest). Trumps win other suits. 

The winner of the trick places it face downward in front of him- 
self. Tricks turned and quitted must not be looked at again during 
the play. This is the strict rule; hut sometimes, by previous agree- 
llowed to c::amine his own tricks. 
the trick then draws the top card of the stock, his 
next card, the number of cards in hand being thus 
as at first. The winner then leads to the next trick, 
his opponent plays to it, and so on, alternately playing and drawing, 
mausted, or sixty-six is announced, or one of the 
cs. 

<3i5> 



3 i6 SIXTY -SIX. 

The objects of the play are to win counting cards in the tricks, and 
to declare marriages. 

Each player, for each card in the tricks won by him, counts toward 
sixty-six as follows: 



For an ace . . . . u 

For a ten 10 

For a king .... 4 



For a queen . . . , 
For a knave , . . , 
The nine has no value. 



Marriage consists of king and queen of the same suit held in the hand 
[A one player. A marriage can only be declared after winning a trick, 
and before leading again ; consequently the non-dealer cannot declare 
when he leads his first card. 

Marriage is declared by showing the king and queen. A player having 
declared a marriage must then lead one of the declared cards. The im- 
mediate lead of a declared card being compulsory, it follows that only one 
marriage can be declared at a time. A declared marriage counts just the 
same, whether the card of it led wins the trick or not. 

Marriage in trumps, when declared, counts forty ; marriage in a plain 
suit, when declared, counts twenty. 

A player having won a trick, and drawing or holding the nine of 
trumps, may exchange it for the turn-up card at any time, whether he is 
the leader or not, unless it happens to be the bottom card of the stock, 
when the player drawing it must keep it. Nothing is counted for ex- 
changing. Exchanging does not involve the necessity of closing. 

As the hand proceeds, each player has to keep in mind the count made 
by tricks and marriages, both by his adversary and himself. No record 
of the count toward sixty-six is allowed to be set up. 

LAST SIX TRICKS. 

When the stock is exhausted all but one card, the winner of the trick 
takes that card, his adversary the turn-up or nine exchanged for it, and 
the play of the last six tricks commences. The rule of play now alters in 
one particular. The second player must follow suit, if able (see Law 17). 
It is not compulsory to win the trick. Marriages can still be declared. 

When the hand is thus played out to the end, the last trick of all (/. e. % 
the twelfth trick) counts ten toward sixty-six. 

ANNOUNCING. 

During the play of the hand, if either player by tricks and marriages 
irrives at the count of sixty-six or more, he may announce it whenever be 



SIXTY-SIX. 317 

has the lead ; the same if the hand is played out, and the addition of tea 
for the twelfth trick makes the winner of it sixty-six or more Whem 
sixty-six is announced, and the claim allowed, the hand is at an end, and 
the player announcing scores toward the game as follows : 

Three points, if the adversary has no count that hand ; 

Two points, if the adversary has counted less than thirty-three ; 

One point, if the adversary has counted thirty-three or more. 

The game is seven points up. The points may be scored as at Long 
Whist, or by means of a marking-board. 

It will be observed that the player first correctly announcing sixty-six 
wins, not the one first arriving at sixty-six. It sometimes happens, more 
especially with beginners, that a player is sixty-six and is in doubt as to 
his exact score. If he plays on, his adversary may win a trick or two, 
and announce sixty-six first. 

When a player announces sixty-six, the tricks may be examined to 
ascertain whether the announcement is correct. 

When sixty-six is announced, whether correctly or not, no more cards 
are played, and counting cards in hand and unplayed are of no value. 
If incorrectly announced, Law 18 comes into operation. 

It is possible that the hand may be played out to the end without either 
player announcing, when no points are scored, and the deal passes to the 
adversary. In this case, whether by mistake in counting, or by both 
players counting sixty-five, it is sometimes ruled that the winner next 
hand may add one point to his score ; but the practice is not recom- 
mended. Each hand should be distinct in itself. 

CLOSING. 

If, before the stock is exhausted, a player has winning cards enough in 
his hand to make sixty-six, he may close after winning a trick, and, before 
leading again. Thus, a player having dealt to him origin fly ace, ten, 
king, and queen of trumps, may lay them down and score t* ee points, as 
these cards count in themselves sixty-eight, and the playe> holding them 
must win the first trick. 

But closing generally takes place during the play 0/ jhe hand. If a 
player who has won a trick thinks he has winning ca-* £ enough in his 
hand, together with the count he has already ma^ . by tricks, or by 
tricks and marriages, to enable him to arrive at sixty fix or more, he may 
close whenever he has the lead. He signifies hi* intention by turning 
down the trump card. It follows from this, that • player cannot close 
after the stock is exhausted. If, when the trun? i card is turned down, 



yg SIXTY-SIX. 

either player who has won a trick holds the nine of trumps, he may ex- 
change it before he plays to the next trick. 

Some players permit closing by the original leader, when he has first to 
lead. If this rule prevails, a player holding; the nine of trumps may ex' 
change, notwithstanding that he has not won a trick. 

The leader may close either before or after drawing from the stock. 
His adversary has no choice, but must follow the leader's example, and 
play either with or without, drawing. 

After the leader has closed the drawing ceases, and the last five or six 
tricks (as the case may be) are played, following the rules of play of the 
test six tricks, except that there is no score for winning the last trick. 

If the player closing makes sixty-six or more, he scores one, two, or 
three points toward game, according to his opponent's count. If the 
player closing fails to count sixty-six, or if his adversary wins a trick after 
the game is closed, and correctly announces sixty-six before the player 
closing announces sixty-six, the adversary scores one point if the closing 
player is thirty-three or more ; two points if the closing player is less than 
thirty-three. 

If a player closes before his opponent has won a trick, and fails to 
count sixty-six, the opponent scores three points. 

THREE-HANDED SIXTY-SIX. 

The dealer gives the other two players each six cards, by three at a 
time, commencing to his left, but none to himself. When the hand is 
ended, he scores the same number of points as the winner ; but the dealer 
cannot score beyond six in any hand. The deal passes in rotation to the 
left. The first deal is a slight advantage, as the dealer must score. *The 
player who first makes seven wins, and leaves the other two to play 
to decide the loser. The loser pays the stake to each of the other players, 
and has the first deal next game. If, when the first player who is out has 
to deal next, he deals before retiring, otherwise the lead would be re- 
versed to the other two players. 

FOUR-HANDED SIXTY-SIX. 

The sevens and eights are left in the pack. The players cut for deal 
and for partners, as at Whist, except that the highest deals. The deal and 
play of the cards is conducted as at Whist, except that a player, unable to 
follow suit, must trump if able to head or win the trick, and when trumps 
are led the players must head the trick, if able. The trump card belongs 
to thp donlrr, and cannot be exchanged, and tho^e i~ no marriage or 



SIXTY-SIX. 319 

tIo»ing. The counting cards in the tricks reckon the same as at Sixty- 
six, and the winners of the last trick add ten to their score. If at 
the end of the hand the winners count sixty-six, and less than a 
hundred, they mark one point; if over a hundred and less than a 
hundred and thirty, two points; if they win every trick, three points. 
The side winning the ten of trumps scores a point at once. 



HOW TO PLAY SIXTY-SIX. 

f . The safest cards to lead are nines or knaves of plain suits. It is, 
as a rule, better to lead a ten or an ace than a king or queen, but so much 
depends on the count that no general rule can be given. 

2. The latter part of Hint 1 does not apply to a suit of which the king 
or queen has been played. 

3. Win a trick with an ace in preference to a ten, and, having declared 
r. marriage, lead the queen in preference to the king. 

4. As a rule, holding che nine of trumps, do not exchange until the last 
moment, that the adversary may be kept in the dark as to the position of 
the nine. If exchanging the tum-up card completes a marriage in trumps, 
the player holding the nine and having the lead, would generally do right 
to exchange at once. 

5. It is most important to keep in mind the count made by both players, 
to be able on the one hand to announce sity-six as soon as it is made, and 
on the other hand to judge when to close. In most hands this depends 
on the counts. No positive rule can be laid down ; but, generally, begin- 
ners miss their opportunity by not closing sufficiently early. 

6. Closing is generally done in order to score, but it should not be for- 
gotten that it is occasionally resorted to to save a point— e. g.> the leader, 
counting less than thirty-three, may know that he must lose two points if 
he does not close ; by closing he may be able to count thirty-three or 
more. He should then close, although it may be impossible for him to 
reach sixty-six. 

7. When playing the last six tricks, or after closing, of course the for* 
mer part of Hint 1 does not apply. 

8. If a player renders himself liable to Laws 13-15, order a draw 
if absolutely sure of scoring two or mere points; out, if not, end th« 
hand and score one point. 



320 SIXTY-SIX. 



LAWS OF SIXTY-SIX. 

SHUFFLING. 

i. Each player has a right to shuffle. The dealer has the right of 
shuffling last. 

2. The pack must .not be shuffled below the table, nor so that the face? 
of the cards can be seen. 

CUTTING. 

3. At least two cards must be cut, and at least two cards must be left 
in the lower packet. In cutting for deal, the person who cuts first should 
leave sufficient cards to enable the other to comply with the above pro- 
vision. The highest Sixty-six card deals, and has choice of cards and 
seats. 

4. If more than one card is exposed in cutting for deal, the adversary 
aiay select which of the exposed cards he pleases, and treat it as the one 
^ut. If a card is exposed in cutting to the dealer, there must be a 
fresh cut. 

5. If the dealer exposes a card in reuniting the cut packets, or if there 
is any confusion of the cards, or if the dealer shuffles after the pack is 
cut, there must be a fresh cut. 

DEALING. 

6. The players deal alternately throughout the game. 

7. If the dealer gives his adversary or himself too few cards, and the 
*»rror is not discovered until after the trump card is turned up, the number 
must be completed from the stock. The non-dealer, not having looked at 
his cards, may, if he prefers it, have a fresh deal (see Law 10, b). 

8. If the dealer gives his adversary or himself too many cards, and the 
error is not discovered until after the trump card is turned up, the playfr' 
having too many must not draw until his number is reduced to five. The 
non-dealer, not having looked at his cards, may, if he prefers it, have a 
fresh deal (see Law 10, b) . 

9. If a card is exposed in dealing, the adversary has the option of 9 
fresh deal, the same dealer dealing again. 

10. There must be a fresh deal : 

(«). If the dealer deals without having the pack cut. 

(d). If the dealer deals out of order (e. g. y gives the wrong num- 
ber of cards, the error being discovered before the trump 
card is turned up), or turns up two cards. 

(c). If there is a faced card in the pack. 



SIXTY-SIX. 321 

11. If a player deals out of turn, lie may be stopped at any time 
before the trump card is turned; if not stopped, the deal stands good. 

PLAYING AND DRAWING. 

12. If a player leads out of turn, or, having announced a marriage, 
leads a wrong card, there is no penalty. If the adversary plays to tha 
card led, the error cannot be rectified. 

13. If a player fails to draw when he ought, and plays anotne* cam 
his adversary may allow the offender to draw and proceed with the game; 
or he may score one point, and end the hand. 

14. If a player draws out of his turn, and his adversary follows the 
draw, there is no penalty. If the adversary discovers the error before 
drawing, he may draw and proceed with the game ; or he may score one 
point, and end the hand. 

15. If a player draws when he has six cards in his hand, his adversary 
may proceed with the game, and require the offender to play next time 
without drawing ; or he may score one point, and end the hand. 

16. If the player whose turn it is to draw first, lifts two cards in draw- 
ing, his adversary may have them both turned face upward, and then 
choose which he will take. If the player whose turn it is to draw second 
lifts two cards, his adversary has a right to see the one improperly lifted, 
and at the next draw the top two cards are turned face upward, and the 
player not in fault may choose which he will take. 

17. If, after the stock is exhausted, or there is a close, a player does 
not follow suit, when able, he can score no point that hand, and his ad- 
versary marks two points ; or three if the offender has no count toward 
sixty-six. 

18. If a player announces sixty-six, and on examination it appears that 
he cannot count as much, his adversary scores two points, and the hand 
's ended. 

19. The turned and quitted tricks must not be searched during the play 
of the hand. 

INCORRECT PACKS. 

20. If a pack is discovered to be incorrect, redundant, or imperfect, 
the deal in which the discovery is made is void. All preceding deals 
and the cut for deal stand good, 



IMPERIAL. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. 

INTRODUCTORY. 
The game of Imperial is played by two persons, with a pack of thirty- 
two cards ; the sixes, fives, fours, threes, and twos being thrown out from 
a complete pack of fifty-two cards. It is convenient to use two packs, 
each being dealt with alternately. 

DEALING. 

The players cut for deal. The hignest deals. The cards rank in the 
following order, both in cutting and playing: king (highest), queen, 
knave, ace, ten, nine, eight, seven (lowest). 

The cards are cut by the non-dealer, or elder hand, to the dealer, or 
younger hand. The dealer reunites the packets and deals ihe top cards 
to his adversary, the next to himself, and so on, till they have twelve 
cards apiece. The deal may be of two cards at a time to each, or of 
three at a time to each. 

The twenty-fifth card, now the top of the pack, is turned up for trumps. 
Should it be an ho7ior (king, queen, knave, ace, or seven) the dealer 
marks one. Otherwise, the turn-up merely indicates the trump suit foi 
that deaL The remainder of the pack (called the stock) is placed face 
downward on the table, with the turn-up card face upward upon it. 

The players deal alternately throughout the game 

CALLING AND SHOWING. 
The deal having been completed, the players next skew or oz// certain 
combinations of the cards in hand, or in hand together with the turn-up, 
and score for them. These combinations are imperials and the point. 
imperials are : 

.. A carte blanche— i. e., a hand which contains neither king v queen* 
nor knave. 

1 2 ° 



IMPERIAL. 



3 2 3 



2. Any quart-major—/. *., sequence of king, queen, knave, ace, of the 
same suit. 

3. Four kings, four queens, four knaves, four aces, or four sevens. 

4. Some players also allow a won imperial,—/, e., if ace, knave of trumps 
are won by one player with king, queen, or queen, ace by king, knave, in 
playing the cards. But this score is not recommended. 

Except in the case of carte blanche the turn-up card may be used by 
either player in forming an imperial. For instance : A knave is turned 
up. One player has three knaves in his hand. He can score an imperial 
of knaves. His adversary holds king, queen, ace of trumps. He can score 
an i.nperial for quart-major in trumps. 

Each player scores an imperial for every imperial he holds, and two 
imperials for carte blanche. Thus : A has in hand, or with the turn-up, 
four kings, four queens, and four knaves. He scores three imperials. 
B has Carte blanche, and, either in hand, or with the turn-up, four aces 
apd four sevens. He scores four imperials. 

The elder hand has precedence in scoring imperials. 

The point is scored by the player who calls and shows the suit of great- 
est strength, according to the following way of valuing it : The king, 
queen, knave, are valued at ten apiece, the ace at eleven, and the other 
cards at the number of pips on each. Thus : suppose the elder hand has 
king, ace, nine, eight, as his best suit, he announces it by calling ■« Thirty- 

efeht." 

If the younger hand has no suit of greater or equal value, he replies, 
" Good." If his best suit also makes thirty-eight, or whatever number 
may be called, he replies, " Equal." If the younger hand has a point of 
more than thirty-eight, or whatever number may be called, he replies, 
" Not good." 

If the point is equal neither player scores for point. 

The elder hand first shows any imperials he may hold. If he has no 
imperial he calls his point. 

Before replying to the call of point, the younger hand shows any impe- 
rials he may hold. If he has no imperials, he replies, " Good," ■« Equal,* 5 
or " Not Good," to the call of point. If the elder hand's point is good 
he shows it and scores for it, and leads a card. If the point is equal he 
shows it, and leads a card. If his point is not good he leads a card. 

If the younger hand's point is good he shows it and scores for it after 
his adversary has led, and before he plays to the card led. If equal, to 
shows his equality before he plays to the card led. 



324 nrPKM'AT}. 



PLAYING. 

, If carte blanche is held, each player scores any imperials he may have. 
No point is called. The hand is then at an end, and the next dealer deals. 

Except in the case of cai te blanche, after imperials and the point are 
declared, the elder hand leads any card from his hand he pleases. The 
youngei hand plays to the card led, the two cards so played constitut- 
ing a trick. The younger hand is bound to follow suit if able. He is 
not obliged to win the trick, and if he has no card of the suit led, he may 
play any card from his hand he pleases. 

The highest card of the suit led wins the trick. Trumps win other 
suits. The winner of the trick leads to the next, and so on till the hand 
is played out. 

During the play of the hand each honor (king, queen, knave, ace, or 
seven of trumps) is scored by the player who wins the trick containing 
it. If an honor is led and wins, or is won by, another honor, the winner 
of the trick scores for both honors. Similarly, if the card led is trumped 
with an honor, the winner of the trick scores for it. 

The player who wins more than six tricks, scores for each trick he wins 
above six. If each wins six tricks, the cards are divided, and there is no 
score for tricks. 

During the play of the cards the tricks are left face upward on the table, 
in front of the player winning them. Either player may examine the tricks 
at any time. 

For the sake of convenience, cards shown in reckoning imperials or the 
point are taken in hand again. But all cards scored for, or, in the case of 
the point, scored for as good, or shown as equal, must be exhibited to the 
adversary, if demanded, at any time during the play of the cards. Among 
players, the cards are not, as a rule, exhibited again, but all necessary 
questions with regard to them are replied to. Thus : A scores a point of 
thirty-eight. During the play, if B inquires, " How many of your point 
have you in hand ? " A is bound to tell him. The information need only 
be given as to cards actually shown as good or equal. Thus, if B 
(younger hand) had a suit of five hearts, but only showed four of them 
for point, and has played two of the cards he showed, and A then says, 
44 How many hearts?" B is entitled to reply, " Two," though he has 
three. The inquirer is bound in effect to say, " How many hearts that 
you have shown ? " and B's reply is understood by all plavers in that 
sense. 



IMPERIAL. 2 2 5 



SCORING. 

Each player should be furnished with five white counters and five ted 
ones, or with five round counters and five long ones ; the latter are to be 
preferred. A long counter is equal to six round ones. The score should 
be marked to the right hancl ; the counters not in use should be kept U 
the left hand. 

The scores are as follows : 

i. Honor turned up, scores one (marked with a round counter). 

2. An imperial scores six (marked with a long counter). Carte blanch* 
scores twelve (marked with two long counters). 

3. The point scores one (marked with a round counter), 

4. Honors won during the play of the hand, each scores one (marked 
with round counters). 

5. The cards. Each trick above six scores one (marked with round 
counters) . 

When the score of six is reached by the aggregation of scores for honor 
turned up, point, honors won in play, or the cards, and imperial is scored 
; — i. e. , the round counters are taken down, and a long counter is trans- 
ferred to the right hand. 

The score of an imperial, either in hand or by the aggregation of small 
scores up to six, takes down any score of the adversary less than an im« 
perial. Thus : A has four marked toward an imperial. B has five, deals, 
and turns up an honor. B scores six, takes down his five round counters, 
and puts up a long one. A has to take down his four round counters, 
and the score stands, B, one imperial to love. 

Observe, only scores less than an imperial are taken down. Thus: If, 
in the case above given, A had an imperial and four marked, he would 
only take down his four, not his imperial, and the score would stand, one 
imperial all. 

There is one exception to this rule. If both players hold an imperial 
in hand (or if one holds an imperial and the other two or more imperials), 
each scores his imperial or imperials, but neither takes down his score, if 
any, less than an imperial. 

In scoring, it is Important to keep in mind the order in which the scores 
are reckoned. Honor turned up counts first ; then imperials in hand ; 
then the point ; then honors won in play ; and, lastly, the cards. 

Some examples will show how this precedence affects the score. 

A has an imperial in hand, and has four marked toward an imperial. 
B has five marked toward an imperial, deals, and turns up an honor. As 



32 g IMPERIAL. 

the honor turned up reckons before an imperial iri hand, B scores an 
imperial, and A has to take down his four. 

But suppose B does not turn up an honor. A shows his imperial, and 
(unless B also has an imperial), B has to take down his five, and the score 
Stands, A, one imperial and four to love. 

Again : Suppose, at five-all toward an imperial, B turns up an honor, 
and both he and A hold an imperial in hand. As B's honor turned up 
reckons before an imperial in hand, and as it makes him six, he scores an 
imperial, and A has to take down his five. Each player then scores the 
imperial in hand, and the score stands, A, one imperial ; B, two imperials. 

Again : A has four, and B has five scored toward an imperial. The 
last two cards in the play of the hand are two honors, and are won by A. 
B has already won seven tricks. Nevertheless, A scores an imperial, be- 
cause honors won in play reckon before tricks. B has to take down his 
score of five points. 

The hand is not completed when an imperial is gained. Scores which 
accrue subsequently to the score of an imperial, are marked toward the 
next imperial. Thus, in the case last given, A takes down his four and 
marks an imperial. B takes down his five ; but, as he wins one trick, he 
sets up one toward the next imperial. Among players, B would say, " I 
win one by the cards," and would take down four of his round counters, 
leaving one up. The score would then stand, A, one imperial and love- 

B, one. 

Similarly, a player winning an imperial, and having other scores in the 
same hand, counts them on to the next imperial. For example : A has a 
score of four. He has the point good, making him five. He then leads 
the king of trumps, which captures another honor, for which he scores 
two. This makes him an imperial, and one toward the next imperial. 
The play of the hand continues, and each player marks toward the next 
imperial any honors he may win, or any tricks above six he may make. 

One more example : A has a score of four ; B has a score of one. A 
uhows an imperial. His score is then one imperial and four to love. B 

now scores the point, wins two honors in play, and scores three. A also 

wins an honor, and scores one, making him five. B wins four by cards. 

He scores seven— z. <?., he marks an imperial, and one toward the next; 

and the score stands, one imperial all (A having to take down his score 

of five) ; B, one toward the next imperial. 

The number of imperials that shall constitute a game is a matter of 

agreement. It is recommended that the game be won by the player who 

first wins six imperials ; and for this reason each player is provided witb 

five long counters. 



IMPERIAL. 2> 2 7 



ADVICE HOW TO PLAY IMPERIAL. 

i. The deal is an advantage, as there is the chance of turning up an 
honor. Also, the younger hand does not expose his cards to the same 
extent as the elder in calling or showing the point, and, except the leader 
has a strong sequence in amy suit, he opens it to a disadvantage. 
' 2. On taking up your hand, after having looked for any imperials, note 
what imperials there may be against you. These, if not shown, you may 
assume are not held by your opponent. Hence you gain an insight into 
his hand. 

3. Similarly, with regard to the point. If your point of, say, four cards 
is good, your adversary cannot hold five cards of any suit. Suppose you 
call a point of thirty-four, and it is allowed to be good. You may take 
it as certain that your adversary has three cards of each suit in his hand, 
a knowledge of which fact may be of great assistance to you in playing 
the cards. 

Again : Your adversary, elder hand, announces a point of thirty-nine, 
which is not good. Thirty-nine can only be made with three tenth cards 
(king, queen, knave, or ten) and a nine, or with two tenth cards, an ace, 
and an eight. You should examine your hand to ascertain whether the 
cards called can only be in a given suit. If so, you know four cards in 
the opponent's hand. 

The following table shows of what cards a point which is not shown 
must consist : 

A point of 34 must contain 7, 8, 9, and a tenth card. 
lt IC t4 ( 7, 8, and two tenth cards. 

35 I 7j 8, g, and an ace. 

M £ it t4 \ 7, 9, and two tenth cards. 

3° 1 7, 8, ace, and a tenth card. 

( 7 and three tenth cards. 
*« 37 " •« J 8, 9, and two tenth cards. 

( 7, 9, ace, and a tenth card. 

i 8 and three tenth cards. 
•« 38 " " ■< 8, 9, ace, and a tenth card. 

I 7, ace, and two tenth cards. 



M t4 ,< i 9 and three tenth cards. 

39 "j 8, ace, and two tenth cards. 

<{ tc M ( Four tenth cards. 

40 (9, ace, and two tenth cards. 

" 41 " " Ace and three tenth cards. 

For points from forty-four to fifty-one it is only necessary to add a 



32 g IMPERIAL. 

tenth card to these. Fifty can only be made in one way, viz., with 9, 
ace, and three tenth cards. Higher points follow a similar rule. 

4. If the younger hand's point is good, he should only show so much 
of it as is requisite to beat the point called by the elder hand. Thus : if 
the elder hand calls thirty-eight for point, and the younger hand holds 
king, queen, ace, eight, seven,, of a suit, he should only show king, queen, 
are, eight, which make thirty-nine. 

If the elder hand has occasion to ask the younger how many cards of 
his point he has in hand, he must not forget that the younger only 
answers with regard to cards shown, and that his adversary may hold 
another card or other cards of the same suit, which have not been shown. 

5. Do not forget when younger hand, to show an imperial before reply- 
ing to the call of point (see Law 14). 

6. The objects to be striven for in playing the cards, are to win with 
the high honors the lower honors of the adversary, or to make low honors 
by trumping, and to gain the majority of tricks. 

7. The leader should, as a rule, attack in suits in which he holds a 
sequence, and should avoid suits in which he has a tenace. For example : 
Knave, ace, ten, is a better suit to open than king, knave, ten. Again, 
king, queen, seven, in which there is no tenace, is a better suit to open 
than king, queen, ace. Of course, a general rule like this presupposes 
that you have no knowledge of the cards held by your adversaiy in the 
suit you lead. 

8. With great power in trumps you should generally lead them, in 
hopes of capturing adverse honors, and of preventing your winning cards 
from being trumped. Bear in mind that there are, besides the turn-up, 
seven trumps in the pack. Therefore, if you have four trumps, your 
opponent can only hold three, and so on. Suppose your four trumps are 
queen, knave, ten, nine (ace turned up). In leading them, you should 
not unnecessarily expose one of your honors to the risk of capture by the 
king, but should lead the nine or ten. 

9. Unless trumps are led, you will probably be forced sooner or later. 
If you take the force, you will, of course, trump with a low honor, in 
order to score it, in preference to ten, nine, or eight. Thus, in the cas 
triven in Advice 8, if you are forced, you should trump with the knave 01 
queen. 

ic. Trumping with honors should, however, be done with judgment, 
or tricks may be thrown away. For example : With four cards in hand, 
viz., king, knave, and eight of trumps, and one losing card of a suit in 
which you know the adversary must hold a higher card, if you are forced 
it would be an unnecessary sacrifice of strength to trump with the knav«. 



IMPERIAL. 



329 



It may lose a trick, and may lose the winning of an hono.\ You 
would, of course, trump with the eight, and lead the losing card. 

Again : A (leader) has three cards left, viz., two trumps and a forcing 
card, and leads the forcing card. B has king of trumps and two losing 
cards. B should not trump the forcing card led, but should tnrow one 
of his losing cards. He can gain nothing by winning the trick ; and if 
it so happens that A's trumps are both honors, B gains a score of one 
by refusing the force. 

11. A pretty feature in the play of the cards is this : If you see from 
the score that you can get an imperial by honors or by tricks, and that 
your adversary cannot get an imperial by honors or tricks, keep on forc- 
ing him, to make him score as many as you can before your imperial 
takes down his score. For example : You hold king, queen of hearts 
(trumps, seven turned up) ; king, knave, eight of spades ; king, queen, 
ten, nine of diamonds ; and queen, knave, eight of clubs. You have a 
sec re of four, so your king, queen of trumps must give you an imperial. 

Your adversary has a score of two, including one he marks for the 
honor turned up. You call your point in diamonds, which is not good, 
and lead king of diamonds. 

Your adversary now shows queen, ace, ten, nine of spades as his point, 
which makes him three. He can only hold two honors, so he cannot 
score more than five. Your game is to force him, that he may waste any 
honors he holds, by trumping with them before you gain und mark your 
imperial. 

Suppose the remainder of his hand to be knave, ace, nine, eight of 
hearts ; king, nine of clubs ; and knave, ace of diamonds. 

You go on with the diamonds. He trumps the third diamond with the 
ace of hearts, and leads a spade. You win, and force him again in dia- 
monds. He trumps with the knave, and is five. 

During the remainder of the play of the hand you make your king, 
queen of trumps, score an imperial, and he has to take down his five. 
You may make the trick, and are an imperial and one to love. 

Now suppose, with your very strong playing hand, you, after leading 
king of diamonds, had led king, queen of trumps, which you would have 
been perfectly justified in doing at any smaller score toward an imperial 
on your side, in hopes of making- an imperial by catching honors, or by 
a great score of tricks, see whal would have happened. You, being foi!r ? 
would have scored an imperial. Your adversary would subsequently have 
scored both his honors, and would have started the next hand at the score 
of two instead of love to your one. 

12. Playing to the score is of the greatest importance in nearly every 



33 o IMPERIAL. 

hand. The following is a good example: A (elder hand) has declared 
a point of three cards. Hence, he must hold three of each suit. The 
last six cards in his hand are, as his adversary knows, three spades and 
three trumps (hearts), say, king, knave, eight of spades, and knave, 
ten, nme °* hearts. 

B (younger hand) has to lead. He holds queen, ten, seven of spades, 
and king, queen, eight of hearts. Seven turned up. 

A has five up toward an imperial; B has three up. B's object is to 
win three honors before A makes one. In this case tricks are of 
secondary consequence. 

B leads queen of spades. A wins with king, and leads knave of 
spades. To the knave B should throw the ten. A then leads eight of 
spades; B plays seven. 

A must then lead a heart. If he leads nine or ten, B must play the 
eight. B wins the last two tricks, including three honors, and scores 
an imperial. 

Had B kept his ten of spades, or won the nine or ten of trumps 
led, he would have lost the imperial. 

B's play would be the same whatever trumps A holds. 



LAWS OF IMPERIAL. 

SHUFFLING. 

1. Each player has a right to shuffle -either pack. The de^er lias the 

right of shuffling last. . 

S CUTTING. 

2. A cut must consist of at least two cards. 

3. A player exposing more than one card in cutting, must cut again. 

4. The player who cuts the highest imperial card deals. 

5. If, in cutting to the dealer, a card is exposed, there must be a fresh cut. 

DEALING. 

6. The dealer must give twelve cards to his adversary and twelve to 
himself, by two at a time to each, or by three at a time to each. The 
dealer, having selected the number of cards which he will give at a time, 
must not change it during the game. 

7. If the dealer gives more or less than twelve cards to his adversary or 
to himself, or alters his mode of distributing the cards, he loses the deal. 

8. The dealer must turn up the top card of the eight undealt cards for 



IMPERIAL. 33 ] 

trumps. If he turns up the wrong card, or more than one card, he must 
show his hand to his adversary, and the adversary, not having looked at 
his own cards, has the option of requiring the right card to be turned up, 
-or of having a fresh deal. 

9. If, before the trump card is turned up, a faced card is discovered in 
f he pack, there must be a fresh deal. 

10. If, in dealing, the dealer exposes any of his own cards, the deal 
stands good. If he exposes any of his adversary's cards, the non-dealer, 
before he looks at his hand, may claim a fresh deal. 

11. If a player deals out of his turn, or with the wrong pack, he may 
De stopped at any time before the trump card is turned up ; otherwise the 
deal stands good. 

12. If either player turns up or looks at a card of the stock (except as 
already provided), the adversary, not having seen any of his cards, and 
the play of the hand not having begun, has the option of. a fresh deal. If 
either has seen his cards, or the play has begun, the player not in fault 
may call a suit on his opponent's lead once during the play of the cards. 

CALLING AND SHOWING. 

13. Imperials, and the point, if good or equal, must be shown. Call- 
ing is not sufficient. If a player does not show an imperial, or the point, 
if good or equal, before he plays a card, he cannot score it ; and, in the 
case of the point, the adversary, on showing, scores it. 

14. Imperials must be shown by the elder hand before calling a point, 
or he cannot score fhem. Similarly, the younger hand must show his 
imperials before replying to the call of point, or he cannot score them. 

PLAYING. 

15. a c«id led in turn cannot be taken up again. A card played to a 
lead can only be taken up again to save a revoke, and then only prior to 
the lead of another card. 

16. If a card is led out of turn, it may be taken up again prior to its 
being played to. After it has been played to, the error cannot be rectified . 

17. If a revoke is discovered before the cards are cut for the following 
deal, or before the cards are so mixed as to prevent identification, the ad- 
versary has the option of requiring the hand to be played again, starting 
Irom the trick in which the revoke occurred. Whether the hand is played 
again or not, the revoking player can score no tricks he may make above 
six in that hand. If, after a revoke is claimed, the adversary mixes tne 
cards, the claimant may retrieve his hand to the best of his recollection, 
with the same option and penalty as before. 



332 IMPERIAL. 



INCORRECT PACKS. 

18. If a pack is discovered to be incorrect, redundant, or imperfect, the 
deal in which the discovery is made is void. All preceding deals stand 
good. 

SCORING. 

19. An erroneous score, if proved, may be corrected at any time during 
die hand. An omission to score, if proved, may be rectified at anv time 
during the hand. 



./' 



BRAG. 



SINGLE BRAG. 

Iff this game the nines and the knaves are called " Braggers," from 
their being the best cards ; or " Turners,'' because they are convertible into 
cards of any other value, so as to form pairs or pairs-royal, by the highest 
of which the game is decided. Thus three braggers in one hand cannot 
be beat, as they form a pair-royal of the best cards, and are better than 
a natural pair-royal of aces, etc. Two braggers and an ace, etc., are 
better than one bragger and two aces, etc. In the same manner, a pair 
formed by the assistance of a bragger is better than a natural pair, or 
two cards of like value. Thus a nine and a king take precedence of two 
kings, but are inferior to two aces. A knave and a king are better than 
a nine and a king ; and if the pairs in two hands are equal, the higher 
value of the third card gives the preference ; it they are equal in every 
respect, the elder hand has the preference. The lowest pair-royal that 
can be formed, as three twos, is better than the highest pair, as two 
aces, etc. 

Sometimes in Brag the knave of clubs and the nine of diamonds only 
are admitted to be braggers or turners ; and it is agreed that natural 
pairs or pairs-royal are to precede artificial ones of the same value, or 
those formed by the assistance of the knave of clubs or nine of diamonds ; 
as thus, two kings to be considered better than a king with a nine of 
knave, but to yield to an ace and a nine or knave. 

MODE OF PLAYING. 

The cards being shuffled and cut, a certain stake, from a cent to five 
dollars, is deposited by the dealer, who gives three cards to each of the 
company. The elder hand, and the others after him, having examined 
their hands, either " pass," which is signified by laying down their cards, 
or " brag," in which case the dealer's stake is to be answered by all who 
brag. On putting down another stake, or bragging a second time, the 

(333) 



334 BRAG. 

person doing so, if he holds a pair, but not otherwise, may i/isist on see 
ing the next player's hand, saying:, " I'll see you," or 4l I'll sight you," ir. 
which case they examine each other's cards, and <.he person having the 
worst hand of the two is obliged to lay it down, or " pass." The players 
go on in this way till the braggers are reduced to two, who continue brag- 
ging against each other (either an equal sum with the dealer's stake, or 
higher) till one " sights" the other, and whichever of the two has the 
best brag hand, wins the whole of the stakes put down. 

BRAG AND PAIRS. 

To vary the above game, the dealer sometimes deposits two separate 
stakes, one of which is for natural pairs, and the company may brag on 
either stake they please, or on both. Thus if one of the players has a 
pair or pair-royal of good cards, such as aces, down to tens or eights, he 
may answer one or both of the dealer's stakes, according to the chance of 
success afforded by the cards he holds; and can, if he holds a pair, 
"sight" those who are bragging on the same end with himself, as de- 
scribed above. Those who put their stakes on the brag-end proceed 
exactly as at Single Brag. 

THREE-STAKE BRAG. 

There is another way of playing this game, in which three stakes are 
deposited by the dealer, who gives two cards to each player, and then 
tarns up a third all round. The best whist card turned up takes the first 
stake, the elder hand having the preference if two equal cards are turned, 
except in the case of the ace of diamonds, which is always the best at this 
stage of the game. 

The second stake is the brag-stake, and is determined as at Single 
Brag, each reckoning his turned-up card along with the other two. 

The third is gained by the player who holds, or obtains by drawing 
from the undealt cards, thirty-one. or the highest number under that, the 
ace reckoning for eleven, the picture-cards for ten each, and the rest 
according to their pips. The elder hand has the preference in case of 
equality, and any one drawing above thirty-one, loses of course. 

The three stakes maybe all gained by one person, in which case he is 
entitled, in some companies, to three more from each player; but this 
advantage is usually set aside, as savoring too much o f gambling. 

Vrom Post and Pare and Brag came Poker. 



COMMERCE. 



There are several ways of playing this game. The simplest is as 
follows : 

The deal having been determined, each player deposits an equal stake 
in the pool ; the cards are then all given out, one at a time ; the elder 
hand then exchanges a card with his left-hand neighbor ; the second with 
the third, the third with the fourth, and so on, till one obtains a hand 
consisting all of one suit, when he exclaims, " My ship sails," and clears 
the pool. 

Another plan is the following : 

Each player deposits an equal stake in the pool, and the banker (dealer) 
gives three cards all round, and asks "Who'll trade ?" The players, be- 
ginning with the elder hand, either "trade for ready money" or "bar- 
ter." By the first is meant, giving a card and counter to the dealer, who 
places the card under the remainder of the pack, which is called "the 
stock," and gives a card from the top in exchange. The counter is passed 
to the banker, who then trades with the stock free of expense. " Barter" 
means exchanging a card with the right player. Barter cannot be re- 
fused, unless the player of whom the exchange is requested, decides to 
stand on his cards without trading or bartering. The trading and barter- 
ing is concluded by one having obtained the highest tricon, which wins 
the pool. 

The object of the trading or bartering is to obtain — i, a tricon (three 
like cards, like a pair-royal in Cribbage) ; 2, a sequence, or three following 
cards of the same suit ; 3, a point, or the smallest number of pips on 
three cards of the same suit. The ace reckons for eleven, the tens and 
court cards for ten each, and the other cards according to the number of 
their pips. The highest tricon wins the pool ; if no tricon is shown, 
then the highest sequence, or the best point, in failure of a sequence. 
The banker reckons as eldest hand in case of ties ; and if he holds a 
lower tricon or sequence than either of the others, he loses the game, and 
pays a counter to each player higher than himself. 
(335) 



REVERSIS. 



fcEVERSis is played by four persons, with 48 cards, the four tens being 
discarded from the pack ; and each player should have a box, containing 
6 counters reckoned as 48 fish each, 20 counters 6 fish each, and 32 fish, 
making in all 400 fish. There are two pools, called the Great and the 
Little Quinola pools (the great one to be under the little one), which are 
to be placed at the dealer's right hand. 

The deal is to the right ; three cards are given to each person the first 
round, and four to the dealer, and four round afterward, so that the dealer 
will have twelve cards, and the rest eleven each ; the three remaining are 
to be placed singly on the table, opposite the three non-dealers, each of 
whom puts out a card under the pool, and replaces it with the card op- 
posite to him on the table. The dealer also puts out one, but does not 
take one in ; should, however, there be three remises or stakes in the 
pools, then it is at the option of any player to take a card or not ; if he 
does not, he may see the card before it is placed to the discard : then, 
previous to playing, the opposite parties exchange one with each other. 
The cards rank as at Whist, and the points in the tricks are forty ; each 
ace reckoning 4, king 3, queen 2, and knave 1. The points in the discard, 
which form the party ^ reckon as in the tricks, except the ace of diamonds 
and the knave of hearts as great quinola. The former reckons five, the 
latter four. The player having the fewest points wins the party. If two 
have the same number of points, then he who has the fewest tricks has 
the preference. If points and tricks are equal, then he who has last dealt 
wins ; but he who has not a trick has the preference over him who has a 
trick without points ; and the espagnolette played and won, gains the 
party in preference to the last dealer. 

When every trick is made by the same person, there is no party, and 
this is called making the Reversis. 

The great quinola pool is to consist of 26 fish, and to be renewed every 
time the same is cleared, or has fewer in it than the 26. This stake is 
attached to the knave of hearts, or great quinola, which cannot be put to 
(336) 



REVERSIS, 337 

the discard, unless there'are 3 stakes, or 100 fish in the pool. The little 
quinola pool, containing 13 fish, and attached to the queen of hearts, as 
little quinola, is to be renewed in the same manner, and the little quinola 
cannot be put to the discard unless there are 3 stakes, or 50 fish in th* 
pool. Each time either or both of the quinolas are placed, or played on 
a renounce, they are entitled to the stakes attached to them, except whei 
there are three stakes in the pool ; then the great quinola is to receive 10c 
fish, and the little quinola 50. On the contrary, each time the quinola 
are forced, gergi, or led out, the stakes are to be paid in the same propor 
tion as they would have been received, except in the single instance of tht 
person who played the quinolas making the Reversis, when the quinola 
to be entitled to any benefit, must be played before the last two tricks. 

Every trick must be gained by one person to make the Reversis, which 
is undertaken when the first nine are made by the same person ; there is 
then an end of the party, and of the quinolas, if held by him, except he 
has played both, or either of them, before the last two tricks ; but, on the 
contrary, should his reversis be broken, he then is not only to pay the re- 
versis broken, but the stakes to- the pools for the quinolas he may have 
played before the reversis was undertaken. All consolations paid for aces 
or quinolas by the person undertaking the reversis are to be returned **■» 
winning it. 

The Espagnolette is either simply 4 aces, 3 aces and 1 quinola, or 2 aces 
and 2 quinolas. The player who holds the same has a right to renounce 
in every suit during the whole game ; and if he can avoid winning a trick, 
and there is no reversis, he of course wins the party in preference to him 
who is better placed ; but if obliged to win a trick, he then pays the party 
to the other, and returns the consolations he may have received for aces 
or quinolas ; and if he has a quinola, he must pay the stake to the pool, 
instead of receiving it. The player having the espagnolette is at liberty 
to waive his privilege, and play his game as a common one ; but loses that 
privilege the moment he has renounced playing in suit. The player oi 
the espagnolette .receives consolation in any part of the game, if he forces 
the quinola. 

If the reversis be won or broken, the espagnolette pays singly for all 
the company. When the holder of the espagnolette can break the reversis, 
he is paid, as before mentioned, by the person whose reversis he has 
broken ; he can also undertake the reversis, but then his hand must be 
played as a common game. If the espagnolette has placed his quinola, 
and there is a reversis either made or broken, he is not to receive the 
stake ; for when the reversis is attempted, the stakes are neither received 
nor paid, except by him who undertakes the same. If by another playei 



33% KEVERSIS. 

having the ace or king of hearts, the espagnolette has, in any part of the 
game, either of his quinolas forced, he pays the stake and consolation to 
him that forces, except there be a reversis. 

The dealer always puts two fish into the great quinola pool, and one 
into the little one ; besides which, every player, at the commencement, 
puts six into the former, and three into the latter ; and each time the 
stakes are drawn, or there are fewer fish in the pool than the original 
stakes, the pool must be replenished as at the first. To the points in the 
discard, four are to be added for the party. The person who gives an ace 
•pon a renounce receives a fish from the person who wins the trick, and 
if it is the ace of diamonds he receives two. The person who forces an 
ace, receives the same payment from all the players. The great quinola 
placed upon a renounce, receives six fish, the little three ; and if either 
be forced, the person who forces receives the same payment from all the 
players, and these payments should be made immediately, without being 
asked for. One or more aces, or either of the quinolas, played for gergi, 
that is, led out, pay the same as if they had been forced, to the person 
who wins the party; but it is for him to recollect and demand them. 
When either ace or quinola are placed, played, or gergi the last card, it 
is called a la bonne, and paid double ; and all payments whatever are 
double to the person who sits opposite. The payments for the reversis, 
made or broken, are eighty fish, each player paying twenty, and the 
opposite party forty, when the reversis is made ; but, when broken, the 
whole is paid by the person whose reversis is broken ; that is, he pays the 
person brewing it exactly the same he would have received had he won it 



LAWS OF THE GAME 

i. The person who misdeals loses his deal. 

2. Any player taking his card without having put out to the discard 
the deal is void. 

3. The eldest hand is to see all the stakes deposited, as he is answerable 

for all deficiencies. 

4. The discard is not to be changed after it is put out. 

5. The eldest hand should not play a card until the discard is complete : 
should he only have played, he is permitted to take up his card, and play 
another. 

6. No person to play out of his turn. 



REVERSJS. 



339 



7. Should it be perceived, at the end of the game, that there is a mis- 
take in the discard, the deal is void, and must be made again. 

8. No payments can be demanded after the cards are cut. 

9. The person who throws down his cards, thinking he car. win the 
remaining tricks, must pay for any quinola or ace which has or can be 
placed or given ; and, in case of undertaking a reversis, the person who 
taight break it can insist on his playing the cards as he who can break it 
nay direct. 

10. The player, whether thinking he has won the party or not, asks for 
the aces or quinolas led out, before the person who has really won the 
party demands them ; he must pay for him who otherwise might have 
been called upon to pay. 

11. Before playing a card, it is always permitted to ask how the cards 
have been played, but it is not allowed to observe it to others not making 
the inquiry. 

i2s Any player may examine his own tricks at any time, but is not to 
look at those of another person except the last trick. 



JOCKEY CLTJB. 

To amuse himself, a man once skated a mile, ran a mile, bicycled a 
mile, rode a mile, then swam a mile, and finally got drowned. Jockey 
Club is played somewhat on this same principle. Any number of persons 
can engage in this hotchpotch, olla-podrida of games. A pot is made up t 
First a round of Vingt-et-un is played, followed by a round of Poker, then 
at the option of the company, a round of Old Maid may be in order, and 
it can wind up by giving one card to each person, the highest card win* 
ning. You can play anything you like in Jockey Club b*t Solitaire. 
It Is a go-as-yoa-please game. 



ROULETTE. 



The table employed for Roulette is an oblong- square covered wita 
green cloth. In the centre is a cavity. The sides are immovable, and 
around it are placed, at equal distances, bands of copper, which, com* 
mencing at the top, descend to the extremity of the machine. In the centre 
of it is a movable circular bottom containing thirty-eight compartments, to 
which the copper bands are attached, and upon which are painted, alter- 
nately in black and red, thirty-six numbers, from one to thirty-six, a zero 
(o), and a double zero (oo). 

In the middle is a moulinet of brass surmounted by a cross of the same 
metal, by means of which a rotary motion may be imparted. 

There is a banker and assistants. It is the business of one to set the 
machine in motion, which he does with his fingers, moving the bar. At 
the same time he throws a small ivory ball into the roulette, in a direction 
opposite to the movement given to the rotating bottom. The ball goes in 
one direction, the movable base in another. In this movable bottom 
there are thirty-eight holes or compartments, formed by metal bands. The 
hole into which the ball enters determines the gain or loss of the punters, ' 

There are thirty-six numbers, with the zero and double zero on top 
The thirty-six numbers are painted red and black in the machine. Th* 
numbers are odd and even. 

It may be seen at once how various may be the character of the chances 
Money can be staked on any single number, on any twelve of them, on 
any eighteen, on any two or any four of them. Odd or even numbers 
give opportunities for betting, or on the color red or black. If a playei 
should place a stake on a single number, or on either of the zeros, and 
the number selected or the particular zero come up, he is paid by the 
K anker thirty-five times as much as he wagered. If it does not turn up 
be loses. 

340 



ROULETTE. 



34 > 









! 


DO 




O 

00 

@> 

< 
n 

Z 


1 


2 


3 




\ 


5 


6 




7 


8 


9 




10 


II 


12 




13 


14 


(5 




16 


11 


18 




19 


20 


21 




22 


23 


24 




25 


26 


27 




28 


29 


30 


w 

^ 


31 


32 


33 


2$^ 


3*o 


34 


35 


aa 









to 

-4 

o 

w 





ROULETTE TABLE. 



FIVE AND TEN. 

Bets made on black or red, or odd and even, on the first or last half of 
the numbers, are paid once by the banker. Bets made on any twelve, 
and winning, are paid double, as are those on any column. Any sis 
numbers can be bet on, and all paid by dividing thirty-four by six, leavv 
ing off the fraction. In betting on fours, and winning, eight times the 
stake is paid. When color is played, and the zeros, which are colored in 
green, turn up, the better loses. When a bet is made on zero, and won, 
the stake is paid thirty-five times. 

Bets may be made by the same player in many ways. He may put his 
stake on a single number, on the four of a series, on the twelve or the 
£ighteen of a series, on color, and on odd or even. 

The constant advantage of the bank is about 5^ per cent. With a full 
game — that is, all the numbers having stakes put on them, the advantage 
to the bank for that turn of the wheel amounts to a certainty. 

THE ODDS IN ROULETTE. 

It is 37 to 1 that a number turns up. 

44 13 to 6 " any of the twelve turn up. 

44 18 to 1 upon two numbers. 

** n§ to 1 44 three numbers. 

44 17 to 2 " four numbers. 

44 16 to 3 4t six numbers. 

44 10 to 9 44 odd or even, or on color. 

And the same for any eighteen numbers. 



FIVE AND TEN. 

A complete pack of cards is used, and two, three, or four persons 
may play. Each game is decided in one hand, and it consists in en- 
deavoring to get the majority of the five tricks, which is called a Five T 
and entitles the winner to the stakes played for ; or to gain the whole five 
tricks, which is called a Ten, and the winner in this case draws double 
stakes. 

The following is the rank and order of the cards when the respective 
suits are trumps : 



FIVE AND TEN. 



343 



HJCARTS AND DIAMONDS. 

Five, Knave. 
Ace of Hearts. 
Ace of Diamonds. 
King, Queen. 
Ten, Nine. 
Eight, Seven. 
Six, Four. 
Three, Two. 
And the following is their order when 

BEARTS AND DIAMONDS. 

King, Queen. 
Knave, Ten. 
Nine, Eight. 
Seven, Six. 
Five, Four. 
Three, Two. 
Ace of Diamonds. 



SPADES AND CLUBS. 

Five, Knave. 
Ace of Hearts. 
Ace of Spades or Clubs. 
King, Queen. 
Two, Three. 
Four, Six. 
Seven, Eight. 
Nine, Ten. 
not trumps : 

SPADES AND CLUBS. 

Ace, King. 
Queen, Knave. 
Two, Three. 
Four, Five. 
Six, Seven. 
Eight, Nine. 
Ten. 



F*om the above lists it will be observed that the five is first, and the 
knave second in order, when trumps, and that the ace of hearts is always 
trumps, and ranks as the third best card. These three cards have the 
privilege of revoking, when it suits the holder of them to do so ; but if 
the five be led, the holder of the knave or ace must play it, if he has not 
another trump to play, and the ace unguarded must in like manner be 
played if the knave be led — the superior card always forcing the inferior. 
The ace of diamonds, which is fourth in order when that suit is trumps, 
is the lowest when not trumps ; and the usual rank of the inferior cards 
is reversed In the black suits, the two being above the three, the three 
above the four, and so on, the ten ranking lowest, whether trumps or not 

MODE OF PLAYING. 
The parties having cut for deal, which the lowest five-and-ten card 
wins, and each having deposited an equal stake, the cards are cut, and 
five dealt to each player, by twos and threes, the next card being turned 
up for trumps. If the elder hand has a certain five — that is to say, if he 
holds three cards which will each take a trick, he ought to play them, as 
there is a great probability, if his two remaining cards are tolerable, that 
he may get the whole five, and thus win a double stake. But if he holds 
only indifferent cards, the best method is to throw the lead into his oppo- 
nent's hand by playing an inferior card, in the hope of regaining it at the 



344 BOSTON. 

third trick, which is the critical stage of the game ; and as three tricks 
constitute a five equally as four, it is reckoned better play to reserve the best 
cards till the third trick, than to risk the game by eagerness to secure the 
two first. 

If the party consists of four, they play in two partnerships, which are 
determined by cutting the cards, the two lowest playing against the two 
highest, or by agreement among the parties. The maxims at Whist 
relative to leading and how to play when your partner leads, will in 
general be found of considerable use here. 

When three play at this game, it is still necessary that one of them 
should win the three tricks in order to make a five, as the stakes must re- 
main for next game if two of the players get two tricks each, and the other 
one. 

If the cards you hold do not entitle you to expect to make the five your- 
self, the object should be to spoil it, or to prevent its being made at all, 
by thwarting that player who appears most likely to obtain it. If a ten 
be made, the two losers must each pay another stake to the winner, in 
addition to the three deposited ; but it is sometimes agreed to dispense 
with this, and not to allow tens when the game is played by three. 

Each player must follow suit when he can, under the penalty of for- 
feiting his stake, except in the case of the three best trump cards, viz. : 
the five and knave and the ace of hearts, each of which are privileged to 
renounce under the exception stated above ; but it is not incumbent on 
any one to take a trick unless he chooses, if he conforms to the above 
regulation. 

If the turn-up card is an ace, the dealer must take it into his hand, throw- 
ing out a card in lieu of it ; and if either of the players hold the ace of the 
trump suit, he must take in the turn-up card before he plays, or if he does 
not choose to take it in, must turn it down, in order to show that he holds 
the ace— both under penalty of forfeiting his stake. 

Where the game is strictly played, the person who misdeals, or who 
departs from the order with which the game begun, of dealing either the 
three or the two cards first, forfeits his stake. 



BOSTON 



The game of Boston is played by four persons, with a complete pack 
of cards, which are dealt in the same manner as at Whist, except that the 
last is not to be turned up. The players put eieht counters or fish each 



boston; 



345 



into the pool, ana the dealer four additional. During each deal, the per* 
son opposite to the dealer should shuffle another pack to be cut by"his 
right-hand neighbor, and turn up a card for the First Preference ; the 
suit of the same color, whether red or black, is styled Second Preference, 
and the other two are common suits. The player who misdeals puts four 
counters more into the pool, and deals again. 

EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 

Boston. — To get five or more tricks. 

Petit Misere. — After having discarded a card to make no trick at all. 

Grand Misere. — To lose every trick without putting out a card. 

Petit Misere Ouvert. — To put out a card, then exhibit your hand 
play it. and lose the twelve tricks. 

Grand Misere Ouvert. — To lose every trick without putting out a 
card, your hand being exhibited. 

Grand Slam. — To gain every trick. 

The following table exhibits these games in the order in which they 
rank ok supersede each other : 



THE BOSTON 
TABLE. 



Boston 

Petit Misere 

Boston ......... 

Boston 

Grand Misere 

Boston. 

Boston 

Petit Misere Ouvert . . 

Boston 

Boston 

Grand Misere Ouvert . 

Boston 

Grand Slam 



Tricks to 


Reckoning for 


be won 


the Game. 


by the 




, ' V 






a 




1 


I 


£6 




U 

0^ 


a 

•S3 


s 


Ph 


Oh 


cu 


U 


s 


5 


3 


4 


2 


1 


4 


6 


4 


8 


4 


2 


— 


7 


5 


12 


6 





— 


— 


— 





— 


— 


8 


8 


— 


16 


8 


4 


— 


9 


"■"• 


2Q 


10 


5 


16 


IO 


— 


24 


12 


6 


— 


ii 


— 


28 


14 


7 


32 


12 


— 


32 


x6 


8 


— 


13 


— 


36 


18 


9 


— 



MODE OF PLAYING. 
If neither of the players undertake any of the above chances, they say 



346 BOSTON". 

in rotation, beginning with the elder hand, " Pass," and there must be 
another deal, the new dealer putting four more counters into the pool. 

If, on the contrary, the elder hand thinks he can get five tricks, he says 
" First Boston." But if the second player undertakes cl Petit Misere," 
he supersedes the first, and may in his turn be superseded by the third 
engaging to get six or seven tricks, which he announces by saying " Bos- 
ton," and naming the number of tricks. The fourth hand or dealer may 
also supersede the third by undertaking Grand Misere, or any of the 
chances lower down on the table. In short, whoever undertakes to do 
moi-e than -the other players has the preference. If he is to play Boston 
he leads, and names whichever suit he pleases for trump ; but if he is to 
play Misere, the elder hand leads, and in this case there are no trumps. 
Boston likewise, if he has not undertaken more than seven tricks, may say 
whether he chooses to have a partner ; and if so, any person who engages 
co get the requisite number of tricks (two less than Boston has undertaken, 
as appears from the table) may answer u Whist," the right of answering 
beginning with Boston's left-hand neighbor. When this is settled, the 
playing goes on as at Whist, except that the partners need not sit oppo- 
site to each other, and every one is to take up his own trioks. 

If Boston and his partner get the number of tricks they undertook, or 
more, they are entitled to the counters in the pool at the time, called the 
Bets ; and besides, the number of tricks they have wen, added to the 
honors they both held, is to be multiplied by the number on the table op- 
posite to the tricks they undertook, and under the name of the suit the 
\rump was in ; the product must then be divided by ten, and the quo- 
tient shows the number of counters they are each entitled to receive from 
the other players. Should the product be less than ten, one counter is to 
be paid to each ; if fifteen, and under twenty-five, two counters ; if 
twenty-five, and under thirty-five, three counters ; and so on. 

For example, suppose they undertake five and three tricks, and get 
nine, having two honors, the trump in Second Preference ; nine tricks 
and two honors added make eleven, which multiplied by two (the figure 
under Second Preference, opposite to Boston five) gives twenty-two, con- 
sidered as twenty, being under twenty-five ; divided by ten, the quotient 
is two, and each of the players receives two counters from the other two. 

Nearly the same process shows what each pays to the other players 
when they fail to get the requisite number of tricks. The number of 
tricks deficient is added to the number undertaken, and the honors being 
added to that, the sum is multiplied and divided as before, and the quo- 
tient shows the number of counters to be paid by the unsuccessful players 
;o the rest of the party. For instance, suppose they undertake six and 



BOSTON. 347 

four, having four honors, the trump in the First Preference ; if they get 
but eight, the two deficient, added to the ten undertaken, with four hon- 
ors, make sixteen, which multiplied by eight, as in the table, the product 
is one hundred and twenty-eight, considered one hundred and thirty ; 
and this divided by ten, gives thirteen counters payable by them to each 
of the other players. Besides this, they pay a Baste to the pool, equal to 
the number they would have taken from it had they been successful ; this 
is not put directly into the pool, but kept in reserve to replenish it when 
exhausted, and each Baste is kept separate, and the largest put in first. 

It must be observed that these losses are defrayed jointly when both 
player and partner fail to get their requisite number of tricks ; but if one 
succeeds and the other not, the party failing bears the whole loss. But 
if one gets a trick less than his number, and the other a trick more, they 
are jointly successful, and share the gains equally ; and when Boston 
plays alone and without a partner, the gain or loss is of course all his 
own, and he pays to or receives from each of the other three players the 
counters won or lost, besides the pool. 

In playing any of the four modifications of " Misere," the player loses 
or gains, as he is successful or otherwise, the contents of the pool, and 
pays to or receives from each of the other three, the number of counters 
opposite to the chance he plays, and under the head Misere, in the table. 
The gain or loss in playing " Grand Slam " is calculated in the same way 
as Boston. As soon as a trick is gained in playing Misere, or one lost in 
playing Grand Slam, the deal is at an end. 

When the pool happens to be exhausted, and no Baste in reserve, k 
must be furnished afresh as at first. 

If there are several Bastes on the table, and the parties wish to finish 
the game, they <nay either share the counters, or put them all into the 
pool at orce. 

FONTAINEBLEAU BOSTON. 

This is undoubtedly the true game of Boston. The game in aH re- 
spects resembles the Boston before described, only the Picolissiroo is in- 
troduced. Here, the player declares his intention of taking* on© trick 
and no more ; should he not make any trick at all, or take two tricks, he 
loses. In France, hearts is the best suit, then diamonds, next clubs, and 
last spade?. In the United States -and England, sometimes diamonds 
come first, then hearts, then clubs, and spades last. 

The order of games, beginning with the lowest and ending with the 
highest, is : 



.548 



BOSTON. 



Simple Boston— A player to make five tricks. 

Six tricks. 

Little Misery— All 'he players to discard a card, and the person deda* 
ing not to make a trick. 

Seven tricks. 

Picolissimo— The person playing Picolissimo, is to take one trick. If h* 
takes no trick at all, he loses, or if he makes two tricks, he loses. 

Eight tricks. 

Grand Misery— To take no trick, and to do this without discarding. 

Nine tricks. 

Little Misery on the table— Like little misery, only the player, after the 
discard, places his cards face up on the table. 

Ten tricks. 

Grand Misery on the table—Like grand misery, only the cards are ex« 
posed. 

Eleven tricks. 

Twelve tricks. 

Chelem (Shlem), or Great Boston — To take all thirteen tricks. 

Chelem, or Shlem, or Boston, on the table — To put the cards on the 
table and to win every trick. 

VALUES OF DECLARES. 



Simple Boston, Five Tricks 

Six Tricks 

Little Misery 

Seven Tricks 

Picolissimo 

Eight Tricks 

Grand Misery 

Nine Tricks 

Little Misery en the Table . 

Ten Tricks 

Grand Misery on the Table. 

Eleven Tricks 

Twelve Tricks 

Chelem 

Chelem on the Tabic 



dub*. 


Spades 


Hearts 


Dia- 
monds. 


8 


10 


20 


30 


25 


30 


40 


50 


75 








45 


50 


60 


70 


ioo 




. . 


, . 


65 


70 


80 


90 


150 








85 


90 


IOO 


no 


200 








105 


no 


120 


130 


250 




.. 


.. 


i35 


130 


140 


150 


HS 


150 


160 


: 7 c 


400 


450 


500 


600 


600 


650 


700 


800 



Additional 
Tricks — 
c *br each. 



•t 



LANSQUENET. 349 

In the payments honors count, providing; the player wins, but do n»t 
count against him if he loses. In all the calls of tricks the three honors 
are counted as an additional five chips to be received ; the four honors 
as ten more. The rules governing the play are precisely the same as in 
the first game of Boston described. In revoking, or exposing cards, the 
ules oi Whist are applicable to Boston. 



THE EARL OF COVENTRY. 

The pack must be complete, and all the cards dealt out The elder 
hand begins, and the game consists in playing in succession the four 
cards of corresponding rank, accompanying the playing by a rhyme. 
Thus, suppose the first to play a Ten, he says, " There's a good ten." 
The 2d, " There's another as good as he." 
44 3d, " There's the best of all the three." 
11 4th, " And there's the Earl of Coventry." 
The player of the fourth card begins again, and the playing goes on 
in regular order, passing those who have not corresponding cards, The 
person who is first out wins from all the others a counter for each card 
*hey hold respectively. 



LANSQUENET. 

THIS game may be played by almost any number of people, although 
only one pack of cards is used at a time, that is to say, during the deal. 
The dealer, who has a percentage in his favor, begins by shuffling 
;he cards, and having them qm" by any other person of the party ; he 
then deals out two cards on his lefi hand, turning them up : then one foi 
himself, and a fourth, which he places in the middle of the table, for the 
company, called the rejouissance card. Upon this card any or all the 
Company, except the dealer, may put their money, either a limited or un- 
limited sum, as may be agreed on, which the dealer is obliged to answer, 
by staking a sum equal to the whole that is put upon it by different per- 
sons. He continues dealing, and turning the cards upward, one by one, 
till two of a sort appear ; for instance, two aces, two deuces, etc., which 
in order to separate and that no person may mistake for single cards, he 



350 LOTTERY. 

places on each side of his own card, and as often as two, three, or the 
fourth card of a sort come up, he always places them, as before said, on 
each side of his own. Any single card the company has a right to take 
and put their money upon, unless the dealer's own card happens to be 
double, which often occurs by this card being the same as one of the two 
cards which he first of all dealt out on his left hand : thus he continues 
dealing till he brings either their cards or his own. As long as his own 
card remains undrawn, he wins ; and whichever card comes up first loses. 
If he draws, or deals out the two cards on his left, which are called the 
hand cards, before his own, he is entitled to deal again, the advantage of 
which is no other than his being exempted from losing when he draws a 
similar card to his own immediately after he has turned up one for 
himself. 

This game is often played more simply without the rejouissance card, 
giving every person round the table a card to put their money upon. 
Sometimes it is played by dealing only two cards, one for the dealer and 
another for the company. 



LOTTERY. 

A full pack of cards is used, or two or three packs mixed together 
according to the number playing. The simplest way of playing Lottery 
is to take at random three cards from a pack and place them face down- 
ward, for prizes, on the table. A banker having been chosen by lot, 
every player purchases from the other pack or packs any number of cards, 
paying a certain quantity of counters for each. These counters are put 
in different proportions on the three prizes, which are gained by those 
who happen to have purchased corresponding cards. Such cards as hap- 
pen not to be drawn are continued to the next deal. 

Another plan is as follows : Two complete packs of cards are used, one 
serving for tickets and the other for lots or prizes. Counters are then 
distributed in equal numbers to each player, and a certain proportion of 
the whole is placed in a box or dish on the table to form the fund of the 
lottery. 

The players sit round the table, and two of them take the two packs of 
cards, and after well shuffling them, have them cut by their left-hand 
neighbors. One deals a card to each player, face downward. Th< 
called the lots. Each player then places on his lot what number of 



PUT. 351 

counters ke thinks proper. The lots being thus prized, he who has the 
other pack deals likewise to each player one card, which are called the 
tickets. Each player having received his card, the lots are then turned, 
and each examines whether his ticket answers to any of the lots ; he or 
they whose cards correspond to any of those, take up the lot or prize that 
is marked on that card. 

The two dealers then collect those cards that belong to their respective 
packs, and after having shuffled them, deal again in the same manner as 
before, the lots being laid down and drawn by the tickets in the manner 
mentioned ; and such lots as remain undrawn are to be added to the 
fund of the lottery. This continues till the fund is all drawn out, after 
which each player examines what he has won, and the stakes are paid in 
money by him who drew the lottery, whose business it is to collect and 
divide it. 



SIFT SMOKE. 

A complete pack of cards is divided into two halves, one portion 
being dealt round to the players and the others remaining on the table, 
the last card dealt being the trump. The cards rank as at Whist. The 
tricks are of no value ; but each player must follow the suit led or play a 
trump. For each trick gained, the player takes a card from the undealt 
portion, and he who can hold out longest wins the stake previously 
agreed on. 



PUT. 

Put is played with a complete pack, generally by two persons, some- 
times by three, and often by four. The cards rank differently in this 
game from others, the trey being the best, next the deuce, then ace, 
king, and so on in the usual order. After cutting for deal, etc., at which 
the highest put-card wins, three cards, by one at a time, are given to 
each player ; then the game is played in the following way : If the non- 
dealer throws up his cards, he loses a point ; if he plays, and the dealer 
does not lay down another to it, he gains a point ; but should the dealer 
either win the same, pass it, or lay down one of equal value, forming 
what is styled a tie, the non-dealer is still at liberty to put, that is, play, 
or not, and his oDDonent then only gains a point ; then if both parties 



35 2 LOO. 



agree to go on, whoever gains all the tricks or two out of three, wins five 
points, which are the game ; if each player obtains one trick, and the 
third is a tie, then neither party scores. 

Four-handed Put differs only in that any two of the players give each 
his best card to his partner, who then lays out one of his, and the game 
is afterward played as in Two-handed Put. 

LAWS OF PUT. 

i. If the dealer accidentally discover any of his adversary's cards, the 
latter may insist upon a new deal. 

2. If the dealer discover any of his own cards in dealing, he must 
abide by the deal. 

3. When a faced card is discovered during the deal, the cards must 
be reshuffled and dealt again. 

4. If the dealer give his adversary more cards than are necessary, the 
adversary may call a fresh deal or suffer the dealer to draw the extra 
cards from his hand. 

5. If the dealer give himself more cards than are his due, the adversary 
may add a point to his game and call a fresh deal, or draw the extra 
cards from the dealer's hand. 

6. No bystander must interfere under penalty of paying the stakes. 

7. Either party saying "//«/" — that is, / play — cannot retract, but 
must abide the event of the game or pay the stakes. 

Considerable daring is necessary in this game, for a bold player will 
often "put" upon very bad cards in order to tempt his adversary into 
giving him a point. Sometimes the hand is played with " putting," when 
the winner of the three tricks, or of two out of three, scores a point. 
The best cards are — first the treys, next the deuces, and then the aces ; 
the kings, queens, knaves, and tens following in order down to the four, 
which is the lowest card in the pack. There are many more interesting 
games for two, three, or four players. 



LOO 



Loo is divided into limited and unli?nited loo. It is played in two 
ways, both with five and three cards, dealt from a whole pack, either first 
three and then two, or by one at a time. Any number may play at the 
three-card game. 



loo. 353 

After five cards have been dealt to each player another is turned up foi 
trump ; the knave of clubs generally, or sometimes the knave of th* 
trump suit, as agreed upon, is the highest card, and is styled pam ; the 
ace of trumps is next in value, and the rest in succession, as at Whist. 
Each player has the liberty of changing his cards for others from the 
pack. He may change any of the five cards dealt, or throw up the hand, 
in order to escape being looed. They who play their cards, either with 
or without changing, and do not gain a trick, are looed ; as is likewise the 
case with all who have stood the game, when a flush or flushes occur; 
and each, excepting any player holding pam, of any inferior flush, is re' 
quired to deposit a stake, to be given to the person who sweeps the board, 
or is divided among the winners at the ensuing deal, according to the 
number of tricks made by each. For instance, if every one at dealing 
stakes eight chips, the tricks are entitled to one chip each ; every player 
who is looed paying eight chips, which, together with the dealer's stake, 
forms the next pool. But sometimes it is arranged that each person 
looed shall pay a number of chips equal to what happens to be on the 
table at the time. Five cards of a suit, or four with pam, compose a 
flush, which sweeps the board, and yields only to a superior flush, or the 
elder hand. When the ace of trumps is led, it is usual to say, " Pam be 
civil"-, the holder of which last-mentioned card is then expected to let 
the ace pass. 

THREE-CARD LOO. 

Three-card Loo is played by any number of persons, though five or 
§even is the preferable number. There is no pam, and the highest card 
in either hand wins the trick. A miss— that is, an extra hand— is dealt, 
which the elder player may exchange for his own ; or if he u passes the 
miss," it may be taken by the next player, and so on in rotation, till it 
comes to the dealer. When only two players stand, the last before the 
dealer must either play the hand or the miss, or give up the pool to the 
dealer, who loses the game, which is then recommenced as before. 

The method of playing this game is very simple. The first player on 
the left of the dealer looks at his hand, and either decides to play his own 
cards, take the miss, or stand out of that game by throwing up his hand. 
The next player does likewise, and so on till it is decided how many stand 
the pool. The elder player then throws down a card and the next fol- 
lows, either by playing a superior card or a trump, it being imperative 
that he must head the trick if he can ; and so the game goes on till all 
the hands are played out, when the pool is divided into three portions and 
paid to the holders of the several tricks, all those who have failed to win 



354 SNIP-SNAP-SNOREM. 

a trick being looed. It is usual in the first round to deal a single, 
when all must play. Thus, in a game of five players, two must be 
looed as a single. The amount of the stake is determined on previous 
to the commencement of the game; but in unlimited loo each player 
is- looed the whole amount in the pool till the occurrence of a 
single, which can only come about by three players only standing the 
game and each winning a trick. Sometimes the rule of club-law is 
introduced, when all must play when a club happens to be turned up. 

LAWS OF LOO. 

i. The c?rds are dealt over at any time, the deal being determined by 
cutting, the lowest card cut being dealer. 

2. The dealer is looed for a misdeal. 

3. For playing out of turn or looking at the miss without taking it, 
player is looed. 

4. If the first player possess two or three trumps, he may play the 
highest. 

5. With ace of trumps only, the first player must lead it. 

6. No player may look at his own cards or the miss out of his turn. 

7. No player may look at his neighbor's hand, either during the play oj 
when they lie on the table. 

8. No player may inform another what cards he possesses, or give any 
Intimation as to any card in hand or miss. 

9. If a placer throw up his cards after the leading card is played, he is 
looed. 

10. Each player must head the trick if he can, either hy a superior card 
in the same suit or by a trump. 

11. The penalty in each case of disobedience to the laws is the being 
loeed in the sum agreed on at the beginning of the game. ■ 

CLUB LAW. 

This game is the most common variation of Loo. lis object is to 
force a number of loos, especially if there are many in the game. 
When this law is adopted all the players must stand on their own cards 
whenever the card turned up happens to be a club. When this happens 
the miss is withdrawn and is added, face downward, to the undealt 
portion of the pack. 



SNIP-SNAP-SNOREM 355 



UNLIMITED LOO. 

In this variety of the game the penalty to be paid for a loo varies 
with the amount in the pool, and becomes the same as the entire stakes 
of the preceding deal. By playing this variation a large sum can be lost 
within a few minutes, so that the game is rarely played outside of 
gambling clubs. The amount payable for the deal remains unchanged. 

MIXED LOO. 

This is very much like the preceding variation, except that the limit 
is settled upon, and beyond this limit loo does not go. As an example, 
suppose the original stakes to be a nickel for a deal, and a dime for loo,' 
limited to half a dollar, a player would be looed for the amount of the 
pool up to the limit, even though the pool exceed fifty cents. 

IRISH LOO. 

This is the same as the five-card variation, except that three cards are 
dealt to each player and Pam is omitted. 

DIVISION LOO. 

This game is played just as the five-card game is played. The slight 
differences are not worth mentioning. 



SNIP-SNAP-SNOREM. 

Snip-Snap is played by any number with a full pack of cards. The 
players, having placed before them five-pence or counters as ''stock," the 
cards are dealt in the usual way. The main idea of the game consists in 
playing a card of equal value with that of the next player. This snips 
you. If the third player has a card of like value, you are snapped; an- 1 
then if a fourth card be played by the following player, you are sn\ 



356 COMMIT 

Thus, say A, the elder hand, plays a knave, and B likewise plays a knave* 
A is snipped^ and places one counter in the pool. If C has also a knave. 
B is snapped^ and pays two into the pool ; and if D has the other knave. 
C is snored^ and pays in three. The fourth, of course, is safe, because 
all the four knaves are now played. No person can play out of his turn ; 
but every one must snip or snap when it is in his power. When any 
player has paid into the pool his five-pence or counters, he retires from 
the game, and the pool becomes the property of the person whose stock 
holds out the longest. The cards are sometimes dealt three or four 
times before the game is decided ; but if the players are reduced to two 
or three, they have dealt them thirteen cards each. The deal is taken in 
rotation, but no advantage remains with the dealer. 



BLIND HOOKEY. 

THIS game consists simply in risking a stake upon a card, which is won 
or lost by the dealer according as his own card is higher or lower than 
that of the player. The cards rank as at Whist, and all ties are won by 
the dealer. Each party has the right to shuffle, and the left-hand player 
cuts. 

Another plan of playing is as follows : When the cards are shuffled 
and cut, they are divided by the youngest hand into as many portions, 
faces downward, as there are players. The eldest hand then gives the 
dealer any one of the packs, and the other players take each a portion, 
upon which the stakes are placed. The dealer then turns up his lot, anfl 
according as the card at bottom is higher or lower than those of his ad« 
yersaries, he wins or loses. 



COMMIT. 

This game may be played by any number of persons, with a complete 
pack of cards, which are all dealt out, except the eight of diamonds, and 
a spare hand is dealt in the middle of the table, for the purpose of mak* 
ing stops in the playing, which is by sequences. When an ace or a kinj? 
is played, the person who plays it receives from each of the party * 



CATCH THE TEN. ^ ? 

counter, or whatever may have been mutually agreed on ; and whenevn 
any one has played out all his cards, the game is at an end ; and the per- 
son who is out (or has played all his cards) levies from all the «est of the 
party a counter for each card they hold, except that the nine of diamonds 
exempts the holder of it from paying. This nine has also the privilege 
of being played in lieu of any other card, so as to prevent a stop ; but if 
played out, it does not exempt from paying for the cards in hand. 

The seven of diamonds and the four kings being certain stops, are, of 
course, eligible cards for the elder hand to play if he holds them ; or se- 
quences, which will lead to them, ought of ceurse to be preferred. Thus, 
suppose A to play the nine of hearts — he calls for the ten — F plays it, A 
plays the knave, D the queen, and A the king, who then receives a 
counter from each player, and is entitled to begin a new sequence. 
Whenever a stop occurs to interrupt a sequence, the person who has 
played the last card begins again. 

Aces are not necessarily stops, though kings are, being the highest 
cards, but both entitle the players of them to counters from all round. 



CATCH THE TEN, 

or SCOTCH WHIST. 

Catch the Ten may be played by from two to eight persons, with 
tnirty-six cards, the small cards of each suit, viz., the two, three, four, 
and five, being thrown out, and if necessary for an equal division of the 
cards, one or two of the sixes. If the party consists of two, three, five, 
or seven, each plays on his own account. When two play, three hands 
are dealt for each player, the first two hands from the top of the pack, 
then other two, and lastly the third two, the thirty-sixth card being 
turned up. The hands are played in the order in which they were dealt. 
In like manner, when three play, two hands are dealt for each, and 
played in the same order. If the party consists of four, A and C are 
partners against B and D ; if six, A, C, and E, against B, D, and F— 
or A and D, B and E, C and F, in three partnerships ; if eight, A, C, E, 
and G, against B, D, F, and H, or they may form four partnerships,—* 
the partners always sitting opposite to each other, with an adversary 
between each two. 



358 CATCH THE TEH. 



THE MODE OF PLAYING 

Is the same as at Whist ; the cards being" cut, and dealt by one o% 
three at a time, and the last one turned up for trump ; they have the 
same value as at Whist, except in the trump suit. Forty-one is game, 
and the points are made by counting the cards in the tricks taken, and 
the honors of trumps. Each card above the party's share in the tricks 
taken counts for one. Thus, if four are playing, each person's share of 
the thirty-six cards is nine. If two partners take eight tricks (four multi- 
plied by eight are thirty-two), they reckon fourteen toward game, that be- 
ing the number over their joint shares of twice, or eighteen. The knave 
of trumps is the best, and reckons for eleven, ace next for four, king for 
three, queen for two, and the ten for ten. They are not reckoned, as at 
Whist, by the party to whom they are dealt, but to those who take 
them in the course of playing. 

MAXIMS FOR PLAYING. 

As the name implies, the grand object in this game is to catch the ten 
of trumps, or to prevent its being caught by the adversary. The only safe 
way of saving or passing the ten, is to play it in a round of trumps, 
when one of your partners has played the best trump ; or if you happen 
to be last player, and have none of the suit led, trump with your ten, 
if it will take the trick, or if your partner has already taken it. These 
are very favorable opportunities, and do not often occur ; so that it is 
frequently necessary to run some risk to secure so important a card — as 
by trumping suit in a second round, though not last player — trusting to 
your partner's holding the best trump, etc. If you hold the knave and 
king or ace and king, and have the lead, play two rounds of trumps, and 
you will have a chance of catching the ten in the second round, or en- 
abling your partner to pass it under cover of your best trump. But these 
rules must vary so considerably according to the greater or smaller num- 
ber of the party playing, that it is almost impossible, without confusing 
the learner, to lay down particular rules for every case. Attention to the 
game, with a little calculation, on the principles laid down for Whist, 
will soon enable any person of moderate capacity to play this game suf- 
ficiently well for the purpose of amusement ; and his own interest will 
quickly render the gambler who understands the principles of the game 
in adept at it. 

A revoke is punished by the total loss of the game. 



SKAT. 



359 



THIRTY-ONE. 

Thirty-one is played with an entire pack of cards, and by any num- 
ber of persons under seventeen. Each player puts an equal stake into the 
pool ; three cards are dealt to each, and a spare hand, in the middle of 
the table, which is turned up. The object of the game is to get thirty* 
one, or as near it as possible, reckoning, as follows : the ace stands for 
eleven, each of the honors for ten, and the other cards for the number of 
spots on them respectively ; thus, ace, king, and six of any one suit reckon 
twenty-seven ; ace, with two honors or one honor and the ten, for thirty- 
one ; an honor, a ten, and a five, for twenty-five ; and so on : but observe 
that all the three cards must be of one suit ; and three cards of equal 
value, as three kings, tens, fives, twos, or aces, are better than thirty, but 
inferior to thirty-one. Each player in turn, beginning at the elder hand, 
exchanges one of his cards for one out of the spare hand ; and this goes 
on till some one has got thirty-one, or stops changing. When any one 
gets game, or thirty-one, he shows his hand, and takes the pool, which 
finishes the game. If one stops without being thirty-one, the other play- 
ers can change once more only, or till it comes to the turn of the person 
who stopped, and then all show their hands, and he who is nearest to 
thirty-one gets the pool. In the event of two or more being equal, the 
elder hand has the preference, only that three aces, kings, etc., rank 
preferably to three queens, or lower cards. 

Another mode is as follows : Instead of depositing a stake, each player 
has two or three counters ; and when all stop, the person who is lowest 
puts one of his counters in the pool ; and he who has one or two left, 
after all the other players have paid in their three, is winner, and takes 
the whole, as in the game of Snip-Snap-Snorem. When two or more 
happen to be equally low they each pay a counter. 



SKAT. 

VALUE OF CARDS IN SKAT.— SUITS.— TRUMPS.— MATA- 
DORS.— ETC., ETC., WITH THE EXCEPTIONS. 

Skat is a game of three persons. Four persons can make up the party, 
but only three can play. When there is a fourth, the fourth deals in hi9 
turn, but he is out of the game every fourth rounjd. His interest in the 



360 SKAT. 

game, however, remains, for if the caller of a declare makes it, the three 
others pay him, or if he loses he pays the dealer. 

Skat is played with 32 cards, with the four suits, all the cards below 
the sevens being excluded, the same as in Euchre. Every game is closed 
when the ten cards in each hand are played. 

The game is one of combinations. There are not less than seven 
different games in Skat, called the u Simple Game," " Tourne," "Solo," 
* Nullo," " Grando," " Nullo-Open," and " Grando-Open." 

There is a family resemblance in the Simple game, Tourne, Solo, and 
Grando, which, when once understood, make an acquaintance with all of 
them easy. 

DEALING. 

The cards must be shuffled, and the first jack turned determines who 
shall be dealer. The first cards are given to the left. The player to the 
right cuts. An exposed card requires a new deal, but the deal does not 
pass. The same rule holds in case of a misdeal. 

Each player receives ten cards in all, and there are two cards over ; 
those two cards are known as the Skat. 

The method of dealing is to give not more than five cards to each of 
the three players, and then to put two cards on the table face down, not 
exposing them, and next to give the other five cards to the players. 

After the first part of the dealing, each player having five cards, for ten 
cards are to be given, no matter how the cards are dealt, the skat must 
then be put face down on the table. This rule is invariable. 

The order of proposing the game to be tried differs in Skat from other 
games. The order is reversed. A deals to B and C. B is known as the 
first hand, C as the middle, and A as the last hand. A does not ask B 
what he will play, but A makes the inquiry of C, who is to his right. A 
must have some play or he passes. Should he pass, then C asks B. In 
rase all three have cards which they think can make a game, the one who 
declares the highest undertaking, incurring the greatest penalty, has the 
call. If two call the same game, the elder hand has it. The dealer 
always is the elder hand. If all thiee pass, and there is no call, there 
may oe a new game dealt. In some cases, what is called Ramps is 
played, but Ramps does not belong to Skat. 



CALLING OR BIDDING. 

The calling may be better explained by the two diagrams. The first 
shows a three-handed, the second a four-handed game. 



SKAT. 



361 



B, the second hand. 



C, the third hand 



A, the dealer. 

A deals. It is C who first has the say. If he does not declare any- 
thing, then B makes the inquiry of A. B may say, u tourne," meaning 
that he will play tourne. Then A may say, " tourne," and, being the eldef 
hand, can take the tourne from B. 

Here is another case : C may have something-, and he asks B. C says, 
" I play tourne, what do you do, B ?" If B takes a tourne too, then C 
must declare something higher— as solo. B may say, " I will try solo 
too." Both wanting to play solo, who shall play it depends on the values 
of the suits, to be hereafter explained. If A, the dealer, wants to play, 
the solo he hopes to make must be the highest paying one, or a grando, of 
a nullo. 

In the four-handed game the rules of calling are the same. 

C, the second hand. 



B, the first hand 




D v the third hand 



■ A, the dealer. 

A, the dealer, does not play at all. He has nothing to say. He maf 
be said to be only dealing in the place of B. He neither calls nor plays, 
but is paid or pays. 

THE SKAT. 

In what are called the simple game— tourne and solo, and in grando— 
the skat comes into play. Turned down on the table, it belongs to the 



362 SKAT. 



player who makes or secures a call. The skat cannot be looked at 
under all conditions. Sometimes it makes the trump, and sometimes 
the points in it are counted for the person who takes it. In certain 
games it does not figure at all, and remains untouched. 

SUITS AND VALUES. 
tn the simple game, tourne and solo : 

Clubs come first. . Hearts come third. 

Spades come second. Diamonds come last. 

As the respective values of these suits must always be borne in miner, 
an example of this can be readily furnished. A simple game in diamonas 
gives place to a simple game in hearts, hearts to spades, and spades to 
clubs, clubs being the best suit. In tourne the turning of one card make* 
the trump, the card being taken from the skat ; but the knave of clubs, 
and the other knaves in the order before mentioned, are always the bes\ 
trumps, then come the ace, ten, king, queen, etc., of the trumps turned. 

Say some player calls the simple game, there are no contestants, no one 
had bid against him, or urged him up higher, then he plays the simple 
game. But, as it often happens, some one has declared or called a higher 
game — as tourne, then tourne makes the play. When a play is left to 
one of the three, the other two become his adversaries. If A plays any- 
thing, B and C join together to defeat him ; or if it is B who has a call f 
A and C are his opponents ; or if C plays, A and B are opposed to C. 

POINTS.— GAMES. 

In the simple game, in tourne, in solo, and in grando, Skat is a game 
of points, not of tricks. A, who makes a declare, might take eight tricks, 
lose two tricks and the game. 

In the simple game, in tourne, solo, and grando, your declaration means 
that you will make sixty-one points, or more if you can. Failing to make 
the sixty-one points, scoring sixty points or less, you lose. We repeat pur* 
posely the names of these games in Skat — the simple game, tourne, solo, 
and grando — so as to impress them on the reader's mind, for there are 
more of these games played than of the others. Nullo and grando 
ouvert ars exceptional calls. 

THE POINTS. 

The aces count the most, which is eleven. The tens count ten, the 
Aings four, the queens three, and knaves two. The nine, the eight, and 
the seven have no values. 



SKA T. 363 

Taking all the count cards, with the tens, what ar* they worth ? 

Four Aces, 11 each 44 points. 

Four Tens, 10 " , 40 " 

Four Kings, 4 " 16 " 

Four Queens, 3 " 12 " 

Four Knaves, 2 " ,.. 8 u 

•> — - 
The total being 120 

The half of one hundred and twenty is sixty. To make a simple game, 
5. toiirne, a solo, or a grando, and win it, the player must count in his 
tricks one point more than sixty, or sixty-one. If he only makes sixty 
points he loses. 

Trumps in the game of Skat may have their peculiarities, but present no 
great difficulties. 

Remembering the values, first clubs, then spades, next hearts, and 
lastly diamonds, the knave of clubs is the highest trump, no matter what 
color may have been made trumps ; next is the knave of spades, then the 
knave of hearts, and lastly comes the knave of diamonds. After the four 
knaves, the ace is the best card, then comes the ten, next king, queen, 
nine, eight, and seven. In grando it is only the four knaves which are 
trumps, in the succession named. In nullo there are no trumps at all. 

FOLLOWING SUIT. 

In playing, a lead calls for the same suit. You must follow suit. Just 
as in Whist, if you cannot follow suit you may trump if you wish to, or 
throw away any cards at your pleasure. 

All the knaves being trumps, if a heart solo were declared, and the 
Knave of clubs were led, trumps would be furnished by the other players. 

PLAYING A GAME. 

A, B, and C are the performers. A has dealt, and B declares a game., 
a simple game in diamonds. There is no opposition, and B sets out to 
make the sixty-one points, diamonds being trumps. It is a low call, be- 
cause a simple game in hearts would have taken it away from him by 
another player, as would have done a call of spades or clubs. 

B, from the fact of his calling, has the privilege of taking the skat, 
which is the two cards not exposed. He does not show them. Just as 
in Picket, he incorporates the two cards in his hand, discarding or put* 
ting aside two other cards from his own hand, those which he thinks arc 



364 SKA T. 

»{ the greatest importance to get rid of. It may happen that he hoids 
two single tens, or only one. He may discard the one, or two tens, for 
whatever points there are in the skat or in his discard belong to him, and 
add to his count. 

Suppose the player B was quite positive of making fifty-one points, and 
doubtful about one ten he held. This ten, if he could save it, would 
make him exactly what he wants, which is sixty-one points, and so he 
puts it away for safety in his discard. 

b, the first player after the dealer, begins his lead. He may have the 
two best knaves, ace, ten of trumps, the king of his trump suit, which is 
diamonds. The other trumps may be divided, and all fall to his lead. 
His opponents, A and C, who follow suit, are doing their best all the 
time to prevent him counting sixty-one points. When the ten cards in 
eacn hand are played out, the count of the cards taken begins. If B has 
sixty-one points in the cards he has secured, he wins. If he has sixty 
points he loses. 

Although in regular Skat the simple game is not played, beginners 
ought to familiarize themselves with this play, known as the simple game, 
for it is the foundation on which Skat has been built. The somewhat 
confusing addition of three more trumps, viz., the knaves, which makes 
a trump suit of eleven, can be understood. The Skat, and its importance, 
as giving the person who secures it a sight of twelve cards, is now ap- 
preciated. 

PENALTIES. 

The player, B, has won his simple game with sixty-one points. He is 
paid for the call. There are certain fixed charges which accompany all 
calls. Say in this instance a simple game in diamonds was worth ten 
cnips. A pays B ten chips, as does C. If B had lost he would have 
paid each of the other players ten or twenty chips in all. He may then 
win or lose twenty points. 

B has started out to make his sixty-one points, and can count only 

somewhere between thirty-one and sixty, then he only pays the penalty; 

but if he makes only thirty, he is Schneider — the translation of which is 

"cut" — and if he makes no count at all, he is schwarz, or "black," 

which is equivalent to our whitewashed, or the less polite term of 

11 skunked." There are increased penalties for both these unfortunate 

conditions, as when Whist used to be played when a Double or Triple 

was lost. 

MATADORS. 

The possession of the knaves also adds to trie value of the hands, increas- 
ing the penalties. Remembering theif succession, the knave <tf clubs 



STAT. 365 

standing first, what are called " Matadors " begin by possessing this par. 
iicular knave. A hand having knave of clubs and knave of spades, has 
two matadors. If the player holds the knaves of clubs, spades, and 
hearts, always bearing the succession of suits in hand, he has three mata- 
dors. If he holds them all he has four. If with the four knaves he has 
ace, ten, king, queen, these cards increase the number of his matadors, 
so that a hand holding all the knaves and all the other trumps, would 
have not less than eleven matadors in hand. But the absence of the lead- 
ing knave, the one in clubs, prevents the having of these matadors. If 
the best knave is found in the skat, of course it belongs to the party who 
takes it up, and so with two or three knaves ; picking up the missing one 
*n the skat would make them all matadors. 

Their absence in a player's hand, if he wins his call, his adversaries 
holding them, makes the matadors count in his favor. If he loses, and 
holds matadors, the having of them increases the penalty. The having 
Dr not having matadors, by the caller or his opponents, is an important 
factor, of what a player receives or has to pay out. 

There are in this way, no matter what are the cards, matadors for or 
against the caller. At the conclusion may be found the full tables of 
games devised from the rules laid down by the recent Skat Congress held 
at Altenberg. 

PROGRESSION OF THE GAME. 

The term Tourne is derived from the French, and means to turn a 
card, and to play Tourne is to make a bid higher than the simple game. 
Solo is higher than tourne, and nullo a better call than solo, and beats a 
solo in spades, but solo in clubs is higher than nullo. There is no use in 
asserting that this is an unphilosophical sequence. We have to take the 
game as it is played. It is the cost of the game in Skat which governs 
the succession of calls. 

Grando comes after a solo in clubs, then nullo-open. A ^randc with 
or without knaves, is the highest call that can be made. 



FROM THE LOWEST TO THE HIGHEST GAME. 

The game of Skat begins with the lowest call, which is the simple 
game, and ends with a grando with or without two or more knaves, 
which is the highest. 

In a tabulated form the games may be seen as follows : 



$66 SKAT. 



Simple game 


in Diamonds. 


tt t< 


" Hearts. 


II II 


" Spades. 


•< II 


M Clubs. 


Tourne " 


" Diamonds. 


a it 


" Hearts. 


It c« 


" Spades. 



Tourne game in Clubs. 
Solo " " Diamonds. 



" Hearts. 
11 Spades, 



ii u 

CI It 

Nullo. 

Solo " " Clubs. 

Nullo-open. 
Grando, with or without two or more Jacks. 

We do not give the cost of these games here, as we think it would 
be confusing; but the philosophy of the values will be explained here- 
after. By referring to the table of values, at once the cost of any 
game can be determined. 



WHAT IS TOURNE? 

The simple game having been explained, tourne is played precisely 
like the simple game, only the trump is made by the player taking up 
one of the cards from the skat, which cne card he turns face up on 
the table. Whatever it is, that is trumps. The person making 
tourne the game, may take up either of the two cards he pleases, so 
that he exposes only one of them; but he must do so before looking 
at either of them. Of the two cards he may select either the top or 
the bottom one, but before looking at them. That card shown is the 
trump. He must make sixty-one points, or lose. It is played just like 
the simple game. The player incorporates the two cards of the skat, 
into his hand, and discards two. Whatever is in the skat, or in his 
discard, belongs to him. 



TOURNE) GRANDO. 

When declaring a tourne, and a Jack is turned, before looking at 
the second card in the skat, a tourne grando may be declared. It is 
played like a grando (see grando), but the penalties are less than 
for an original grando. 



WHAT IS SOLO? 

The player cal i; ng solo declares the trump, and by so doing, he 
tacitly asserts that he can make his sixty-one points without having 
recourse to the aid the skat might give him. He says a solo in 
diamonds, hearts, spades, or clubs, whatever he thinks he is strongest 
in. Though he does not look at the skat until the game is over, the 
skat belongs to him, and any points found there are to his credit. 
After the ten cards are played in each hand, then only he looks at 
his skat. 



SKA T. 367 

NULLO. 
The player who calls nullo declares that he will take no trick. 
There are no trumps here. The knaves fall into the usual order of cards, 
as in Whist, the ace being highest, then king, queen, knave, ten, nine, 
eight* and seven. If the nullo player takes a trick he loses. The skat 
belongs to him, but is not used. 

NULLO-OUVERT OR OPEN 

Is a nullo or a call to make no trick at all, the player exposing all his 
cards, laying them on the table. It is precisely like " misery on the 
table " in Boston. He must take no trick. The skat is not used. 

GRANDO. 

This is a declare where the player dispenses with the skat, as in solo, 

and depends on the natural strength of his cards. When the call of 

Grando is made the player must count his sixty-one. Failing to do this 

he loses. The four knaves are the trumps, and the only trumps. Aces 

and tens of suits are the highest cards, then kings, queens, nines, eights, 

as in the other game. 

RECAPITULATION. 

Simple Game. — The player declares a trump and has the privilege ot 
taking the skat, and has to make sixty-one points. 

Tourne. — The player turns up one of the cards in the skat, and that 
card makes the trump. He must make sixty-one points. 

Solo. — Without the skat the player declares a trump, and must make 
sixty-one points. He counts the points which may exist in the skat after 
the game is closed. 

Nullo. — There are no trumps. The skat is not used. The player 
must make no tricks. The highest card is the ace, next king, then queen, 
knave, ten, nine, eight, seven. 

Nullo-Open. — The same as above, only the player exposes his cards. 
(Sometimes by prior arrangement, a player calling Nullo, may declare a 
nullo-ouvert, when the first card has been played. But this is not 
good skat.) 

Grando. — Without the use of the skat, the four knaves in their color 
Succession, clubs, spades, hearts, and diamonds, being the highest cards, 
then the aces and tens of various suits the next, then the kings, queens, 
nines, eights, sevens the next, the player must make sixty-one points. 

SCHNEIDER AND SCHWARZ. 
A declaration is made in tlae simple game, tourne, solo, or granda 



SKAT. 

The player who calls it, if he has thirty points or less, leses with 
H Schneider." He ought to have made sixty-one. The opponents have 
made then of course ninety, and there is an increased penalty. The rule 
works both ways. If no points are made at all by the player he is 
schwarz, or "black." The same thing happens to the opponents. A 
player with a strong hand, believing he can make his opponents Schneider, 
can announce that he is going to make his adversaries " Schneider." In 
that case, because he announces it there are increased penalties. This is 
called announcing " Schneider." He can announce, also, that he can 
make his adversaries " schwarz." 

PLAYS.— ADVANCING THEM AFTER A FIRST DECLARA- 
TION. 

If in tourne a jack be turned up, it may, as a fortunate accident, give 
very much greater strength to a hand, and the player may call grando 
courne, which is grando, but is not paid as much. 

GRANDO WITH THE KNAVES. 

Sometimes a player who has been bid up to the highest notch by a 
nullo-ouvert — or a nullo-open — will declare grando "without two ma- 
tadors," which means that he may hold the knave of spades and knave 
of hearts, or the knave of spades and diamonds. He may win every 
point, but looking in his skat he finds there the knave of clubs. The 
knave is his, to his misfortune. He has declared grando "without two 
knaves," but he has found the knave he does not want, which he hoped 
*vas in his adversr ries' hands, in his own skat, and he loses. 

WHEN THERE IS NO CALL, RAMPS. 

It sometimes happens that no call is made by the skat players. In 
such a case the cards might be thrown down, and a new game commenced. 
By prior arrangement, Ramsch, or Ramps, may be introduced. The 
three play without recourse to the skat, and the party taking the most 
points pays the other players. The four knaves alone are trumps, and 
the aces and tens, as in grando, are the highest cards after the knaves. 
Sometimes the aces count first, then the kings, queens, and tens. To the 
person taking the last trick the skat belongs. He has to count the points 
found in it. The person having the most points pays ten to the other 
players. If two have the same number of points they each pay ten to the 
person who has the least. If each player has forty points it is a stand' 
off. The Altenberg Skat Congress urges the abandonment of Ramps. 



SKAT. 



369 



TO LAY DOWN. 
In the tourne, where it is luck alone which determines the trump, 
a card may be turned up, which is the only trump the player has. 
He is certain to lose. If he played he might be made Schneider or 
schwarz. In order to save time he may, after the first card is played, 
at once declare that he cannot make the sixty-one points, and throw 
up the hand. He pays the smallest penalty the hand calls for. The 
opponents cannot give up their hands under any circumstances, 
though they may be certain of defeat. 

TO CALL A GAME. 
There can be no retrogression. A call cannot go backward to one 
of a lesser value. If a call be made in hearts, and driven to spades, 
the player may call it in clubs; this refers to solo. In tourne the 
turn-up regulates the trump, unless a knave is turned, then the player 
may call tourne grando. 

THr- PHILOSOPHY OF THE COUNT. 

Simple games — Diamonds count I 

Hearts 2 

" Spades 3 

Clubs 4 

Tourne — Diamonds s 

" Hearts 5 

" Spades , y 

Clubs 8 

Solo — Diamonds o 

" Hearts I0 

'* Spades lx 

Nullo .....'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' 2Q 

Clubs j 2 

Grando T g 

Nullo-open 40 

The way of counting the penalties is increased or diminished with 
the matadors held by the player or by his adversaries, or whether 
there be Schneider or schwarz made by either the player or his op- 
ponents. When Schneider is announced two rates are given. When 
schwarz is announced there are four rates. These rates are multi- 
plied by the fixed values made out for the calls. The matadors being 
the most changeable of the factors, beginning with one matador and 
be found convenient, and such is presented for every possible com- 
the same methods used as in English games? They should follow the 
direction the cards are dealt, from left to right. 



370 



SXAT. 



W 
H 

W 

fa 

to 



> 

fa 
o 

H 
O 

u 

w 

E 
H 

W 

w 

fa 

o 

O 

H 

fa 

o 

M 

iS 



•psDunouui? 

ZJBAVqDg 



•zj^AvqDg 



paounouuB 
jspisuqos 



•J9pi3Ul{DS 



'3UIBQ 



qnoo t-»vo »n Tt- co n oo m e aco 

m CM CO **• tovO r> O CO On Q» O 



CO vO *■ N Q CO O S-vO N O00\Q 
m N n-t^- iovO On i>CO CO On 



t^^-HOO ION OnnO <troO ^ "3- 
m N N COt^ 1 lOCO nO t^ C^CO 



vO CM CO -«1-0vO CM CO CM ^OnD CM 
h m n t^ro^-t^ tovO nO t>- 



tOOtOOtOOtoOOtoOtoO 
h h Ci N to fO ^-VO ^f to iovO 



3* 
»i cm 



% 



£ 



•psoimouire 

ZJHAvqDS 



•ziimips 



•paDunouuB 

J9pi9UqDg 



uapiauqDg 



'9U1TSQ 



CO NO ^ CM O CO vO ^-vQ CM Q CO vO 
M CM CO ^ rf iovO On C^CO CO On 



t^i-Hoo in cm ono Tfcoo t^* 

M «N CM CO Tf rj- lOCO NO l> C^CO 



vO CM CO Ti- Q nO <N CO CM ^J- O nO CM 
m M CM COCO"^-^-C>. lOvO NO t>» 



lOO lOO lOO «00 Q "OO lOO 
M m CM CM CO CO ^nO ^" to lONO 



tJ-CO CM vO O "<tCO CM CO NO O <3-C0 
M H CM CM CM (QTCQ^'t't 



8& 



8. 



■paounouuB 
zjBAvqog 



■zjBA\qos 



•paDunouire 
japiauqos 

•japiauqDS 



•paounouuB 
zjBA\qas 



•zj^Avqos 



• psounouuB 
asppuqDS 



usppuqos 



'3U1BQ 



•JSOD JO 3}B^J 



t>» tJ- * CO lO CM OnnO 'tfOO t^Tj- 
M CM CM co^t^-iooono C^t^CO 



vO CM CO 



Tt-ONO CMCO CM TfQNO CM 
CM CO CO ^" ^ t>» lOO O «> 



lOO iOO tOO "OO O to »O0 
H m N CM CO CO tJ-nO rf to ionO 



"^■00 CM VO O Tj-CO CM CO vO O <3"CO 
M H CM CM CM cOTJ-fOTfT^^. 



cOvO On CM tOCO m t*-\0 t>. O COnO 
H H m CM CM CO CM CO CO CO 



2 °° 3*2^^00 N'^-QvO CM"" 

»-i m cm coco-^-Trc^ IONO NO f^ 



tOO lOO «00 tOO O "OO toO 
f m CM CM CO CO ^nO "^J- lO tovO 



^J-00 CM vO O Tj-00 CM CO nO O 'TOO 
h M N N N CO^CO't t* 



COvO On CM »O00 m TfvO C^ O COO 
MMMCMNCOCMCOCOCO 



N TfvO CO O CM Tj-vO rf CO O (M tJ- 
MmmhCMHMCMCM 



CM CO 
m vO 



«, 



& 



X 



** 



& 



£ 



CO 



SI 



M CM CO Tt to nO t^CO NOnOmCMOOnO^- 

m HMMCMTj-HCM 



o y$ ^? 



n 

• G . 

■ O w K| 



-o 

° § co t 






'3ldlU{§ 






•ofos 



t 

O 

i 
o o 



a 3 



o c 
-a -a 

c c 



SK.ir. 



37i 



£ H 



B'saR^Raa" 



CM tNO 00 Q CM tvO 
M CM co "t^O r-00 On « 


H M M M 


M CM CO t iO\0 t^CO « 


On hi CM 
ONW CM CO 

—11—1 — 


OOOOOOOO 
M cm co t io<? c^oo 


gooo 

ON O H CM 

M M M 



Onoo t^vo »o t co CM 
m N m^ *OnO t^ 



CM TfvO WON tvO 
Hi CM CO tvO r»00 ON 



H o n<t iovo c^oo 

M CM CO t lO^O t^OO 


ON O M CM 

• On 1-1 CM fO 

M M J-l 


OOOOOOOO 

M N rot iO\o c^OQ 


OOOO 

• ON O M CM 
t-l t-i M 


ON00 t^vO iotHN 


•00 OnOnO 

H 



00O TO OOOnO t 



CM CO t icvO r»00 
CM CO t lOvO t^OO 



O O O O O Q 
m N rot ionO 



O O 



O00 t>«vO 10 tfON 
M N fOt IOVO C^ 



OOvO t CM OOOvO t 
h N rott »OvO 



t^tMCO 10 CM OnvO 

w cm cm tottm 



OOOOOOOO 
m CM CO rfiOvO t-OO 



OnOO C>»vO lOtfON 
M CM CO t lOvO C>» 


M Q OnOO 
00 On On 

M 


OOnO t CM OCOvO t 
m N rott «OvO 


CM Q 00 vO 
C^OO 00 On 


t^ t H 00 lO CM OnvO 
m CM CM fO^tiO 


fOO t>t 
vO C** t^OO 


vO CMOO tOvO CM00 

m m cm rorott 


' tOvQ CM 
lONO nO C^ 



JTftJft 

,-, M H M 



M O ONOO 

00 OnOnO 



00 O Cl t 

O n rot 



CM O 00 NO 
t^CO 00 On 



8! 



m CM 
m CM rO 

IH H M 



OOOO 
On O m cm 



CC 



8.8<3 



cm 00 nQ 

C^OO 00 ON 



rOO t>t 
vO r^ r^oo 



8,8 



O O 
H CM 

M M 



M CM CO t lOvO O00 CM On O M CM 
H M M 



vOCMCJOtQNOCMOO • tONO N 
00 On m cm • tvO t>> On> 



hi CO tNO 



iO0 IOQ LOG iOO 
*•* co tJ-nO r^ On O cm 



tOO NO O tOO CM 
On h 



CM t iO C^OO 



*OnO On CM 100O m t 
M CM CO lOVO I s * On O 



CM tvO 00 
H CM CO t 



Q CM tNO 
NO t^OO On 



IOO iOO iOO iOO 
M CO tvO t>- On CM 



tOO NO O tOO CM 
h CM t w> C^OO On m 



COnO On CM lOOO m t 
H CM CO lONO » On O 



CM tvO 00 Q CM tvO 
m CM CO tvO t^OO On 



m CM CO t lONO C^OO 
H CM CO t LONO C^OO 



tOO CM NO O tOO CM 
M CM t IO t^OO On h 



rONO On CM lOOO m t 
m CM CO vovO r^* On O 

M 


l>» O COnO 

M CO t LO 

M M H 1- 


CM tvO 00 O CM tNO 
1-1 CM CO tNO C-00 On 


00 O CM t 

O « f^t 

H M H M 


m CM CO t mvo 1^.00 
M CM CO t >OnO C^OO 


ON O H CM 

On *< CM CO 
M rt M 


S8 8>&&>£&<8 


O Q O O 

On h CM 

H M M 



IO O 10 o 

CO lonO 00 



NO O 

CM t iO 



*3 



r^ O fOvO 

- totio 



00 O CM 
O CM CO 



iO O 'O Q 
CO l«2vO 00 



nO O tOO 
CM t lonO 



o- O COnO 

M CO t LO 



00 O CM 
O CM CO 



S 



O h. CM 

M CM CO 



vO O tOO 

CJ t LT.VO 



H N rOt lONO C^OO CM O O m CM 

H> M M hi 



C - 
O w *£. 



id 

'V 

e 



o £ i * o «» 5?i • »S o w «i 
"*— — » ' v — r ^n.^...^^^. 



»o • . .«o • . . .*o • . . 

6 w w ' o w !(! >r O ^!fi • 

aiduiis ^ujnox 0105 f 



TABLE OF VALUES. 

In the game of Boston, players have a printed card, on which the pen- 
alties are indicated. The one which is presented is taken from that in 
use by the Altenberg Skat Congress, to which august body we acknowl- 
edge our indebtedness. 

It should be remembered that in some parts of Germany the simple 
game is rarely played, and that tourne is the first game announced. 
Beginners should try the simple game, as it is the ABCof Skat. 

i 

HINTS AS TO THE PROPER PLAYING OF SKAT. 

A four-handed game with the thirty-two cards, as in Euchre, is well 
known. In Skat, which is a three-handed game, the change is somewhat 
confusing, and added to this are certain combinations, the presence of the 
knaves, which are tne best trumps. The two cards in the skat, the skat 
being a constant factor, also increases the difficulties. 

To play Skat well is an accomplishment which very few possess. 

The suits which happen to be short in the person's hand who makes a 
call are often a matter of surprise. The player of a call has the advantage 
of making a short suit, by his discard in the skat. It is his object to have 
a short suit, so that he can trump the aces or tens, or other high cards of 
his adversaries. 

To get the caller between the two opponents is what his adversaries 
must always endeavor to accomplish. It can be seen at once that if the 
caller of a game is short of a suit, he must trump ; otherwise, with their 
long suit, the adversaries being on both sides of him, will put in all their 
aces and tens, and thus fatten their own points. To prevent this the 
person who has made the call, is forced to trump, and to trump may 
weaken his hand. 

When a tourne is made, the trump suit is the result of an accident. 
Then, in tourne, the adversaries may take greater risks. 

When a grando is called by one player, and the others have tried to- 
establish solos, such facts should be remembered. 

Strict count must be kept at all stages of the game, and the caller anc 
his adversaries must know exactly what are the totals in the tricks taken. 
A good Skat player, when a round is over, always announces the exact 
number of points he has. In this counting, the player having the skat, 
knows more than his opponents. After four or five rounds, good players 
will be pretty well satisfied as to what is or what ought to be in the 
skat. This knowledge of the points, in every stage of the game, is of 
use in this way. A player of a call has already scored fifty points, the 



SKA T. m 

adversaries have the same numbers. An ace then, which wins or loses, 
decides the fate of a game. Even a knave may make exactly sixty-one. 
In the same way when a Schneider is possible, and eighty has been made, 
a ten or an ace put in at the right time ends the matter. 

THINGS TO REMEMBER IN SKAT. 

There are eleven trumps — the eight cards of the trump suit, with the 
three other knaves. 

There are only seven cards in the other suits, because the jacks are 
taken from them. 

When the three hands play, three cards of one suit is a long one. 
With four of a suit, headed with ace and ten, when tournes, solos, or 
grandos are played, the probability is strong that the two lower cards will 
both be good if trumps are out. 

No game gives more opportunity for cunning or foxiness than Skat. 

It is better to skip about from suit to suit if you have the aces, and 
make them if you can. 

Do not play a suit having a ten with a guard. Wait until you are 
played up to. 

In tourne, a player making this his game, nine times out of ten, by 
the discard, becomes short of a suit. 

Count the game all the time, so as to know how many points you 
want. 

It is a fair supposition that in the skat there is a knave, or some good 
cards. 

Always try to get the person making the declare between two fires. A, 
B, and C are playing, and B declares. A should always try to get a 
lead, so that B must put on high cards or trump. If he did not, C would 
dump high cards on A's leads. 

Skat is often a game of inspiration, and is won or lost according to 
whether there is boldness or timidity shown in the play. 

There can be few rules laid down for Skat, for there never are twc 
games alike. 

A dull player— one who risks nothing, and only plays on what he 
thinks are certain hands— will lose in the long run. 

If the lowest matador is played by a person declaring a game, it is safe 
for the adversary, the one playing after him, to put a ten or an ace on it. 
The player who puts the lowest matador may have them all, or the three 
next best, but still the chances for the player putting a high card on it, 
and his partner taking it, are good. 

Watch closely all the discards. A game is often decided by the last 
22 



374 



SKAT. 



round, and an eight taking a seven, where the ten or a king of another sui\ 
falls, helps to make the sixty-one points. 

In a play of tourne and solo it is evident that if the declarer has the 
lead, he should begin with trumps. As there are eleven trumps, the ace 
or tens of the suit may fall to the player as matadors ; at least, the playei 
then learns if there may not be a matador in the skat. Drawing out the 
trumps precludes the trumping of his own aces or tens by his adversaries, 
With a hand weak in trumps, it may not be always advisable to lead 
them. In a grando, where only the knaves are trump, precautions have 
to be used, so that the adversaries may not deprive the grando player of 
his knaves by forcing him, and then introduce their winning suit. Oc- 
casionally a pretence of strength in trumps is made, in order to deceive. 

In the nullo, the person who is behind the person playing nullo, gener 
ally plays the low cards. 

Nobody ever played Skat and made no blunders. 

RULES. 

Only the three cards of the last trick, as in Whist, can be looked at. 

To revoke is to give the caller his declare, or to make the player, il he 
revoke, lose it. 

If a wrong card is played, it can be called for, or any card at the option 
of the player or players. 

A HAND AT SKAT. 











s? <? 




^lO 9 














<p <v> 




<? 




0^0 







♦*♦ 












0<>0 







♦ *♦ 




p V 




V V 




o 








Looking at this hand, a player might be in doubt as to whether he 
could make a grando, providing he was first player, or had the lead. 
With his two jacks he would, of course, draw the other two, and would 
make then his ace and ten, and ace and ten of spades. But the four 
other low cards, will they produce him anything ? There are against 
him, apparently, the ace and ten of hearts, the ace and ten of diamonds, 
four kings, and four queens, making seventy points to count against him. 



SKAT. 



375 



Still, it is a grando which, if properly played, must win. In his hand 
the four low cards represent one-third of all the low ones, and neces- 
sarily the high cards must be either in the skat or in the adversaries' 
hands, and will fall to his first six leading cards. If one of his own cards 
were, say only a queen, he would lose. 



A CURIOUS GAME IN SKAT. 

ELDER HAND, AND DECLARES GRANDO 










w 







THIS SECOND HAND MAY DECLARE A NULLO-OUVERT. 




* 4- 






9? <? 








9 S? 



THE THIRD HAND CALLS NULLO-OUVERT. 




0^0 

o o 
o o 





o v o 
o o 




0° 


0% 




°0° 











V 

* * 

♦ ♦ 



The elder hand would have the call with a nullo-ouvert, 



376 



SKAT. 



PROBLEMS FOR SKAT PLAYERS.— No. i. 

The player second in hand declares a grando, and loses, while the 
other party makes sixty-nine points before the grando makes a trick. 






A * * 

*A* 















<? 





0% 



Question.— What were the cards in the other hands and how were 
rhey played ? 

PROBLEM No. 2. 
Player first hand declares nullo-ouvert, and is beaten. ' 







A A 

*A* 

A ' A 

*.* 

A*A 




A A 

A*A 
A A 




A A 

A 4-* 

A A 

4» 

A V A 




*** 

4* 4" 

A A 





























OOOO 

o o 
oooo 






o v o 

o 





0°0 



Question. — What were the cards in the other hands, and how were 
they played ? 

PROBLEM No. 3. 

The player who is either second or third hand has these cards given 
him. He declares tourne, and finds king of clubs and the jack of clubs in 
the skat. He discards two spades, and loses the game before he can make 
a trick. 



w& 



UM 



a 




SAT AT. 

OJ[f 




4- * 
a*a 



377 







s? 



O 




Question. — What were the other hands, and how were they played ? 

The leading hand turned up the seven of diamonds, and the ten o* 
hearts was in the Skat. He won the game without in matadors. 









S? 



One of the opponents held this hand : 




A A 

4» s * 

*A* 
**4- 






9 <? 



o A 'o 
o o 



The second opponent's hand was 

9 ml 



02. 




m 


imi 




s? 


9? 


s? 


9? 


<? 


9 


9 




^11 
CI 








4- 




4* * 
*. * 

A*A 
A 4. 




4» 
4. 4. 




4» 

4. A 
A A 




© 








0% 




o 
o o 



The player puts aside tweot?-oae^ace and ten of hearts, He makes 



378 SKAT. 



twenty- four in clubs, fourteen in spades, and four in hearts; total, 6^ 
points. 

An actual hand played by the editor, was a solo in clubs, with the 
three best matadors, the ace, ten, king, queen of clubs, the ten of 
hearts, and the king and queen of spades. .The middle hand led 
through him, and he lost with eight matadors, the jack of diamond? 
being in the Skat. Question: What were the other h?nds, and ho 
were they played? 



SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO SKAT. 

In Skat, it becomes impossible to lay down absolute rules of guidance 
Everything depends on the cards, for no two games of Skat ever are alike. 
Grando has the four matadors as the only trumps. Providing the player 
has all the four matadors, these would not make points enough for the 
declarer of the grando to win. The supposition is, then, that he has a 
long suit to work with, after the matadors have been drawn out. 

Those who play against a grando ought to play, in most cases, their bes. 
suits right up to the person making the declare of grando. He must trump 
an ace or lose eleven points. If he trumps he is weakened, and the matador 
ke uses may determine what other matador or matadors he may hold. The 
adversary in playing the ace of a long suit which the declarer has, may 
give a partner the chance of the discard of a ten of another suit, or may 
trump. We think more grandos are lost through bad play than any other 
declare. Adversaries in playing against grando, ought to try, if possible, 
to keep up two cards to a king, or three of a suit, so as to have the king 
or even a nine third. In grando there are only seven cards in each suit, 
and another suit of four, the matadors. 

A single misplay in grando, of those playing against the declarer, lose*- 
the game. 

In all the games of Skat, playing without looking at the exact fall of 
cards, is sure to bring about blunders. 

Just as many games are won with sixty-one points as with seventy-one 
or eighty-one. It is the one point which as often as not decides the 
question. 

Players should invariably hold to the rule, that making a revoke losei 
the call, and it is a question whether the highest penalty, " schwarz," 
should not be inflicted. Taking the skat and not discarding, also loses 
the game. 

Suppose a hand held 8 cards, as follows : ace and ten of clubs, and 
the aces and tens of spades, hearts, and diamonds — what would be the de- 
clare ? A grando without four would probably be won, but not always. 



SKAT. 379 

The spirit of emulation often makes the holder of good cards call be- 
yond his powers. 

In playing the Nullo, it is never wise to return the suit, which the nullo 
may begin with. The player is probably short of it. 

Vo not suppose invariably that the high card which will discomfit the 
nullo player is in the skat. The chances are that the nullo hand 
ftolds it. 

In the cad of nullo, which is a declare, where nc tricks are to be made, 
adversaries should bear in mind, what might have been Solo's bid„ 
Remembering this, it will give some idea of a long suit, in one of the 
three hands, and play should be made accordingly. 

In the declaration of a Solo, it is evident that those playing against the 
declarer of a solo, may take somewhat greater risks, because the soloist 
has not been able to make a short suit by the discard, nor does he know 
any more than do his adversaries what may be in the skat. 

In calling a tourne when a knave is turned, the player has the right to 
declare a grando tourne (see Rules). Suppose he does turn a jack, and 
declines the tourne grando. The probabilities are that he has not more 
than two matadors— and these not the best. The jack turned may show 
this. The inference, when he declines the tourne grando, is that he is 
not very strong in the suit, but may have aces and tens, or good suits in 
other colors, not trumps. 

What to do when the opponents hold an ace or a ten with one small 
trump, the caller declaring a tourne or solo, and playing a low matador 
is difficult to determine. It is better to risk the loss of a ten or ace, when a 
lo^r matador is played, because the chances are that your partner may 
hold the better matador. If the caller has the best matadors, the adver- 
sary or adversaries would lose the ace or ten of trumps anyhow. 

Mot to lead trumps on the part of the player of a call is a confession of 
weakness. It is often wise to pretend to be strong when you are not. 
SJcat is a very foxy game. 

There is a good deal of inspiration in playing Skat, and there never arfc 
two games which are similar. You have to catch the hang of it as i\ 
goes along. 

Say you have ace and king of a suit not trumps, and the caller plays a 
queen. Would it be wise to take it with your ace, if you are third player ? 
Your partner, who is second player, would have certamly put the ten on it, 
if he had had it. If you captured the queen with your king, you would 
win 7 points. If with your ace, 14 points, or twice as many points. But 
the caller may have the ten, and then make it, while if you kept your 
ace you would have scored 21 points. 



380 sjta r. 

The necessity of keeping an accurate mental count of all the points 
made, becomes now evident. If 2 points would win you the game, of 
course take it. 

Games are often won on the part of a good player making a call, by 
the deliberate throwing away of a single unsupported ten he holds. 
Trumps, say, have been all exhausted, excepting the one the caller has. 
He has the ten of a suit of which the ace he knows is out. The adver- 
saries play a card he must trump or lose the points which may be in it.. 
The caller throws away his ten on his adversaries' trick, and takes their 
ace of this same suit with his last trump. Instead of losing 21 points, he 
has only lost 10 points, but in the aggregate has one point or more to the 
fore, which one point may win him the game. It is just in a case of this 
kind, where the cleverness of the player is discoverable. It is one of the 
nice points of Skat. 

Remember it is very much to the advantage of the player making the 
call, to have the chance to discard low cards. It is bad policy for adver- 
saries to keep at one suit too long. 

Of all the new games introduced, we must declare that Skat bears the 
palm, as the most interesting and fullest of surprises. At the same time, 
to play it well is a very rare accomplishment. The want of a three- 
handed game has long been felt — and Skat exactly fills the demand. 

With some knowledge of the many games of cards, the editor urges the 
study of this game, as it has qualities which few games possess, and 
principally this one — that Skat is so interesting per se y as to afford amuse- 
ment without a money stake. It is then essentially a family game. 

COUNTING THE GAME. 

To count the points won or lost without reference to the printed tables, 
is not difficult. 

Bear in mind these constant factors : 

Tourne Diamonds, is 5. Solo Diamonds, is 9. 

44 Hearts, t4 6. 4t Hearts, 44 10. 

44 Spades, 4 * 7. 44 Spades, 44 11. 

44 Clubs, 44 8. 44 Clubs, 44 12. 

Grando Tcurne, is 12 ; Grando, is 16. 
The Nullo, is 20 ; Nullo-open, 40. 
The numbers 5, 6, 7, 8, g, 10, n, 12, for Tournes or Solos, are fixed 
factors, and these are multiplied by the changing values of hands. Game 
counts one, and then every matador one more. Say a tourne in diamonds 
is called and made, and there is one matador, for there always must be 
one matador for or against the player, 



SKAT. 3 Sl 

We have, then, tourne m diamonds 5 ; the game 1, as a multiple, 
and 1 matador as another multiple. We add the multiples 1 + 1, and 
have 2. Then, 5 X 2 is ten, or ten chips are won or lost for a tourne in 
diamonds with one matador. 

Suppose it were a solo in diamonds, with one matador. The fixed factor 
is 9. The game is 1, the matador is 1. 1 + 1=2, and 9 X 2 is 18. 

Suppose it were a solo in clubs, with four matadors. We have 1 for 
game and 4 for the four matadors. 1 + 4 is 5. Then 12 being the fixed 
factor, 12 X 5, or 60, is the penalty. 

Take Grando, the fixed factor of which is 16. It is won or lost with 1 
matador. Game 1 + 1 matador, or 2 ; then 16 x 2 = 32, or 32 is the 
lowest penalty. 

If schneider is made, not called, there is one more multiple. Take this 
same grando. There would be 1 for game, 1 for schneider. 1 + 1 = 2, 
and 1 more for the matador, or a multiple of 3 ; and 16 X 3 would be 
48. If there were 4 matadors in the grando and schneider, there would 
be 1 for game ; 4 for the matadors. 1+4 = 5, an d l more for schneider, 
or 1 + 4 + 1 = 6, and 16 X 6 would be 96. 

Announcement of schneider increases the rate one more, and on th< 
above grando. The multiples would be 1 + 4 + 1 + 1, or 7 ; and 16 X 
7 = 112. If with this hand a schwarz were made, but not announced, 
an additional 1 rate would be added, which would make it 128. If 
schwarz were announced and won, it would be 1 more rate, or 144. It 
would be calculated in this way : 

Game 1 

Matadors 4 

Announcement of Schneider 1 

Schneider made 1 

Announcement of Schwarz 1 

Schwarz made I 

9 as a multiple. 
16 X 9 = 144 points. 

It is sometimes the habit to announce points as, u I will make 48 or 60 
points," without mentioning the suit or the declare. This is supposed 
to conceal the character of the hands, but recent authority is opposed to 
it. There can be no concealment, for a good player knows what about is 
the declare, and it must be fully announced in time. To beginners this 
method is a constant puzzle, and one which is useless. 



382 , SKAT. 



Occasionally nullo«open, nullo on the table, is made less than forty 
— as thirty-two, — but we see no good reason for this. 

We are not desirous of presenting any new rules for Skat, but 
Americans who are quick to see the points of a game and apt to vary 
them, have introduced what they call a Little Nullo, which has been 
copied from the Little Misery, in Boston. The play is then with ninq 
cards, each player discarding one card, and no trick to be made. We 
fail to see any good points in the Little Nullo, and are positive that 
it is prejudicial to the game. Another novelty is to call a Nullo 
Tourne, when the player turns the seven (7) of any suit. He dis- 
cards just as in tourne. He must declare, however, his intention to 
play Nullo Tourne before looking at the second card in the Skat. 
The penalty is 15. Skat is excellent enough without taking any 
liberties with it. 

As the interest in Skat has widely increased, the question has 
been asked the editors, "W r hy, in calling the various declares, are not 
the same methods used as in English games? 

Games of foreign origin have their peculiar stamp, but certainly the 
German method of making the declares in Skat is awkward and in op- 
position to custom. Germans who play American games of cards, 
who are familiar with Skat, often become confused when playing Skat, 
because they are more used to the American method. Much, then, as 
the editors are disinclined to change the method of Skat, they think 
there is good reason to accept this change in the order of declaring, 
and believe it will be to the advantage of the game, eliminating <i 
confusing element. If the American method be adopted, then the 
declare follows in the order of the hands, just as in poker, from left 
to right, the player receiving the first cards being the elder hand. 
Certainly it is more natural and philosophical, and in no possible way 
disturbs tne fundamental laws of the game. A good many other 
changes have been suggested, none of which we think worthy of 
attention. Some of them would quite alter the character of Skat. 
We even advise the change in the method of calling as indicated, be- 
lieving that it will help a game, which for the amusement and fine 
play it affords, is the best we know of. 

The playing of the Grando, with the lead in the declarer's hand, 
does not present many difficulties. Generally being the first player, he 
draws out the matador which may be in the adversaries' hands. When 
it is not his lead, more skill is necessary, unless he has the command 
in two suits. It is good play on the part of the adversaries to lead up 
invariably from their strongest suit, especially if the person makinc 
a declare has a position between the two players. It often happens 



SKAT. 383 



that the cards thrown away by the adversaries as useless, make the 
Grando for the declarer. A suit of three with the king three, ought to 
be guarded. The adversary's ace and ten may be good, but his low 
third card, which he plays, may be taken by an adversary's king, and 
then a schmere, or the dumping of a ten, may make him lose the game. 

Players against a Grando must of course guard carefully their tens 
When second. 

With three matadors, if they are the best, play the lowest, because some- 
times it may induce the adversaries to discard a ten, and then they lose 
it, and the player can make the ace and king. 

Grandos under certain circumstances are very much of a surprise, and 
often beaten by good play. 

The Grando tourne is prone tc accidents unless the hand is very cer- 
tain. It is better not to declare Schneider or schwarz unless the declarer 
has the lead. In fact, disappointments are so common in Skat that 
many players entirely ignore Schneider and schwarz, because the premium 
is not considered worth the risk. 

Leads of single tens are of doubtful policy in all the declares, espe- 
cially in Grando ; but if they do succeed, it is generally woe to the de- 
clarer of a call. 

A single misplay in Grando is more likely to lose the game thaa in any 
other declare. 

GENERAL DIRECTIONS. 

A speculative game, that is turning up a card in the Skat to make a 
tourne, if once commenced should be continued. Conservative players 
take no risks without having at least two matadors and one good suit. 
Judgment in the discard is everything in Skat. 

A cheeky game, that is making pretence of having plenty of trumps 
when you have but few, often wins the game. 

A very pretty play which can be resorted to at times, is whea in oppo- 
sition to the declarer, one of the players is snort of trumps and has a sin- 
gle low trump. The position being as follows : A the first hand, B the 
second hand making the declare, C in the third hand, and A's partner. 
A plays something, B trumps it ; then C, who has not the suit, and can- 
not over-trump, throws away his low trump too. Then B must play a 
wump higher than A each time when led through, or C will schmere, 
or if A has a high trump, C can schmere, or dump high cards. 

Having the strength in trumps and having led them out, it is unwise, 
unless under special conditions, to continue playing them, for then the 



384 SKA r. 

adversaries will discard, and might work in a strong suit, and makt 
many points. Not to let your adversary, or adversaries, discard, is one 
of the points of Skat. 

Skat is a game where sometimes inspiration is effective, for it gen- 
erally defies any set or fixed rules, but nevertheless there are certain 
common-sense principles which govern it, and one is to get, when you 
can, the player between his two adversaries, that is : A is first, B second, 
and C third player, and B has a declare. Then if not at too great a 
sacrifice, A should always try to lead through B. 

A bold schmere often wins a game. Many games are lost by what is 
known among American Whist players as " pickling." 

Not paying attention to a lead when you have the nine and the seven 
of a suit often causes disaster. Having the seven of a suit you lead it. 
Your partner's or your adversaries' eight takes the trick, and your meas- 
ures are defeated. 

To hold back the ace, so that it may take your adversaries' ten, is one 
of the chef (Poeuvres of Skat ; and how to lay low for it is the great 
point. 

Never keep up a suit which gives your opponent a discard, for that is 
just what be wants. Having got clear of his low cards, he takes your 
aighones. 

Skat Is not Skat unless the points are counted all the time. About one 
game in ten is lost because 60 or 61 could have been made, and was over- 
looked. 

It is new worth while on the part of the opponents to try and make 
a Schneider on the caller, because often 4 ' vaulting ambition overleaps 
itself." 

NULLO. 

It is always bad policy to return the caller's lead. It is wise to play as 
if there we* no skat* and that there were eight cards dealt in every suit. 

GENERAL LAWS. 

Skat meat be played in the most rigorous manner. The exposure of a 
card shows so much of the game that a penalty should be exacted. Not 
following suit, under any circumstances, brings the loss ot the declare to 
the person calling it, or to the adversaries. 

The accidental turning up of the skat entails loss. 

A declare, no matter what it is, holds good. Yod are responsible fot 
'our own blunders. 

\ T o matter how if in dealing: a card is turned, a new deal is in order. 



SKAT. 



385 



Incorporating the skat in your hand, and playing with any number 
more or less than ten cards, makes the declarer lose his game after 
the first card is played. A player can always increase his call, but 
never go back from it or lower it. 

There are no penalties for a person dealing twice. The other 
players must look out for this, and the dealer may claim the advantage 
if not interrupted before he has finished the deal. There is some ad- 
vantage in dealing if it gives the last call. To have the lead in a de- 
clare, except in Grando, is not an advantage unless a strong hand is 
held. If the declarer has a ten second, it is against him. 

Four players at Skat is preferable to three, simply because a short 
interval of rest is then possible. Skat is, above all games, one which 
requires quick thought, strict attention, and as the games are rapid 
when three play, it is difficult to keep the head always clear. 
No one ever played Skat without making mistakes. 
The Editors must repeat what they have before written about Skat. 
Of all the games of cards, Whist only excepted, it is the most inter- 
esting, and the Editors credit themselves with the belief that this 
publication has in a large measure made the game popular in the 
United States. There never has been a Skat party without acolytes, 
who have taught others how to play it. If it 'be played for a money 
stake, the valuation of the chips can be made very low, for the game 
is so full of surprises as to be interesting when played for love. 

A rather curious phase of the game has already been brought about. 
The game which a few years ago was entirely played by Germans, has 
now been taken up by Americans, and there is apparently a ludicrous 
conflict of authority. Though there is no change in the method or 
animus of the game, some of the ''ceremonial" of Skat is being 
Americanized. Our temperament is too nervous, too quick and im- 
pulsive to stand the slow bidding, bantering, or raising of the German. 
An American with a Solo hand, cannot be restrained from calling it 
out at once. The more phlegmatic German loves to hug his cards and 
gradually comes to the highest notch, passing through tourne. He 
will say, tourne, then solo in diamonds, next hearts, then nullo, then 
clubs, and finally speak it out, "Grando. " 

The method known as Zahlen-reizen, the Skat Congress does not per- 
mit. This is to call declares by the numbers, as the penalty they are to 
pay or to be paid. Here some discrimination should be used if the 
philosophy of the game is studied. A nullo has 20 for penalty, and is 
not as good as a solo in clubs, which is 24. But a solo in diamonds 
with three matadors, entails a penalty of 24, and should be better than 



386 SKAT. 



nullo. This conflict can only come in the call of nullo, or 

nullo on the tabic. 

As the Editors have been asked to lav down the law in this matter, 
they are of the opinion that any solo which exceeds in its cost that 
of a nullo or nullo-ouvert, should take the precedence, and so 
diamonds with three matadors takes the declare away from a nullo, 
or a club solo with three matadors is better than nullo-ouvert. If 
the player chooses to take the risk of finding the matador he wants 
in the skat, it is his business, and even if he makes the declare 61 
points, and only has two matadors, he pays for his boldness. 

The trouble about Skat is that to-day there are many variations 
from the original game. Slight and unimportant as they are, they 
tend to confuse the original spirit of the cleverest of all the games 
of cards, which first and last, is Skat. 

METHODS OF COUNTING. 

Many German players dispense with chips. The count is easily 
kept with paper and pencil, by means of algebraic signs. Thus: A 
B, and C play. A makes a tourne in diamonds with one matador, 
and B and C lose. This may be noted in this way: 

ABC 

+ 20 — 10 — 10 

Then B wins a grando with four matadors, the game being 80. 
Then we have : 

ABC 

+ 20 — 10 — 10 

— 80 +160 —80 

Or A loses 80, B wins 160, and C loses 80. 

In order to close up accounts quickly at the end of the game, every 
fifth or tenth round, the person who deals, if four are playing, balances 
the account. 

There are several methods of making out the account, but the one cited 
seems the simplest. When four play the method is the same. Only gains 
and losses are three times as much to the winner or loser of the declare. 

When chips are used 300 units is a convenient number. 

On the whole it seems, however, more satisfactory to play with chips, 
the liability to error being somewhat diminished. 

Chips of various colors, each player having one particular cerlor, makes 
the final settlement more speedy. 



TWO-HANDED SKAT. 387 

TWO-HANDED SKAT. 

Sometimes a third player not being obtainable, Two-handed Skat 
will be found to be a good game. 

There are 32 cards, and the Matadors, games, penalties, just as in 
3 or 4-handed Skat. The cards are dealt as follows: Five cards to 
the left, as if there was an imaginary partner, five cards to the 
actual player, five more cards to an imaginary player on the right of 
the dealer, and then five more cards to the dealer, and two cards face 
down, which is the Skat. Then the imaginary partners are left out, 
and five cards given to the opponent and taken by the dealer. There 
are then ten cards in the adversary's hand, ten in the dealer's, five 
cards to the right of the dealer, five to the left, thirty cards, with 
two for the Skat, making thirty-two cards, as in the three-handed 
game. 

The adversary begins, making the call, as in regular Skat, tourne, 
solo, or grando, and takes, or does not take the Skat, according to the 
Skat rules. But Skat can only be played with ten cards at a time. 
After a player has played five cards, he takes the five cards which 
are face down on his right, and his adversary does the same thing 
with the cards to his right. Then each have ten cards again, and 
the game is continued as in Skat. This two-handed game is then 
actually played with fifteen cards. 

The surprises are many, as a^poor hand, when the second batch of 
five cards is taken, may be excellent. To play Two-handed Skat well 
requires a good memory, as the hand that has taken the Skat knows 
exactly what cards are in, or what has been discarded. 

Grandos are not difficult to make, but nullos are by no means as 
certain. It is a game affording a great deal of amusement, and 
much in vogue in Germany. 

Sometimes the Nullo and Nullo-Ouverte are played with the first 
ten cards, and the extra five are not used. 



PROPS. 



In this game of chance, sea-shells take the place of dice. The 
shells are small, oblong ones, sometimes cowries, about seven- 
eighths of an inch to an inch in length by three-quarters of an inch 
broad. The top of the shell is cut, and into the hollow red sealing- 
wax is poured, so that the shell may fail equally well on either side. 
Four Props are used, and thrown on a table, covered with cloth. A 
player takes the four Props and wagers ten chips that he will throw 
even — that is, two Props showing the red, and two not showing the 
red; or he may bet that he will throw them uneven. The wager being 
accepted by the company, he throws, and wins, or loses, as he may 
have declared even or odd. The winner keeps on throwing, or offer- 
ing the bet until he loses, when the Props pass to the next player 
to the left. The terms used by the player of the Props are, "Set to 
me. I bet ten chips I make the nick." Sometimes it is, "That I 
throw the nick." 



SPOT. 

In this game, court cards are worth only the imprint of the suit 
on them, which is one. The deuce is better than the ace; the three 
better than ace, deuce, or any court card. Five cards are given to 
each player, and the trick belongs to the player having the highest 
card, the ten of a suit being the best card. There is no trump. The 
game is one of points, each pip counting. When there are ties, the 
player who has made the lead wins. The player having the most 
points wins. 



BOODLE. 389 



E. O. 

E. O. is a modification of Roulette. Around a fixed circle are a num- 
ber of lined-off divisions, with the letter E and the letter O painted on 
them. On these letters the player stakes his money. In the interior of 
the table is a movable circle into which a ball is thrown. There are forty 
sompartments in this, lettered respectively with twenty E's and twenty O's. 
In this movable circle there are, however, two bar-holes, which are alsc 
lettered E and O. The bets having been made, the banker turns the in- 
ner circle, and starts the ball. Should it fall in a regular compartment, 
marked E, the banker pays all the wagers in the E's, and takes all those bet 
on the O's. Should the ball, however, fall on the bar-hole E, he does 
not pay E, but takes all the wagers put up on O. Should it fall into O 
in the same way, he does not pay the O's, but wins all the wagers on the 
other letter E's. It is a game where five per cent, is always to the advan- 
tage of the banker. 



BOODLE. 

This is a bastard Faro with complications. 

A pack of 52 cards is used, and from another pack four cards are se- 
lected : the ace of hearts, the king of diamonds, queen of spades, and 
knave of clubs. These four cards are placed face up on the table, and 
remain there while the game is going on. The players put a stake of 
two or four counters, or what tbey please, on these four cards, selecting 
one or more than one. at their pleasure. 

The main object of the game is to make sequences— and when in 
making a sequence, a player has either of the four cards, the ace of 
hearts, king of diamonds, queen of spades, or knave of clubs, in his 
hand, he wins all the stakes placed on the card. 

The dealer gives in regular order one card to each player, and then 
deals one extra hand, which he turns face down on the table. All the 
cards are used. The dealer has the privilege of taking and playing this 
extra hand, if his own cards do not please him. The cards he has origin- 
ally held, if he makes this exchange, are not seen. He alone has thi* 
privilege. 

Tlte deal passes in regular ©rdcc 



390 jsilliakDS. 

The player after the dealer, begins. He has the option of leading any 
suit, but it must be the lowest of that suit in his hand. As he begins to 
play, he announces the card. For instance, it may be the deuce of dia- 
monds. The next play by the next player must be with the three of dia- 
monds. It may be in the same first player's hand. He must put the 
deuce of diamonds on the table exposed, and all other cards making up 
the sequence must be shown, and announced. The order of sequence is 
from deuce, the lowest, up to the ace. 

When the sequence, say of diamonds, is ended, that closes the suit, 
and a new color is commenced. It may happen, however, that a stop 
comes, which is inability to present the next card of the sequence. It 
may be in the hand on the table, which is not exposed. The person who 
stops, pays one chip to every other player. 

If during the game a player holds one of the four exposed cards, as 
before explained, and can play it from his own hand as one of a sequence 
in its regular order, he wins all the stakes put on that card. 

The game keeps on, until one player has exhausted all his cards. He 
is entitled to as many chips as each player has cards. 

There may be stakes unclaimed on the four cards, as the cards may be 
in the extra hand on the table. These stakes remain over for the next 
game* If a player blunders, and having a card which would have made 
the sequence, does not produce it, he pays a chip to all the other players. 



BILLIARDS. 

RULES FOR ALL THE LEADING GAMES 
OF BILLIARDS. 

THE AMERICAN, OR FOUR-BALL GAME. 

RULES. 

First. — i. Whoever, playing from within the " string line " against 
an outside cushion, brings the returning cue-ball nearest the head cush- 
ion, which is the one at which the players stand, is entitled to choice of 
balls and lead. Provided, 

(i) That, in stringing, the player's ball has not touched his qpponent's 



BILLIARDS. 



391 



while the latter was at rest. (2) Nor has fallen into any of the pockets. 
In either case the player loses choice and lead. (3) Should the cue-balls, 
both being in motion, come in contact, the strokes are invalid, and must 
be played over. 

2. In " stringing," it is required that both cue-balls shall be struck 
simultaneously, or so nearly together that one ball cannot reach the lowel 
cushion before the other has been put in motion. 

Second. — 1. The player who wins the choice of balls and lead must 
either roll his ball down toward the lower cushion, as an object for hi? 
adversary to play at, or else compel his adversary to lead off, as above 
described. 

2. In leading, the player's ball must be played from within the string- 
line, and struck with sufficient strength to carry it beyond the deep-red 
ball on its appropriate spot at the foot of the table. But it must not be 
played with such strength as to repass, after having come in contact with 
the lower cushion, the deep-red ball. Nor yet must it touch either red 
ball, nor lodge on the cushion, nor fall into a pocket, nor jump of! the 
table. In any of the cases mentioned in this section, or in case the cue' 
ball is not struck with sufficient strength to pass beyond the deep-red, it 
shall be optional with the adversary (Player No. 2) to make No. 1 spo> 
his ball on the pool-spot nearest the lower cushion, or lead again ; or ht 
may take the lead himself. 

3. No count or forfeiture can be made or incurred wntil two strokes 
have been played. 

4. Once the lead is made, the game is considered as commenced, and 
neither player can withdraw except under circumstances specified in 
Rule VII. 

Third. — 1. The game is opened by Player No. 2 playing on the white 
ball at the foot of the table. 

2. Should he fail to hit the white first, or fail to hit it at all, he forfeits 
one point, which shall be added to his adversary's score. Should he 
pocket himself after hitting a red ball first, he loses three points, even 
tjiough he may have subsequently hit the white. 

Fourth. — 1. If the striker fails to hit any of the other balls with his 
own, he forfeits one point, which, as well as other forfeitures, must be 
added to his adversary's score. 

2. The striker forfeits two when the ball that he plays with is pock- 
eted, or lodges on the cushion, or goes over the table, after having struck 
or been in fixed contact with the other white, no matter whether it 
has touched one or both of the reds. 

TAn exception to this clause will be found in Rule III., Sec. 2.] 



392 BILLIARDS. 

3. The striker forfeits three when the ball that he plays with is pock- 
eted, or lodges on the cushion, or goes over the table, after having come 
in contact with one or both of the reds, and not the white. The same 
applies if neither red nor white be struck. 

[It is now quite common, in playing the American game, to count one 
point for single caroms, and two for double ones. This method, decid- 
edly more equitable than the old way of determining the value of a 
carom by the color of the balls struck, has been adopted by all the lead- 
ing players in their match games. As heretofore, one point is reckoned 
for a miss ; but when the cue-ball falls into a pocket, or bounds over the 
table, or lodges upon the cushion, a forfeiture of one point is exacted. 
When, however, caroms are counted in twos, threes, and fives, the for- 
feitures are the same as prescribed in these Rules. Pushing strokes, at 
one time penalized, and subsequently practiced by expert players as a 
matter of necessity only, are once more under a ban. Professionals have 
abandoned it, and in their public contests it is no longer tolerated. And 
players will search these Rules in vain for any warrant for its use — the 
clause to the effect that " any shot made with the point of the cue is fair," 
having been expunged in 1867.] 

4. If the player cause any ball to jump off the table, and should it, by 
striking any of the bystanders, be flung back upon the table, it must still 
be treated as if it had fallen to the floor. If a red ball, it must be 
spotted ; if a white, held in the hand. Should it be the last striker's ball, 
he forfeits two or three, the same as if it had ' jne into a pocket. 

Fifth. — 1. If either player plays with his opponent's ball, the stroke is 
foul ; and, if successful, he cannot count, Drovided the error is found out 
before a second shot is made. 

2. Should two or more strokes have been made previous to the dis- 
covery, the reckoning cannot be disturbed, and the player may continue 
his run with the same ball, or he may have the balls changed. The same 
privilege is extended to the opposing player when his turn comes to play. 

3. Should it be found that both players have used the wrong ball suc- 
cessively, he who was first to play with the wrong ball cannot put in a 
claim of foul against his opponent, as the latter, in using the wrong ball v 
was simply playing from his proper position on the table. 

[It is the position of the cue-ball, and not its mere color or designation, 
that governs. Aside from this, before one player can charge another 
with error, it must be shown that no act of his contributed to that error.] 

4. Though the striker, when playing with the wrong ball, cannot count 
what points he may make, except in those cases mentioned above, never- 



billiards. 39^ 

theless, whatever forfeitures he may incur while playing with the wrong 
ball he is bound to pay, as if he had been playing with his own. 

5. Should, however, both the white balls be off the table together, and 
should either player, by mistake, pick up the wrong one and play with it. 
the stroke must stand, and he can count whatever he has made. 

[As he plays from his proper position, it is immaterial, because no 
advantage is to be gained which ball he uses. In this case, as in the 
others where it is permitted to play with the wrong ball, the balls should be 
changed at the conclusion of the run. This will prevent confusion and 
disputes .] 

6. If the striker play at a ball before it is fully at rest, or while any 
other ball is rolling on the table, the stroke is foul. 

7. If, after going into a pocket, a cue-ball or an object-ball should re- 
bound and return to the bed of the table, it must be treated as a ball not 
pocketed. 

8. If the player, when playing with the butt or side of his cue, does 
not withdraw the butt or side before the cue-ball touches the first object- 
ball, the stroke is foul. 

9. A stroke made while a red ball is off *-he table, provided its spot is 
unoccupied, is foul. 

10. If the game being played is one in which hazards, or pockets, do 
not count, a red ball that has been pocketed or forced off the table shall 
be spotted on another spot, provided its own is occupied, and provided, 
also, the non-striker's ball is off the table at the time. If the light-red, 
it shall be placed on the dark-red spot ; and if that spot is occupied, the 
light-red shall be placed on the pool spot at the foot of the table. If the 
dark-red, it shall be placed on the light-red spot, etc. If both reds are 
off the table at the same time, and their spots are occupied by the two 
whites, one of the reds may be placed on the pool spot. The other must 
remain off the table until its proper spot is vacant. 

11. If, after making a successful stroke, the player obstructs or other- 
wise affects the free course of any ball in motion, the stroke is foul, and 
he cannot score the points made thereby. 

12. A touch is a shot. And if, while the balls are at rest, a player 
touches or disturbs any ball on the table other than his own, it is 
foul. He has, however, the privilege of playing a stroke for safety, pro- 
vided his own ball has not been touched, but he can make no count on 
the shot. 

13. In playing: a shot, if the cue leaves the ball and touches it again, 
the stroke is foul 



394 BILLIARDS. 

14. If the striker, through stretching forward or otherwise, has not 
at least one foot on the floor while striking-, the shot is foul, and no 
points can be reckoned. 

15. If, when the player's ball is in hand, he does not cause it to pass 
outside the string before touching any of the object-balls or cushion (ex- 
cept in the case mentioned in the following Rule), the stroke is foul, and 
his opponent may choose whether he will play with the balls as they are, 
have them replaced in their original positions, or cause the stroke to be 
played over ; or, should the player pocket his own ball under such cir- 
cumstances, the penalty may be enforced . 

16. Playing at a ball whose base or point of contact with the table is 
outside the " string," is considered playing out of the " string," and the 
stroke is a fair one, even though the side which the cue-ball strikes is 
hanging over, and therefore within the " string." 

17. Playing directly at a ball that is considered in the " string " is foul, 
even though the cue-ball should pass wholly beyond the " string " line 
before coming in contact. 

18. Giving a miis inside the " string," when the player is in hand, is 
foul ; but he may, for safety, cause his ball to go out of the " string " and 
return. 

19. If a player alters the stroke he is about to make, at the suggestion 
of any party in the room — even if it be at the suggestion of his partner in 
a double match — the altered stroke is foul. 

20. Placing marks of any kind whatever, either upon the cushions or 
table, is foul ; and a player, while engaged in a game, has no right to 
practice a particular stroke on another table. 

Sixth. — -I. When the cue-ball is in contact with any other ball, the 
striker may effect a count either by playing first upon ♦some ball other 
than that with which his own is in contact, or by playing first against the 
cushion, or by a masse". In either of the two last-mentioned cases it is 
immaterial which ball the returning cue-ball strikes first. 

2. Should the cue-ball be in contact with all the other balls on the 
table — or if with two balls only, while the remaining ball is on the table 
in such a way that the striker cannot play either on the free ball or the 
cushion first — it shall be optional with him to have all the balls taken up 
and the reds spotted as at the commencement of the game. It shall also 
be at his option to take the lead himself or compel his opponent to lead. 

Seventh. — 1. The player may protest against his adversary's standing 
in front of him, or in such close proximity as to disarrange his aim. 

2. Also, against loud talking, or any other annoyance by his opponent 
while he is making his play. 



BILLIARDS. 395 

3. Also, against being refused the use of the bridge, or any other of 
the instruments used in that room in playing, except where a special 
Stipulation to the contrary was made before commencing the game. 

4. Or in case his adversary shall refuse to abide by the marker's, re- 
feree's, or company's decision on a disputed point, which it was agreed 
between them to submit to the marker, referee, or company for arbitra- 
tion. In any one or all of the foregoing cases, if the discourtesy be per- 
sisted in, the party aggrieved is at liberty to withdraw, and the game and 
all depending upon it shall be considered as drawn. 

5. Should the interruption or annoyance have been accidental, the 
marker, if so requested by the player who is entitled to repeat his stroke, 
must replace the balls as near as possible in the position they occupied 
before the player made the stroke in which he was interrupted. 

Eighth. — The marker must replace the balls, if called on, as nearly as 
possible, in their former position : 1. In the case mentioned in the fifth 
paragraph of the preceding Rule. 

2. Where any of the balls, when at rest, are moved by accident. 

3. Where any of the balls, while rolling, are suddenly obstructed, either 
by accident or design, on the part of any person other than the player. 
In this case, the marker, if so requested by the players or referee, shal 
place the interrupted ball as nearly as possible in the situation which it 
would apparently have occupied had it not been stopped. 

4. Where the cue-ball, resting on the edge of a pocket, drops into it 
before the striker has time to play. 

5. Where the object-ball, in a similar position, is rolled back into a 
pocket by any of the ordinary vibrations of the table or atmosphere. 

6. In all the cases aforementioned where it is specified that, in conse- 
quence of a foul stroke, the player's opponent shall have the option either 
of playing at the balls as they are, or causing them to be replaced by the 
marker. 

7. When either or both of the red balls are pocketed or forced off the 
table it is the marker's duty to spot them before another stroke is played 
— except (the game being played is caroms and pockets) the spot appro- 
priate to either be occupied by one of the playing balls, in which case the 
red one must be kept in hand until its position is uncovered. 

8. If, after playing a ball, the player should attempt to obstruct or 
accelerate its progress by striking it again, blowing at it, or any other 
means, his opponent may either play at the balls as they stand, or call 
upon the referee or marker to replace them in the position they would 
otherwise have occupied. 

9. It is the duty of each player to see that a ball is properly spotted be* 



39 6 



BILLIARDS. 



fore the next stroke is made. As in the case where a player is m hand, a 
claim of foul, after the cue-ball has been struck in the one instance, and 
the red ball disturbed in another, cannot be entertained. All claims to 
the effect that the red ball is not on its spot, or that the striker's ball is not 
inside the " string," when he is about to play after having been in hand, 
should be made befo7-e the stroke is played, as it can seldom be decided 
after the stroke, whether there was any ground for the claim. 

Ninth. — i. Each player must look after his own interest and exercise 
his own discretion. His opponent cannot be compelled to answer such 
questions as, " Is the ball outside or inside the 'string'?" "Are the 
balls in contact ? " and so forth. These are questions for the player's own 
judgment to decide. 

2. When the cue-ball is very near another ball, the player must not 
play directly upon that ball without having warned his adversary that 
they do not touch, and given him or his umpire time to be satisfied on 
ehat point. 

^. It is obligatory upon the adversary or umpire to call "time !" or 
give some other notice of his approach, if, while the player is preparing 
to make a stroke, either of them desires to look at the ball or submit a 
question to the referee. 

4. Each player should attend strictly to his own game, and never inter- 
fere with his adversary's, except in the cases mentioned in Section 9 of 
Rule VIII., or when a foul stroke or some other violation of these Rules 
may call for forfeiture. 

RULES OF PIN POOL. 

First. — Player No. 1 must play with the remaining white ball, from 
any point within the string-line at the head of the table, at either the 
red or white ball, or place his own on the spot. 

Second.— Player No. 2 may play with either ball on the table— red 
or white. 

Third.— After the first stroke has been played, the players, in their 
order, may play with or at any ball upon the board. 

Fourth. — Unless the player has played on some ball upon the board 
before knocking down a pin, the stroke under all circumstances goes 
for nothing, and the pin or pins must be replaced, and the player's 
ball put upon the white -ball spot at the foot of the table, or if 
that be occupied, on the nearest unoccupied spot thereto. But should 
two balls be in contact the player can play with either of the balls so 
touching, direct at the pins, and any count so made is good. 



BILLiARDS. 



397 



Fifth. — If a player, with one stroke, knocks down the four outside 
pins and leaves the central one standing on its spot, it is called a Natural 
or Ranche, and under any and all circumstances it wins the game. 

Sixth. — But if the player has knocked down pins whose aggregate 
number, when added to the number on the small ball in his cup, exceeds 
a total of thirty-one, except in case mentioned in Rule Five, he is then 
M burst," and must drop out of the game unless a "privilege " is claimed. 
If this claim is made it must be before another stroke is made, as other- 
wise he can only re-enter the game by the full consent of the players. 

Seventh. — Players having "burst" can claim a privilege as often as 
they "burst"; and when privilege is granted, the player draws a new 
small ball from the marker, and has then the option either of keeping 
that which he originally drew or adopting the new one then drawn ; but 
one or the other he must return, or else he cannot, under any circum- 
stances, be entitled to the pool. 

Eighth. — When a player bursts and a privilege is taken, the player so 
bursting retains his original number in the order of its play. Thus, if 
there are ten players, and No. 2 bursts, he appears again under privilege 
as No. 2, and follows No. 1, next stroke. 

Ninth, — If a player makes a miss, or pockets his own ball, or causes it 
to jump off the table or lodge on the cushion, or if after jumping off it 
should be thrown back upon the table by any of the bystanders — under 
any of these circumstances the ball must be placed on the spot, five 
inches from the bottom cushion on the central line, or should that be oc- 
cupied, then on the red-ball spot, or should that too be occupied, then 
upon the spot at the head of the table. 

Tenth. — Should the spot appropriated to any of the pins which' 
have been knocked down be occupied by any of the balls, the pin 
must remain off until the spot is again uncovered. 

Eleventh. — If a player has made thirty-0^2 he nr*~,t proclaim it 
before the next stroke is made; for which purpose a reasonable delay 
must be allowed for calculation between each play more especially 
in the latter portion of the game. But if a player has made thirty- 
one, and fails to announce it before next play (a reasonable time 
having passed), then he cannot proclaim the fact until the rotation 
of play again comes round to him. In the meanwhile, if any other 
player makes the number and proclaims it properly, he is entitled to 
the pool, wholly irrespective of the fact that the number was made, 
though not proclaimed, before. 

Twelfth. — Merely touching a pin or shaking it goes for nothing, and 
the pin must be replaced on its spot. To count a pin must be either 
knocked down or removed two full inches from the spot on which it 



3q8 BILLIARDS. 

stood, in which case it shall be counted even though it maintains thi 
perpendicular. 

Thirteenth. — A player cannot use any count he may have made by 
playing out of his turn ; but if he has made pins enough to burst him by 
such stroke, the loss is established, unless in cases where he was called 
on to play by some other of the players, or the marker, who either be- 
lieved or pretended it was his turn. In such case he cannot be burst by 
his stroke, and he whose turn it was to play plays next in order. 

Fourteenth. — Pins which have been knocked down by a ball whose 
course has in any wise been illegitimately interfered with do not count , 
nor can pins knocked down by any other ball set in motion by the same 
play be reckoned. 

Fifteenth.— \i a ball jump off the table, and be thrown back by any 
of the bystanders in such a way as to knock down pins, such pins do not 
count, and the ball must be considered off the table, and spotted as afore- 
mentioned, and the pins replaced. But if any other ball set in motion 
previous to the jumping of the ball off the table by the same stroke gets 
pins, the pins so made by the other ball must be reckoned. 

Sixteenth. — If the marker finds that there are any of the small balls 
missing, it is then his duty to announce the number of the missing ball, 
as in no case can a player having that ball, or more than one small balJ 
in his possession, win the pool. His other duties consist of keeping and 
calling the game at each stroke, and see that the pins and balls be spotted 
when and as required. 

Seventeenth. — A player taking a privilege is entitled to a stroke to se- 
cure his stake to the pool. 

Eighteenth. — It is the duty of each player to see that he is credited 
with the proper number of points by the marker after each stroke, and no 
ciaim can be allowed after a succeeding stroke has been made without 
the full consent of the players. 

Nineteenth. — The game-keeper is not responsible to the winner of a 
pool for more than the actual amount received from the players in the 
pool. 

Twentieth —A player shall not be entitled to any pin or pins knocked 
down by him unless his small ball be placed in its proper place in the 
board. 

Twenty-first. — A player in this game, as in billiards, has tht jole right 
of looking after his own interests, should see that the pins are up before 
Maying, and neither the game-keeper nor any of the bystanders has any 
right to dictate to or advise him, unless by the/?/// consent of the players. 

Twenty-second. — The game-keeper shall collect the pool and make u^ 



BILLIARDS. 399 

die game ; deal out the small balls to the players ; see that the balls and 
pins are properly spotted ; that there are no more small balls out than 
there are players in the pool, and if any ball or balls are missing, pro- 
claim the number or numbers to the players, as the pool cannot be won 
by such balls ; call out each number in its turn to the players, and pro 
claim, loud enough for him to hear it, the number the player already 
counts from pins knocked down. 

Twenty-third. — No person is considered in the game unless his pool 
be paid in. 

Twenty-fourth. — Any pins knocked down by jarring the table, blowing 
upon the pins or ball, or altering or intercepting the ball's course in run- 
ning, does not count, nor is the player entitled to any pin or pins that 
may be made by any ball (though not interfered with) during the same 
play. 

Twenty-fifth. — Should a player, in the act of striking his ball or play- 
ing, knock down pins otherwise than with the ball played with or at, he 
is not entitled to such pins, or any others he may make by the same 
stroke. 

The following notes on Pin Pool apply directly and exclusively to that 
form of it known as the " plant " game. 

i. When a player makes a stroke and knocks down pin or pins, and 
wishes to plant, he must declare that he plants before another stroke is 
made. 

2. But a player wishing to call a planter can plant even if he fail to 
make pins on his preceding stroke. 

3. If those who plant have the same number, thus making a tie, count- 
ing their small ball and the board, the player planting first shall be good 
and the last planter bursted. 

4. If a player in the game should burst, he can purchase any small 
ball still in the game by consent of the player owning such ball. 

5. No player can play the planter's ball but himself. 

6. No player can purchase a ball until his own is dead. 

7. « No player can purchase a ball after having seen more than one, 
without the full consent of the players. 

8. If the planter should make the four outside pins, as in Rule Five 
of Pin Pool relating to natural or ranche, or should make thirty-one 
for the preceding player, it shall be declared -dooI for the payer 
planted upon. 



400 BILLIARDS. 

THE RULES OF CUSHION CAROMS. 

Definition. — A cushion carom is when the cue-ball takes one or more 
cushions before effecting a carom, or the cue-ball makes a carom, then 
strikes one or more cushions, then the object-balls. 

A doubtful stroke, calling for a u close decision," must be given in 
favor of the doubt and against the striker — i. e , when it is difficult to say 
whether the cue-ball has struck a cushion before or after contact with the 
object-ball. 

First. — The game is begun by stringing for the lead ; the player who 
brings his ball nearest to the cushion at the head of the table winning 
the choice of balls and the right to play first, as in the American game. 
Should the player fail to count, his opponent then makes the next play, 
aiming at will at either ball on the table. 

Second. — Each cushion carom counts one for the striker. A penalty of 
one shall also be counted against the player for every miss he makes dur- 
ing the game. 

Third. — A ball forced off the table is put back on its proper spot. 
Should the player's ball jump off the table after counting, the count is 
good, the ball is spotted, and the player plays from the spot. 

Fourth.— -If the balls are disturbed accidentally, through the medium of 
any agency other than the player himself, they must be replaced, and the 
player allowed to proceed. 

Fifth.— -If, in the act of playing, the player disturbs any ball other 
than his own, he cannot make a counting stroke. Should he disturb a 
ball after having played successfully, he loses his count on that shot, his 
hand is out, and the ball so disturbed is placed back as near as possible 
in the position which it formerly occupied on the table, the other balls re- 
maining where they stop. 

Sixth. — When the cue-ball is very near another, the player shall not 
play without warning his adversary that they do not touch, and giving 
him sufficient time to satisfy himself on that point. 

Seventh.— When the cue-ball is in contact with either or both of the 
object-balls, it shall be optional with the player to spot the balls and play 
as at the opening of the game, or to play away from the ball or balls 
with which he is in contact, and count from a cushion. 

Eighth. — When the player's ball is in contact with a cushion, the ball 
may be played so as to rebound from the cushion, and if by reason of 
this rebound it comes in contact with the two object-balls, either before 
or after striking another cushion, the stroke is a valid cushion carom ; but 
if the* player should aim directly at the object-balls when his ball is in con- 



BILLIARDS. 4 Oi 

tact with a cushion, without making the cue-ball either rebound from 
the cushion or take another cushion before effecting the carom, it is 
no count. 

Ninth. — Foui, Strokes. — It is a foul and no count can be made: 
i. If a stroke is made except with the point of the cue. 

2. If the cue is not withdrawn from the cue-ball before the latter 
comes into contact with an object-ball. 

3. If when in hand the striker plays at a ball that is inside or on 
the string line, or if when in hand he plays from any position not 
within the six-inch radius. 

4. If in the act of striking, he has not at least one foot touching 
the floor. 

5. If he strikes while a ball is in motion. 

6. If the player touches the cue-ball more than once in any way, 
or hinders or accelerates it in any other way than by a legitimate 
stroke of the cue; or if, during a stroke or after it, he in any way 
touches, hinders, or accelerates an object-ball except by the one 
stroke of the cue-ball to which he is entitled. 

7. As touching any ball in any way is a stroke, a second touch is 
foul. Should a ball that has once come to a standstill move without 
apparent cause, while the player is preparing to strike, it shall be re- 
placed. Should it move before he can check his stroke, it and all 
other balls set in motion by that stroke shall be replaced, and the 
player shall repeat his shot, inasmuch as but for the moving of the 
ball he might have counted where he missed, or missed where he 
counted. 

8. It is a foul against the striker if any ball be disturbed, hastened, 
or hindered by an opponent, or any one but himself, whether the 
ball or balls are at rest while he is aiming or striking, in motion 
after he has struck, or at rest again after he has struck, and pending 
his again taking aim; and he shall have the same option as is given 
his opponent in Sec. 7 of this rule. 

9. It is a foul if the striker plays directly at any ball with which 
his own is in fixed contact. 

10. it is a toul to place marks of any kind upon the cloth or 
cushions as a guide to play; also foul to practice the banking shot for 
the lead-off upon the plea of testing the balls, which, until the moment 
of banking, shall never be hit with a cue, and after banking shall not 
again be hit with the cue until the opening stroke is made; and it is 
also foul if the striker, in making a shot, is assisted by any other 
person in any way save by being handed the bridge, long cue, or 
having the chandelier pulled aside, etc., by the marker, after he has 
requested the latter to do so. 

. Playing with the wrong ball is foul. However, should the 



4 o2 BILLIARDS. 

player using the wrong ball play more than one shot with it, he shall 
be entitled to his score, just the same as if he had played with his 
own; as soon as his hand is out, the white balls must change places, 
and the game proceed as usual. 

12. Skould a player touch his own hall with the cue or otherwise pre- 
vious to playing, it is foul, the player loses one, and cannot play for 
safety. It sometimes happens that the player after having touched his 
ball gives a second stroke ; then the balls remain where they stop, or are 
replaced as near as possible in their former position, at the option of his 
opponent. 

Tenth. — In order to restrict deliberate playing for safety, it shall be 
optional with the non-striker, if his opponent makes a miss in each one 
of three successive innings, to accept the third miss or reject it, and force 
his antagonist to hit at least one object-ball ; and for this purpose that 
antagonist's ball shall be replaced by the referee. Should two balls be hit 
by this stroke, there shall be no count. 

RULES OF THE BALK-LINE GAME. 

First. — The table shall be prepared by the introduction of four lines 
distinctly marked upon the cloth, eight inches from each cushion, and ex- 
tending from end to end, and from side to side of the table. The game 
is played with three balls. 

Second. — The lead and choice of balls are determined by banking from 
inside the string line, as in the regular three-ball game. 

Third. — i. The player winning the bank may either require his antag- 
onist's ball to be placed on the radius spot, and take the lead himself ; or 
he may have his own ball spotted, and require his opponent to open the 
game. The player opening the game may play from anywhere within a 
six-inch radius of which the spot at the head of the table is the base, but 
can make no count unless his ball has hit the red before hitting the white. 
2. After the opening stroke the striker plays at either ball, from any posi* 
tion m which he may find his own, subject to certain rules as to fou) 
strokes. 

Fourth. — In the opening shot, and also whenever, by a counting stroke, 
ne has sent his ball off the table, or lodged it on the cushion raii, and 
likewise whenever he elects to spot balls that are ''fast," the striker is 
M in hand." The non-striker's ball never becomes " in hand." 

Fifth. — One poi»t shall be given the striker for every fair carom, and 
for every failure to hit an object-ball he shall forfeit one point to his ad- 
versary. 



biZLtTrds. 403 

Sixth. — The object-balls shall be in balk as soon as both have stopped 
within any one of the eight spaces defined by the balk lines. A ball on 
the line is a ball within it. 

Seventh.— It is then a foul, and no count can be made. 

THE RULES OF TWO-BALL POOL. 

First.— Player Number One must lead with the red, but has the priv- 
ilege of spotting his ball, in case the lead does not please him. But if, 
in a pushing lead, he does not withdraw his mace or cue from the ball 
before it passes the middle pockets, the stroke is foul, and player Number 
Two has the option of playing at the ball as it is left, having the lead 
played over again, or causing the red to be spotted on the pool spot. 

Second. — Each player has cne, two, or more lives, as may be agreed 
on. When he forfeits these he is said to be dead, except when he obtains 
what is called a " privilege," meaning one chance more. 

Third. — This privilege, except where all the players consent to its re- 
maining open, must be taken by the first man " killed "; and the person 
so killed must determine whether he will accept it or not at once, before 
another stroke is played. [This is the strict rule of the game, and as 
such may be enforced ; but as a general practice, the privilege remains 
open until taken up by some one of the players.] 

Fourth. — After a game has been commenced, no one can take a ball, 
except with the consent of all who are already in the game ; and after 
ihe privilege is gone, no stranger can be admitted to the game under any 
circumstances. 

Fifth. — Any person in the pool whose lives are not exhausted, and who 
thinks a hazard may be be made in a certain position, can claim the 
stroke, or " take the hazard," as it is technically called, in case the striker 
does not choose to risk that particular stroke himself. Should the person 
>vho takes the hazard fail to execute it, he loses a life. 

Sixth.— The player has the best right to take a hazard, and must be 
marked if he fails to pocket the ball, in case any other player in the pool 
has offered to take it. 

Seventh.— In playing out of his turn the player loses a life, unless he 
pockets the object-ball, in which case the ball pocketed loses a life, and 
the next in rotation to the person who ought to have played plays. 

Eighth.— But if one player misdirect another by calling on him to 
piay, when it is not his turn, the misdirector, and not tb* misdirected, 
loses a life, and the next in turn must lead with the red as usuai. 

Ninth. — Whoever touches any of the balls while running forfeits a hit 



BILLIARDS. 

This rule is invariable, and can only be relaxed by the consent of all the 
players. 

Tenth. — No player can own or have an interest in more than one ball 
at a time ; nor can he buy another ball, nor own an interest in another 
ball, while his own ball is either alive or privileged. 

Eleventh. — After the number which he drew is dead, he may buy that 
of another player, and take his place ; but if the seller only dispose of an 
interest in his ball, he must either continue to play it himself or sell out 
his ball in toto, in which latter case any member of the original pool 
may buy and finish out the game. 

Twelfth. — But no person not included in the original pool can be per- 
mitted to buy in and play ; though outsiders may purchase an interest in a 
ball, still permitting the original member of the pool to play it. 

Thirteenth. — If the leader sells his number upon the lead the pur- 
chaser must either allow the lead made to stand or the ball may be spot- 
ted at his option. 

Fourteenth. — A lead once made cannot be changed, even when the 
next player sells his ball to a third party ; but the leader has, at all times, 
the option of having his ball spotted. 

Fi/tee?tth. — No player can strike twice in succession, under any cir- 
cumstances, except when there are only two players left, and one of them 
has holed his opponent's ball. In that case the person who has pocketed 
the ball must lead for his adversary to play on. 

Sixteenth. — When only two players are left, and either of them wishes 
to divide or sell, his opponent shall have the first right of buying, pro- 
vided that he offers as much as is offered by any of the others who are 
entitled (by having been in the original pool) to purchase. But should 
he not offer as much, then the ball may be sold to the highest duly quali- 
fied bidder. 

Seventeenth. — If a player, playing on the lead, places his ball outside 
of the string, and has his attention called to the fact by the leader before 
the time of striking his ball, it is optional with the leader either to com- 
pel him to play the stroke over again or let the balls remain as they are. 

Eighteenth. — If it be found that the marker has not thrown out balls 
enough for the number of players at the commencement of the game, 
his mistake will not alter the conditions of the pool. The balls must be 
again shaken up and thrown over, and then the game commences. 

With the foregoing exceptions, the rules of the ordinary Ameiican 
game as to striking with both feet off the floor, interrupting your adversary 
when in the act of striking, etc., etc., may be applied to two-ball pool. 



BILLIARDS. 405 



RULES OF THE THREE-BALL GAME. 

First.— The game is begun by stringing for the lead ; the player who 
brings his ball nearest to the cushion at the head of the table winning the 
choice of balls and the right to play first, as in the American game. 
Should the player fail to count, his opponent then makes the next play, 
aiming at will at either ball on the table. 

Second. — A carom consists in hitting both object-balls with the cue-ball 
m a fair and unobjectionable way ; each will count one for the player. A 
penalty of one shall also be counted against the player for every miss 
occurring during the game. 

Third. — A ball forced off the table is put back on its proper spot. 
Should the player's ball jump off the table after counting, the count is 
good, the ball is spotted, and the player plays from the spot. 

Fourth. — If in playing a shot the cue is not withdrawn from the cue- 
ball before the cue-ball comes in contact with the object-ball, the shot is 
foul, the player loses his count, and his hand is out. 

Fifth.— \i the balls are disturbed accidentally through the medium of 
any agency other than the player himself, they must be replaced and the 
player allowed to proceed. 

Sixth.— If in the act of playing the player disturbs any ball other than 
his own, he cannot make a counting stroke, but he may play for safety. 
Should he disturb a ball after having played successfully, he loses his 
count on that shot ; his hand is out, and the ball so disturbed is placed 
back as near as possible in the position which it formerly occupied on the 
table, the other balls remaining where they stop. 

Seventh. — Should a player touch his own ball with the cue or other- 
wise previous to playing, it is foul, the player loses one, and cannot play 
for safety. It sometimes happens that the player after having touched 
his ball gives a second stroke, then the balls remain where they stop, or 
are replaced as near as possible in }heir former position at the option of 
his opponent. 

^Eighth.— When the cue-ball is very near another, the player shall not 
play without warning his adversary that they do not touch, and giving 
him sufficient time to satisfy himself on that point. 

Ninth.— When the cue-ball is in contact with another, the balls are 
spotted, and *"ie player plays with his ball in hand. 

Tenth. — Playing with the wrong ball is foul. However, should the 
player using the wrong ball play more than one shot with it, he shall be 
entitled to his score just the same as ii : ne had played with his own ; as 



406 BILLIARDS. 

soon as his hand is out, the white balls must change places, and tne gamt 
proceed as usuaL 

RULES OF PYRAMID POOL. 

Rule I.* — In match or tournament contests the game is begun by bank* 
ing, the same as in the three or four-ball carom game. The winnv.. of 
the lead has the option of playing first himself from within the string at 
the head of the table, or obliging his opponent to play first from the same 
place. For convenience, two white balls of the same size as the pool 
balls may be provided for banking. 

When a series of games are played the players must take first stroke 
alternately. 

Rule 2.f — The player who makes the opening stroke must play from 
within the string at the head of the table against the pyramid of object- 
balls directly, without first taking a cushion, with such force as either to 
make three of the object-balls strike a cushion, or at least one object-ball 
go into a pocket. Should he fail to do either, the balls are to be set up 
again, he forfeits three points, and must play again. A second similar 
failure loses him the game. All balls pocketed on the opening stroke 
count for the player, and it is not necessary for him to call the numbers 
of the balls he intends pocketing before making the opening stroke. 

Rule 3. — Before making any other stroke except the opening stroke the 
player must distinctly call the number of the ball he intends to pocket, 
and unless he does so the ball pocketed does not count for him, and must 
be placed on the deep-red spot, or if that be occupied, as nearly below it 
as possible. The player loses his hand, but does not forfeit any points, 
and the next player plays. Should he call more than one ball he must 
pocket all the balls he calls, otherwise none of them can be counted for 
him. 

Rule 4.% — After the opening stroke each player must either pocket a 

* This method of determining the order of playing is to be used only when 
there are two players. When there are more than two players, the order o{ 
playing is determined by lot ; usually by rolling out of a receptacle, provided 
for the purpose, little numbered balls, which are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., ac« 
cording to the number of players. The player to whose lot No. 1 falls plays 
first, No. 2 second, and so on. Changing places in playing is not allowed. 

t Should the striker hole the cue-ball in the opening stroke, and by th« 
same stroke drive three or more balls against a cushion or into a pocket, he 
forfeits three only for the holding of the cue-ball. 

X Should the striker hole the cue-ball during the game, and by the sam» 



BILLIARDS. 407 

ball or make an object-ball strike a cushion, under penalty of forfeiture 
of three points. Two such forfeitures in succession — that is, provided 
no shot is made between — loses the player making them the game. 

Rule 5. — Should the player pocket, by the same stroke, more balls than 
he calls, he is entitled only to the balls he calls before the stroke. The 
other pocketed balls are to be spotted on the deep-red spot, or if it be oc- 
cupied, as nearly as possible below it. 

Rule 6. — All strokes must be made with the point of the cue, other- 
wise they are foul. 

Rule 7. — When two players only are engaged in a game, and one 
flayer's score amounts to more than the aggregate numbers of the balls 
credited to the other player, added # to that remaining on the table, the 
game is ended, the player whose score is higher than this total wins. 
But when more than two players are engaged the game is ended only 
when the aggregate of the numbers of the balls remaining on the table 
do not amount to enough to tie or beat the next lowest score. It is the 
duty of the game-keeper to proclaim it when a game is won. 

Rule 8. — A forfeiture of three points is deducted from the player's 
score for making a miss ; pocketing his own ball ; forcing his own ball 
off the table ; failing to make the opening stroke, as provided in Rule 2 ; 
failing either to make an object-ball strike a cushion or go into a pocket, 
as provided in Rule 4 ; striking his own ball twice ; playing out of his 
turn, if detected doing so before be has made more than one counting 
stroke. 

Rule 9. — A ball whose centre is on the string line must be regarded as 
within the line. 

Rule 10. — If the player pocket one or more of the object-balls, and his 
own ball go into a pocket, or off the table from the stroke, he cannot 
score for the numbered balls, which must be placed on the spot known as 
vhe deep-red spot ; or, if it be occupied, as nearly below it as possible, 
on a line with the spot, the highest numbered balls being placed the near- 
est ; and he forfeits three for pocketing his own ball or driving it off the 
table. 

Rule n. — A ball going into a pocket and rebounding again on to the 
table is to be regarded in the same light as if it had struck a cushion, and 
is not to be counted as a pocketed ball. It retains its place where it 
comes to rest on the table. An object-ball forced off the table, and re 
bounding again from some object foreign to the table, must be replaced 

stroke drive one or more balls against a cushion or into a pocket, he forfeits 
three only for the holing of the cue-ball. 



4 U ^ MILLIARDS. 

on the deep-red spot, or if that be occupied, as nearly below it as pos- 
sible. If it is the cue-ball it is to be regarded as being off tiie table and 
in hand. The gas-fixture, or other apparatus for lighting the table, when 
placed directly over the table, is not considered an object foreign to the 
table, and should a ball striking the fixture rebound on to the table, it 
must retain its position on the table where it comes to rest. 

Rule 12. — A ball resting on the cushion must be regarded as off the 
table. 

Rule 13. — When the cue-ball is in hand, the pkyer may play from any 
place within the string at any object-ball outside of it ; but he is not al- 
lowed to play at any object-ball which is within the string. Should none 
of the object-balls be outside, that ball which is nearest outside the string 
should be spotted on the deep-red spot, and the player may play at it. 

Rule 14. — Should the striker touch the cue-ball with the point of his 
cue it shall be accounted a stroke. Should he touch it with any other 
part of the cue except the point, or with his clothing, or anything else, it 
is to be replaced by the referee in its original position, or left as it is 
when it comes to rest, at the option of the next player. The striker loses 
his hand, forfeits three points, and the next player plays. 

Rule 15. — Should the player touch an object-ball with the point or any 
other part of the cue, or with his clothing, or anything else, the ball so 
disturbed is to be replaced by the referee in its original position, or left as 
it is, at the option of the next player. The striker loses his hand, and 
loses three points. 

Rule 16. — A counting stroke cannot be regarded as being completed 
until all balls set in motion by the stroke have come to rest. 

Rule 17. — A stroke made when any of the balls are in motion is foul. 
Should such a stroke be made, the balls are either to be replaced or left 
as they come to rest, at the option of the next player, and the next player 
olays. The striker loses his hand and forfeits three points. 

Rule 18. — Should the player strike his own ball twice he forfeits three 
points, and the balls disturbed in consequence of the second stroke are to 
be replaced by the referee in the position they occupied before the first 
stroke, or left as they are when they come to rest, at the option of the 
aext player. The striker loses his hand, and the next player plays. 

Rule 19. — Should a player play out of his turn it is foul. The balls 
should be replaced in the position they occupied before the stroke, and he 
whose turn it was plays. But should a player, playing out ©f his turn, 
make more than one stroke before being checked, the strokes so made 
are fair, and he is entitled to any counts he may have made by such 
strokes, and he may continue his olav until his hand is out. After hi* 



BILLIARDS. 409 

hand is out (and the player whose turn he took, pla/s), he is not to pla? 
again when his regular turn comes, and not until his regular turn comes 
around the second time. 

Rule 20. — Should the balls, or any of them, on the table be accident- 
ally disturbed by any other person or cause than the player, they are to 
be replaced as nearly as possible in their original position, and the player 
may continue. 

Rule 21. — Push-shots are allowed — that is, it is not necessary to with- 
draw the point of the cue from the cue-ball before the latter touches an 
sbject-ball. When the cue-ball is in contact with another ball, the player 
may play directly at the ball with which it is in contact. 

Rule 22. — When the striker is in hand, should he play at any ball that 
is within the string line, or if, when in hand, he plays from any position 
not within the string line without being checked previous to the stroke 
being made, any score he may make from such stroke he is entitled to ; 
but if he is checked before making the stroke, and then makes it, it doe* 
not count for him. His hand is out, and the next player plays. 

Rule 23. — It is foul, and the striker forfeits three points, if while in t\e 
act of striking he has not at least one foot touching the floor. 

Rule 24.* — It is foul if the striker removes obstructions from the table, 
though it is his privilege to demand their removal ; his hand is out, he 
forfeits three points, and the next player plays. 

Rule 25. — Should a ball that has come to a standstill move without ap- 
parent cause while the player is preparing to strike, it must be replaced. 
Should it move before he can stop his stroke, it and all the other balls ser, 
in motion by that stroke must be replaced, and the player shall repeat his 
stroke ; inasmuch as but for the moving of the ball he might have counted 
where he missed, or missed where he counted. 

Rule 26. — Tie games, except in match or tourney games, when two 
players contend for prizes or for a money stake, must be decided by lot in 
th# same manner as the order of playing is determined. The player to 
whose lot the lowest number falls is the loser ; or the ties may be deter- 
mined by the position of the players in the game next after that in which 
they have tied, provided all the parties interested agree. When two 
players are playing in match or tourney games a tie game is reckoned as 
void and must be played over to determine the winner. 

Rule 27. — In this game no player is allowed to withdraw before the 
game is played out ; by so doing he forfeits the game. 

* This rule applies only to match or tournament games, where but 
tw# players are contending for prizes or a money stake* 



4 i o BILLIARDS 



FIFTEEN-BALL POOL. 

This game is played with fifteen numbered balls, as in Pyramid Pool, 
the rules of which are given on page 381. The sixteenth ball is white 
and is not numbered. Before beginning the game, the fifteen balls, 
which are numbered from 1 to 15, are placed at the far end of the table- 
in the form of a triangle with the 15 ball at the apex. All the high 
numbers are near the apex and the smaller numbers form the base. The 
Rules of Pyramid Pool govern this game, except that: 

If the striker pockets the cue ball on the opening stroke and fails to 
make two balls in the pyramid touch the cushion, he forfeits three. In 
a match or tournament, if he fails to do this, the balls are reassembled 
in triangle and he forfeits two points. Every failure causes the player 
to receive a scratch and he must pay a forfeit of three. Three successive 
forfeitures lose the game to the player making them. If two players 
only are competing, and the score — that is, the sum of the numbers on 
the balls — of one player amounts to more than the aggregate numbers on 
the balls credited to the other player and those on the table, he wins. 
If the balls are disturbed they can be replaced or left as they are. 

Rules 23 and 27 of Pyramid Pool are omitted altogether. In Rules 2, 
4, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 21 the forfeiture is three points instead of one ball. 
At the opening the striker is entitled to all balls pocketed. 

CHICAGO POOL. 

Chicago Pool is played with fifteen numbered balls also. The object 
of the game is to put the balls into the pockets in numerical order. Tht 
table is arranged in this way: 

One-ball is placed against the cushion at the foot of the table at the 
first right-hand diamond — the right being upon the right of a playei 
facing the head of the table; the 2-ball at the centre diamond of the same 
cushion, and the third at the first diamond on the left; then 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
and 9 balls are placed against the left-hand cushion and the 10, 11, 12, 
13, 14, and 15 against the right-hand cushion. It does not really matter 
how the numbers are placed. 

After the decision as to who is to lead, the first player must hit ball 
No. 1. If he puts it in the hole it goes to his credit and he plays for 
No. 2, and so on until he misses. If in playing on 2 he also pockets 15, 
both count for him. The rules of Fifteen-Ball Pool, except where they 
conflict with the above, govern this game. 



B1LLIARDZ 411 



BOTTLE POOL. 

ihe old American Athletic Club of New York City adopted a set of 
rules for this game which have been accepted as standard. They are: 

This game is played on a pool table with one white ball, the 1 and the 2 
ball, and the pool bottle. The 1 and the 2 ball must be spotted at the 
foot of the table at the diamonds nearest each pocket, while the pool 
bottle stands on its neck on the bottle spot in the centre of the table. 

1. Any number of persons may play, the rotation of the player- being 
decided on as in ordinary pool. 

2. The game consists of thirty-one points. 

tx. The first player, called player number one, shall play with the white 
ball from any point within the string at the head of the table, at either 
the 4 or 2 ball, as he may prefer. 

4. The player who has the least number of points at the end of the 
gar^e shall be considered the loser 

5. The player who leads must play at one of the object balls before 
making a carom on the pool bottle. 

6. A player making more than thirty-one points is burst, and must 
begin over again. He does not thereby lose his shot; and all that he can 
«nake over and above thirty-one points is scored on his new string. 

7. When a player caroms on the bottle from any of the balls in such 
a way as to set the bottle on its bottom, he wins the game, then and 
there, and under all circumstances. 

8. If the 1 or 2 ball touches the bottle, and, in the same play, it is 
knocked over or stood on bottom by i:he cue ball, it does not score to the 
player's credit. 

9. When the player forces the bottle off the table or into a pocket, 
the bottle must be spotted — i.e., replaced — on its proper spot in the centre 
of the table, and the player loses his shot and forfeits one point, the next 
player playing. 

10. The player cannot use the bridge, but he may use the tip of the 
cue or the butt end of it, according to preference. 

11. After the ball is spotted, if it be the i-ball, it must be spotted on 
the red spot at the foot of the table, or if that be occupied the ball must 
then be spotted at the i-ball spot at the diamond; again, if that be oc- 
cupied, then on the 2-ball diamond. This same law governs the spotting 
of the 2-ball also. 

12. The player who makes a foul stroke shall lose his shot, and further- 
more forfeit one point if he has any points to his credit. 



4I2 BILLIARDS. 

(a) It shall be a foul stroke when the player misses both object balls. 

(b) When he misses both balls and knocks down the bottle. 

(c) When the player knocks down the bottle with his cue or person. 

(d) When the cue ball is forced off the table. 

(c) When the bottle is forced into a pocket or off the table. 

(f) When the player knocks down the bottle with the cue ball prior to 
coming in contact with an object ball. 

(g) If the player has not one foot, at least, touching the floor. 

13. Whenever the bottle is knocked over by a carom or an object bali. 
and it cannot be put on its proper space on its neck without coming in 
contact with an object ball, the bottle must then be spotted on its proper 
spot. If, however, this happens to be occupied, it must then be spottea 
on the red-ball spot, or, if that also be occupied, on the white-ball spot. 

14. The player does not forfeit a point when, in playing, he knocks 
the bottle off the table or on to a cushion with one of the object balls, but 
he forfeits his shot and the next player plays. 

15. Whenever the bottle spot is occupied by an object ball and it is 
necessary to spot the bottle, it must be spotted on the red-ball spot, or. 
that being occupied, on the white-ball spot. 

When a player has made thirty-one points he must announce the fac 
before the next stroke is made. If he does not he cannot announce it 
until his next play. In the meantime, if another player make thirty-one 
and announce it in the proper manner, he has the right to the pool. 

In scoring, carom on two balls counts two points; pocket the 1 ball, 
one point; pocket the 2 ball, two points; caroming from ball and up» 
setting bottle counts five points; to upset bottle to standing position, ten 
points. 

If a player sends his own ball into the pocket, the score he has made 
during the play is void and he takes one off his string. If he runs over 
the end of the game he has to start over again, with the privilege of 
continuing to play until he fails to score. A scratch takes off one point. 
If the player hits the bottle before missing the ball, he takes one off his 
string. If a player knocks the bottle off the table, he has to start ovei 
again. 

BLOCK OR EVERLASTING POOL. 

This game may be played by any number of persons and in the ordi- 
nary manner, except that it is for lives only, without a subscribed stake. 

It is played with colored balls, which are played in the order named: 
white, red, yellow, green, brown, blue, pink, spot white, spot red. Red 
plays white, yellow plays red, brown plays green, etc. After all the 
colored balls are on the table the black one is placed there. At this the 



BILLIARDS. 4I3 

first striker plays. A player pocketing a colored ball may play at the 
black, and if he holes it he receives not only the life he took for the 
colored ball, but also the value of a life from each player. If he misses 
the black or forces nis own ball off the table, he pays a life to each 
player. No ball can be moved to allow the striker to play on the black, 
but the black may be removed to permit the striker to play on the right 
object ball. 

Any person can enter the game at any time, but cannot play in the 
round. He may also, on stating his intention, retire at any time. 

The price of a life is determined before the game starts. 

THE PLANT GAME. 

This is another variety of pin pool. When a player making a stroke 
knocks down a pin and wishes to "plant," he must announce that he 
plants before he makes another stroke. A player who wishes to call a 
planter may plant, even though he failed to make pins on his preceding 
stroke. When the players who plant have the same number, counting 
their small ball and the board, the player who plants first shall be good 
and the last planter bursted. When a player bursts he can buy any small 
ball in the game with the consent of the owner. No player may play 
the planter's ball but himself. No player may buy a ball until his own 
is dead. 

RUSSIAN OR FIVE-BALL POOL. 

Russian Pool is played by two persons and with five balls: two 
white — for the contestants — one red, one white or pink or green, and 
one yellow. The game generally is thirty-six points. 

The red ball is placed on the spot at the head of the table, the white 
on the centre spot, and the yellow at the foot. The first player may 
play from any point and is not obliged to touch a ball. If his ball 
touches any of the colored balls, he loses a point for each ball touched 
and the balls are replaced on the spots. The second player must hit the 
white ball of his adversary. The white balls score two points each and 
may be driven into all pockets. The yellow ball scores six points and 
can be sent only into the centre pocket. If a ball is put in any pocket 
but the one intended, it loses the number of points which otherwise it 
would have gained. A carom scores two on whatever balls made. 

If the spot of a ball that has been pocketed is occupied, it must be 
put on the spot furthest from its spot. If all the spots are occupied, it 
must be placed on the small line the furthest away toward the other 
balls. 



4 I4 



BILLIARDS. 



If a player other than the one playing touches a ball when it is in 
motion, he loses the ball and the player continues to play. A player 
who is playing must not touch his own ball or a colored one. If he 
does he loses its value. Pie loses nothing if he touches his adversary' 4 ; 
ball, biit the latter can leave the ball where it stops or can take it in'o 
his hand. 

LOSING PYRAMIDS. 

This is seldom played. It is the reverse of Pyramids. It consists or 
losing hazards, each player using the same striking ball and taking i 
ball from the pyramid on each losing hazard. The balk is' no protectior. 
in this variation. 

SHELL-OUT. 

This is also a variation of the Pyramid game and any number can play 
it. For each winning hazard the striker gets from each player a small 
stake, and for each losing hazard he pays them a small stake. This is 
kept up until the pocketing of the white or the last colored ball. 

HIGH-LOW-JACK GAME. 

A set of balls used in the Fifteen-Ball game is used in this variation 
of Pyramid Pool. Any number can p!ay. The 15-ball is High, the 
1 -ball L,ow, the 9-ball Jack, and the highest aggregate game. Where 
players have one and two to go to end the game, the first balls holed score 
out first. 

In setting up the pyramid, the High, Low, and Jack balls are placed 
in the centre, with high at the head of the three named balls. When 
the players have one each to go, in place of setting up the pyramid, a 
ball is placed at the foot of the table in direct line with the spots and 
must be pocketed by banking. The player pocketing it first wins. The 
rules for Fifteen-Ball Pool govern this game. 

SPANISH BILLIARDS. 

This game is played more in Mexico, Cuba, New Orleans, and Cali- 
fornia than it is in other parts of the country, although it is played fre- 
quently in all billiard parlors. It is played with two white balls, one 
red, and five pins like the pins used in pin pool. The red ball is placed 
>n its spot and it is struck by the first player from within the back semi- 
circle. The five pins are set in the form of a square in the centre of the 
table, one pin being set in the centre of the square. The game is thirty- 
nine points. Hazards, caroms, and knocking over the pins count- 



BILLIARDS. 4I5 

The player knocking down a pin after striking a ball scores two 
points, and gets four points if he knocks down two pins. He gets two 
points for every pin knocked down, except for the middle pin, for 
which, if he knocks it down alone, he gets five points. 

The player who pockets the red ball gets three points in addition to 
two for each pin knocked down by the same stroke. The white ball 
counts two and each carom counts two. If a player knock down pins 
with his own ball before striking another ball, he forfeits two for each 
pin knocked down. If he puts his ball in a pocket without hitting 
another ball, he forfeits three points; while for missing altogether he 
loses one. If he forces his own ball off the table without hitting an- 
other ball, he loses three points; and if he does this after making a 
forfeit or carom, he loses as many points as he would have won. The 
laws of the four-ball game (page 390) apply to this, except where they 
conflict with these special rules. 

TWO-CUSHION CAROM. 

In this game the rules are the same as those observed for Cushion 
Caroms (page 400), the only difference in the play being that the player 
must strike two instead of one cushion between the balls. The three- 
cushion carom game, which is very rare, requires the hitting of three 
cushions between balls. 

TWO-BALL GAME. 

This game of billiards is rarely seen in this country. Fancy players 
and those who like variety play it at times. The rules of the ordinary 
game govern this. In Mexico, Spain, and South America it is quite a 
favorite. The player must touch two cushions with the cue ball before 
he hits the other. 

THE GAME OP SNOOKER. 

This is one of the most popular and entertaining extensions of 
Pyramid Pool. In addition to the fifteen balls of the pyramid, a given 
number of pool balls are placed on the table, as shown in the diagram 
on page 416. 

A player must pocket a pyramid ball before he can play at one of the 
pool balls, and he is not permitted to strike a pool ball before he strikes 
a pyramid ball. If he does, his adversary scores as many points as the 
pool ball struck would have been worth had it been pocketed under th« 



4i6 



BILLIARDS. 



rules. The balls used at Snooker are: Black, which scores seven; blue. 
six; pink, five; brown, four; green, three; yellow, two. 

The black is placed on the spot occupied by the red in billiards; thf 




blue at the apex of the pyramid; the brown on the spot to the left of the 
balk; the green in the centre of the same; the pink in the centre of the 
table; yellow on the right-hand spot of balk. 



BILfflMPS? '"■" 41 



When any of the pool balls are pocketed they are replaced ort their 

own spots. When a pyramid ball has been pocketed the player must 
play at a pool ball. If all the pool balls are covered by pyramid, balls 
he is snookered. If he can, he may strike any one of the pool balls by 
£rst striking a cushion. He must call his spot. A game of Snooker 
takes longer than two games of Pyramid. 

It is great fun in this game to put a white ball so close behind a pool 
ball tha't the next player cannot hit a pyramid ball, which snookers him 
from all of them. 

LAWS OF THE GAME OF SNOOKER. * 

Any number can play. A new player can enter at the end of a round, 
or an old one can stop. 

The player shall first play at a red ball and cannot play at a ball of an- 
other color until after he has pocketed a red ball. He can play at any 
number of red balls in succession, but after he has taken a colored ball 
he may play again and take a red ball prior to again playing on a colored 
ball. 

A player who has taken a red ball and then put a colored ball into 
a pocket shall replace the latter on the original spot before playing again. 
For every colored ball which is not put back each player must pay a 
penalty of one point for each stroke made by him until said ball is re- 
placed. 

A player is responsible for the proper placing of the balls and that they 
all are on the right spots, and this he must see to before he plays. He 
is liable to be called upon for a penalty of one point tw every ball not in 
its proper place prior to the making of a stroke. The striker may be re- 
quired to replace any ball out of place. 

For every ball pocketed the striker receives its value from every one 
of the players. Any penalties must also be paid to each player. If a 
player strikes one or more balls and pockets his own, he must forfeit 
the value of the ball first struck. If he pockets the bait he plays for, and 
caroms and pockets one or more colored balls, he must receive the value 
of the ball he played for and pay the value of the highest colored ball he 
pocketed. This does not apply to red balls, any number of which may 
be pocketed. 

For striking the wrong ball the striker pays the value 01 the ball hit. 
But one colored ball can be taken at the same stroke. For making a miss 
and running in, the striker loses one point. The other rules as adopted 
by one of the leading billiard parlors of New York follow: 



4I 8 BILLIARDS. 

If, when playing on a red ball, the striker misses and hits a colored 
ball and with the .same stroke accidentally pockets one or more of the red 
balls, he loses the value of the colored ball he hit first and cannot there- 
fore score. The red balls thus pocketed must be put back on the table. 

If, after all the red balls are pocketed, the player shall pocket a 
colored ball and then carom on to one or more colored balls and pocket 
them also, he is entitled to receive the value of the ball he first played 
at and may pay the value of the highest colored ball he pocketed in the 
same stroke. 

If, when all the red balls are pocketed, the player pocket his own ball 
as well as the colored ball he played at, the ball pocketed shall be put 
on the table and the player must lose the value of the colored ball. 

When the white ball is touching a colored ball the striker cannot score; 
he must, however, play his stroke and is liable to any penalties incurred. 

When more than one error is committed in one stroke, the very highest 
penalty must be exacted. Penalties do not hold good after one complete 
round has been played. 

When a player forces a ball off the table he must pay the full value 
of that ball, or, if it be in the case of the white ball, as if he had made a 
coup. 

For making a foul stroke or fouling another ball the player may not 
score. 

For playing out of turn the striker must pay one point to each of the 
other players, besides any other penalty incurred, and furthermore he 
shall not receive any of the points he has won. 

No ball can be temporarily taken up. No red ball can be replaced on 
the table, save when forced off or for a foul stroke, or as mentioned 
above. 

When it is necessary to replace a colored ball and the spot is oc- 
cupied, it must be placed on the nearest vacant spot. All disputes must 
be decided by a majority of the players, unless a referee has been agr««d 
upon. 



TAJfOT. 



4ig 



TAROT. 

Special cards are required for Tarot, the game taking its name from 
an additional series of cards known as tarots. The game can be played 
by taking two packs of cards and adding numerals to the additional 
cards. 

According to the nationality of the players, the number of cards vary. 
There are tarot packs of eighty and of seventy-eight cards, but usuallj 
* pack of fifty-four cards is used in the United States. This pack oi 
fifty-four cards is made up as follows : In hearts, the king, queen, 
knight or jack, and valet, four, three, two, ace — eight cards. In dia- 
monds, king, queen, knight or jack, and valet, four, three, two, and ace 
— eight cards. In clubs, king, queen, knight or jack, and valet, nine, 
eight, seven, and six. In spades, the same cards— eight in all. In addi- 
tion to these, there are the regular twenty-one tarots, variously designated 
with many fanciful names, such as " the death," " the moon," etc. These 
cards have numerals printed on . them, beginning with one and ending 
with twenty-one. There is one more tarot called the fool or the joker. 
This is a card which has neither hearts, diamonds, clubs, nor spades on 
it, but is pictured like a jack. It is the highest trump and can take every- 
thing. It has also exclusive privileges, and the holder of it, when tarots 
are led, if he announces it, need not follow suit, unless he chooses to. 
The tarots take all the other cards, as would trumps, the joker being the 
highest, the one of tarots the lowest. In the other suits, the king is 
highest, then queen, next knight or jack, then valet, the other cards ac- 
cording to their pips. There being thirty-two cards with diamonds, 
hearts, clubs, and spades, with the twenty-two tarots, that makes fifty- 
four cards. 

There are two methods of playing Tarot, either counting points 01 
tricks. 

In the United States the point game is general!} played, and foui 
play. Twelve cards are given to each person, which is forty-eight cards, 
leaving six cards over, which are turned face downward. No trump is 
made. The elder hand, if not satisfied with his cards, can bid for tht 
privilege of taking these six cards. Say he bids two chips. He has to 
pay two chips to each of the players. Anybody else bidding more can 
take these cards. The person taking these cards discards his own cards. 

Trumps are the tarots, and the twenty-one of tarots count four, the 
joker four, the kings four, queens three, knights and valets two each. 



420 



BACKGAMMON. 



Suits must be followed. Taking the last trick counts two. The person 
winning must have the greatest number of points. 

When played for tricks, the player taking the greatest number of tricks 
wins. 

Both the games of points and tricks may be played with partners. 

As has been before stated, Tarot varies greatly in the method of playing 
it. Germans, Swiss, Italians, and Spaniards all have different ways, 
Using packs of cards having from fifty-two to eighty cards in them. No 
two nationalities play the game alike. In the United States all latitude is 
permissible in Tarot. 

Tarot has at least this much of interest in it, that it is among the very 
oldest of games of cards, there being positive evidence of its having been 
played in Italy at the close of the fourteenth century. Requiring special 
cards, it is not likely to be ever again much in vogue. 



BACKGAMMON. - 

Backgammon tables are marked with twenty-four points \ coiured al- 
ternately white and black, or white and red (see diagram). The points 
should be sufficiently long to hold five men, about half of the fifth man 
projecting beyond the point. Between the points in White's tables and 
those in Black's tables is a space on which the dice are thrown. 

The points are thus named ; the one to the extreme left in White's 
inner table (see diagram) is called White's ace point ; the next White's 
deuce point ; the others in order White's trois, quatre, cinque, and six 
points. The ace point in White's outer table is called his bar point, and 
the others in order the deuce, trois, quatre, cinque, and six points of 
White's outer table. 

The points in the opposite tables are similarly named for Black. 

The men are the same as those used for Draughts, only fifteen white 
and fifteen black men are required, instead of twelve. 

The men may be reversed, making the outer table of what in the dia- 
gram is the inner table, and vice versa. It is immaterial which way they 
are disposed ; it is usual, however, to make the home table the one near- 
est the light. 

The dice-boxes are one for each player. The dice are two in number. 



BACKGAMMON. 



421 



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. 

INTRODUCTORY. 
Backgammon is played by two persons, who occupy positions opposite 
to each other, where the words " White " and " Black " occur in the dia- 
gram, the player of the white men being placed by Black's tables, and 

WHITE. 

BLACK'S INNER TABLE. BLACK'S OUTER TABLE. 




WHITE'S INNER TABLE. 



WHITE'S OUTER TABLE. 



BLACK. 



vice versa. The board is furnished at the commencement of a game 
as shown in the diagram. 

THROWING. 

"Each player takes one dice-box and shakes one die in it, two 
fingers being placed over the open end of the box, to prevent the die 
from being shaken out. 



422 BACKGAMMON. 

After shaking, the die is thrown on the board. The player who 
throws the higher number has the first play. He may either adopt 
the two numbers thrown, or he may take up the dice and throw them 
again. 

PLAYING. 

After throwing, the caster should call the numbers thrown. Thus, ft 
he throws four, two, he calls quatre, deuce (the higher number always 
being called first), and proceeds to play any of his men a number of 
points corresponding to the numbers thrown. 

The march of the men is from the opponent's inner table to his outer 
table, then to the caster's outer table, and lastly to his home table. It is 
obvious that the white and black men are played in opposite directions. 

One man may be played the whole throw, or one man one of the num 
bers thrown and the other man the other. Thus White might play 
quatre, deuce by carrying one man from the six point of Black's oute: 
table to his own six point ; or he might play one man from the deuce 
point of his outer table to his quatre point, and another man from his six 
point to his quatre point. 

When men are played in the last-named way, so as to occupy a pre- 
viously blank point with two men it is called making a point. White 
might similarly play any other of his men — e. g., one from his outer table 
to his six point, and any other man four points. 

If White plays in this way, the man played a quatre will remain on a 
point by himself. This is called leaving a blot. 

If two similar numbers are thrown (called doublets), the caster plays 
double what he throws. Thus, if he throws aces, he plays four aces in- 
stead of two, and so on for other doublets. 

While White is playing, Black puts the dice in his box and shakes 
them, and, as soon as White's play is completed, Black throws, and simi- 
larly calls his throw, and plays it. 

The players throw and play alternately throughout the game. 

LIMITATIONS IN PLAYING. 
The only limitations to the play are, that neither player can play \ay 
beyond his own home taLle, nor (b) on to any point occupied by two or 
more of his adversary's men. Thus : if White throws cinque, ace, he 
cannot play a cinque in Black's inner table, nor an ace from Black's outer 
table to his own inner table, because the points are already occupied by 
Black. He could play cinoMe, ace from Black's inner table by playing 
the ace first and then the cinque, but not by playing the cinque first. In 
this position the play is not affected, as the caster is at liberty tc play first 



BACKGAMMON. 423 

whichever number he chooses ; but there are many positions In which the 
play would be affected by this limitation. 

Any part of a throw which cannot be played is lost ; but the caster 
must play the whole throw if he can. Thus, if the men were differently 
situated and the caster, having made the same throw, could play an ace 
and could not play a cinque, his play is completed as soon he has carried 
the ace. But if by playing the cinque first he could afterward play the 
ace, he must play his throw in that manner. 

HITTING BLOTS. 

If the caster plays a man to a point which is occupied by a single ad- 
verse man, he is said to hit a blot. The man hit is taken off the table 
and placed on the bar, and has to be played into the adversary's inner 
table at the next throw, called entering. If an ace is thrown, the man 
is entered on the ace point, and so on for other numbers. Of course he 
cannot be entered on any point that is occupied by two or more adverse 
men. If the points corresponding to both the numbers thrown are oc- 
cupied, or if doublets are thrown and the corresponding point is oc- 
cupied, the player who has a man up cannot enter him. A player is not 
permitted to play any other man while he has a man to enter ; conse* 
quently, in the case supposed, his throw is null and void. 

It sometimes happens that one player has a man up, and that his ad- 
versary has his home table made up — i. e., occupied by two or more men 
on all the points of it. In this case it is obvious that the player who is 
up cannot enter ; and, as it is useless for him to throw, his opponent con- 
tinues throwing and playing until he opens a point on his home table. 

Two or more blots may be taken up at once, or in successive throws, if 
numbers are thrown that will hit them. It is not compulsory to hit a blot 
if the throw can be played without. 

BEARING. 

The game proceeds as described until one player has carried all his 
men into his home table. He has then the privilege of taking his men 
off the board, or of bearing them. Thus, suppose his home table is 
made up and he throws quatre, trois. He bears one man from his quatre 
point and one from his trois point. Or, if he prefers it, he may play a 
quatre from his six or cinque point, and a trois from his six, cinque, oi 
quatre point; or he may play one and bear the other. If lie cannot 
play any part of the throw he must bear it; thus, if he has no man on 
his six or cinque points, he must bear the quatre. If he throws a 



424 



BACKGAMMON. 



number which is higher than any point on which he has a man, he 
must bear the man from the highest occupied point. Thus, if he has 
no man on his six point and throws a six, he must bear from his 
cinque point, or, if that is unoccupied, from his quatre point, and so 
on. Suppose he throws cinque, deuce, and has no man on his six 
point and only one man on his cinque point. He may, if he pleases, 
play the deuce from his cinque point and bear the cinque from his 
quatre point, or from his next highest occupied point. And, of 
course, in the reverse case, if he throws an ace, and his ace point is 
unoccupied, he must play the ace. 

Doublets similarly entitle the caster to bear or play four men. 

If, after a player has commenced bearing his men, he should be hit on 
a blot, he must enter on his opponent's inner table ; and he cannot bear 
any more men until the one taken up has re-entered his own home table. 

The adversary similarly bears his men as soon as he has carried them 
all home. 

The player who first bears all his men, wins the game. 

The game counts a single or hit if the adversary has borne any of his 
men ; a double game or gammon if the adversary has not borne a man ; 
and a triple or quadruple game (according to agreement) or backga?nmo?t i 
if at the time the winner bears his last man the adversary (not having 
borne a man) has a man up, or one in the winner's inner table. 

Should a player, having borne a man, be taken up, he can only lose a 
hit, even if he fails to enter the man before the adversary bears all his. 

When a series of games is played, the winner of a hit has the first throw 
in the succeeding game ; but if a gammon or backgammon is won, the 
players each throw f single die to determine the first throw of the next 
game. 

HINTS. 

I. In order to play Backgammon well it is necessary to know all the 
jhances on two dice. 

For example : you have to leave a blot. Cater is paribus, it should be 
left where there is the least probability of its being hit. To find the 
chance of being hit on an ace : the number of ways in which two dice can 
be thrown is thirty-six ; of these, twenty-five will not contain an ace, 
eleven will contain an ace. Consequently, it is 25 to n against being hit 
on an ace. 

The following table gives the odds against being hit on any number 
within the reach of single or double dice : 



4^5 



BACKGAMMON. 

It is 25 to 11 or about 9 to 4 against oeing hit on I 

41 24 to 12 or 2 to 1 " < 4 2 

44 22 to 14 or about 3 to 2 " M 3 

*• 21 to 15 or 7 to 5 M M 4 

44 21 to 15 or 7 to 5 44 * 4 5 

44 19 to 17 or 9* to 8£ " * 4 6 

• 4 30 to 6 01 5 to 1 44 4 * 7 

44 30 to 6 or 5 to 1 •* " 8 

• 4 31 to 5 or about 6 to 1 44 u 9 

11 33 to 3 or J i to I w '* io 

44 34 to 2 or 17 to 1 44 44 ii 

" 35 to 1 or 17 to 1 4 * 4 * 12 

The table shows that if a blot must be left within the reach 01 a smgla 
die (t. e. y on any number from 1 to 6), the nearer it is left to an adverse 
man the less probability there is of its being hit ; also, that it is long odds 
against being hit with double dice (z. e. % on any number from 7 to 12), 
and that then the further off the blot is the less chance is there of its being 
hit. 

The table assumes that there is only one adverse man within range. 
Of course, the chances of being hit are much greater if several points 
within range are occupied. On the other hand, if any intervening points 
are held by men belonging to the player who leaves the blot, the chance 
of being hit will be in proportion less. Thus, a blot may be hit with 
eight in six ways ; but, if the fourth point is blocked, the blot can only be 
hit in four ways, and so on. 

2. You should strive to make points where there is the best chance of 
obstructing or of hitting the opponent. When obliged to leave blots, you 
should, as a rule, leave them where they are least likely to be hit, the 
solution of this being afforded by the above table. But, sometimes it is 
to your interest to leave blots purposely, in order to be taken up (see 
Hints 6 and 7), when the reverse policy should be adopted. 

3. The best play for every possible throw at the commencement i>f the 
game is as follows : 

Sixes (the second best throw). — Carry two men to your adversary's 
bar point, and two to your own bar point. 

Six, cinque, six, quatre, and six, trois.— Carry a man from youi 
adversary's ace point as far as he will go. 

Six, deuce. — Carry a man from your adversary's outer table to the 
cinque point in your home table. 

Six, ace, — Make your bar point. 



426 BA CKGA MM ON". 

Cinques. — Carry two men from your adversary's outer table to the 
trois point in your inner table. 

Cinque, quatre. — Carry a man from your adversary's ace point to 
the quatre point in his outer table. 

Cinque, trois. — Make the trois point in your home table. 

Cinque, deuce. — Play two men from the five in your adversary'? 
outer table. 

Cinque, ace. — Play the cinque from the five men in your adversary's 
outer table, and the ace from his ace point. If playing for a gammon, 
play the ace from the six to the cinque point in your home table. 

Quatres. — Play two men from the ace to the cinque point in your op- 
ponent's inner table, and two from the five men in his outer table. Foi 
a gammon, instead of playing the men in your opponent's inner table, 
carry two men from his outer table to your own cinque point. 

Quatre, trois. — Play two men from the five in your adversary's outer 
table. 

Quatre, deuce. — Make the quatre point in your own table. 

Quatre, ace. — Play the quatre from the five men in your adversary'? 
outer table, and the ace from his ace point. 

Trois. — Play two on the cinque point in your home table, and two on 
the quatre point of your adversary's inner table. For a gammon, play 
the last two instead on the trois point of your inner table. 

Trois, deuce. — Play two men from the five in your adversary's outer 
table 

Trois, ace. — Make the cinque point in your inner table. 

Deuces. — Play two on the quatre point in your inner table, and two 
on the trois point in your opponent's inner table. For a gammon, play 
the last two instead from the five men in your opponent's outer table. 

Deuce, ace. — Play the deuce from the five men in your adversary's 
outer table, and the ace from his ace point. For a gammon, play the ace 
from the six to the cinque point in your inner table. 

Aces (the best throw). — Play two men on your bar point and two on 
your cinque point. This throw is often given by way of odds. 

4. At the beginning of the game you should endeavor to secure youf 
cinque point, or your adversary's cinque point, or both. If successful in 
this, you should play a bold game for a gammon. The next best point 
to hold is your bar point, and next to that your quatre point. 

5. If you are so fortunate as to secure all these points, and your adver- 
sary's inner table is not favorably made up, you should open your bar 
point, in hopes of compelling the opponent to run out of your home 
Zzole with a six ai*a 1.0 leave two blots, and you should also spread youi 



BA CKGA MMON. 427 

men in the outer tables—/. e. y not crowd a number of men on one point. 
This will give you a good chance of hitting the blots on your bar point 
and ace point. And, 

6. Should you hit both these men, and your adversary have a blot in 
his inner table, you ought not to make up your home table, but leave a 
blot there in hopes of the adverse man's being obliged to enter on it. 
You then have a chance of hitting a third man, which will give you con- 
siderable odds in favor of winning a gammon ; whereas, if you have only 
two adverse men up, the odds are against your gammoning the oppo- 
nent. 

7. If, in endeavoring to gain your own or your adversary's cinque point, 
you leave a blot and are hit, and your adversary is more forward in the 
game than you (see Hint 8), you should play another man on your cinque 
or bar point, or in your adversary's home table. If this man is not hit 
you may then make a point and get as good a game as your opponent. 
If the man is hit you must play a back game~i. e., allow your adversary 
to take up as many men as he likes, and then, in entering the men taken 
up, you should endeavor to hold your adversary's ace and trois points or 
ace and deuce points, and if possible you should keep three men on his 
ace point, so that if you hit a blot from there, you still keep the ace point 
guarded. 

8. To find which player is forwarder, reckon how many points you re- 
quire to carry all your men to your six point. Add to this six for every 
man on your six point, five for every man on your cinque point, and so 
on ; and then make the same calculation for your adversary's men. 

9. Whenever you have two of your opponent's men up, and have made 
two or more points in your home table, spread your other men, for the 
chance of making another point in your home table, and of hitting the 
man your opponent enters. As soon as he enters, if your game is equal 
to or better than his, take up the man, except you are playing for a hit 
only and you can play the throw so as to make points that obstruct hi? 
running out, which gives you a better chance for the hit. 

10. Always take up a man if the blot you leave can only be hit with 
double dice, except when playing for a hit only, and you have two of 
your opponent's men in your home table and your game is the forwarder. 
For your having three of his men in your table gives him a better chance 
of hitting you without leaving a blot. 

11. In entering a man which it is to your adversary's advantage to hit, 
leave the blot on the lowest point you can — e. g. , ace point in preference 
to deuce point, and so on ; because, if he hits you, it crowds his game, by 
compelling him to play on his low points (compare Hint 12). 



428 BACKGAMMON. 

12. Avoid carrying many men on to the low points hi your own tables, 
as these men are out of play and the board is left open for your ad* 
versary. 

13. In carrying the men home, carry the most distant man to your 
adversary's bar point, next to the six point in your outer table, and last- 
ly to your six point. By following this rule, as nearly as the throws ad- 
mit, you will carry the men home in the fewest number of throws. When 
all are home but two, and you can play one on to an unoccupied point in 
your home table, you should do so if you thus put it within the power of 
a high throw to save a gammon. 

14. When your adversary is bearing his men, and you have two men 
on a low point in his table, and several men in the outer table, it is ad- 
visable to leave a blot in his table, because it prevents his bearing his men 
to the greatest advantage, and gives you the chance of hitting him if he 
leaves a blot. But if, on calculation, you find that you can probably save 
the gammon by bringing both your men out of his inner table, do not 
wait for a blot. 

To make this calculation, ascertain in how many throws you can bring 
all your men home and bear one (a throw averaging eight points), and 
in how many throws he can bear all his men (on the assumption that he 
will bear two men at each throw). Doublets need not be considered, as 
this chance is equal for both players. 

RUSSIAN BACKGAMMON. 

Russian Backgammon is played with the same implements as Back- 
gammon. 

No men are placed on the board at starting, but both white and black 
men are entered in the same table, and the march of both colors is in the 
same direction, viz. : from the inner table on which they are entered, 
h rough the outer tables to the home table. 

A player is not obliged to enter all his men before he plays any, and he 
can take up blots though some of his men have not been entered. But 
while a player has a man up he must enter it before entering any other, 
or playing any of those already entered. 

A player who throws doublets has to play (enter is included in the word 
play), not only the doublets thrown, but also the corresponding ones on 
the opposite faces of the dice. Thus : if he throws sixes, he must first 
play four sixes and then four aces, and, in addition, he has another 
throw. V. he again throws doublets, he plays according to the above 
rule, and throws again, and so ou. This privilege is generally restricted 



BA CKGA MMON. 429 

by not allowing double doublets nor another throw to a player the first 
time he throws doublets in a game. The privilege is also sometimes ex- 
tended, by allowing the caster of deuce, ace, to choose any doublets he 
likes on opposite faces of the dice, and to throw again. The restriction 
with regard to first doublets does not apply to deuce, ace, and this throw 
does not count as doublets, and does not remove the restriction with re- 
gard to first doublets. 

The caster must be able to play all the doublets thrown before playing 
the corresponding ones. If he cannot play the whole throw he is not 
allowed to take the corresponding doublets, and he loses his right to an- 
other throw if he cannot complete his throw. 

It is sometimes agreed, if a player cannot complete his throw, or play 
any part of it (whether of doublets or not), that his adversary shall play 
the remainder of it with his own men, playing only one at a time. But 
if in so doing the adversary leaves a blot which opens a point on which 
the caster can play, the caster comes in again and continues his throw by 
taking up the blot. If then the caster can complete his throw, and has 
thrown doublets or deuce, ace, he throws again ; but, if he cannot com- 
plete it, or if his adversary completes it, he does not throw again. If 
neither player can play any part of or complete a throw, the remainder 
of it is lost, and in the case of doublets or deuce, ace, the caster does not 
throw again. Owing to the complicated nature of this arrangement, 
many players prefer to omit the continuation of play by the opponent as 
above described. In other respects the game is similar to ordinary Back- 
gammon. 

The chief object of the player who has his men in advance is to hold as 
many successive points as possible, to prevent his adversary, from hitting 
or passing the forward men. 

LAWS OF BACKGAMMON. 

FURNISHING THE BOARD. 

1. If a player places his men wrongly, the adversary, before he throw 
a die, may require the board to be properly furnished. 

2. If a player does not place all his men before he th )ws a die, he 
cannot place those he has omitted.* 

THROWING. 

3. The dice must be thrown in one of the tables. If a die jumps fror- 

* It is a disadvantage to play with too few men. 



430 PIQUET. 

one tahle to the other, or off the board, or on to the bar or frame, the 
throw is null and void, and the caster throws again. 

4. If one die rests on the top of the other, or tilts against the other, or 
against a man, or against the bar or frame, the throw is null and void, 
and the caster throws again. 

5. If a die is touched while rolling or spinning on the board, the player 
not in fault may name the number that shall be played for that die. 

6. If a die, even when at rest, is touched before the caster has called 
his throw, and the throw is disputed, the player not in fault may name 
the number that shall be played for that die. 

7. The caster must abide by his call if the dice are subsequently 
touched. 

PLAYING. 

8. If the caster touches one of his own men he must play it, unless, 
prior to touching it, he intimates his intention of adjusting it. If an 
adverse man, or a man that cannot be played is touched, there is no 
penalty. 

9. A man is not played until it is placed on a point and quitted. 

10. The caster must play the whole throw if he can ; in bearing, if a 
man is played, and another is then borne from the highest occupied point, 
the highest number thrown is deemed to be borne. 

11. If a wrong number of points is played, the adversary may require 
the right number to be played, but he must do so before making his 
next throw. 

BEARING. 

12. If a man is up and others are borne before the one up is entered, 
the men so borne must be entered again, as well as the man taken up. 



PIQUET. 

Piquet is by far the most interesting of all two-handed games. 

For playing Piquet the pack must be prepared for the game by discarding 
all the twos, threes, fours, fives, and sixes. The remaining thirty-two 
cards possess the same relative value as at Whist. A hundred and one 
points constitute game. Sometimes 300 points are played, but 101 is the 
regulation French game. These points are marked with cards, thus— 
the six and three of any suit to denote the units, with the six and three 
of another suit tor the tens. These are laid over each other to denote 
the state of the game. 



PIQUET, 431 



TERxMS Used in the game. 

Talon, or Stock.— The eight remaining: cards, after twelve are deali 
to each person. 

Repique, is when one of the players counts thirty points in hand be- 
fore his adversary has or can count one ; when, instead of reckoning 
thirty, he reckons ninety, and counts above ninety as many points as he 
could above thirty. 

Pique, is when the elder hand counts thirty in hand or play before 
the adversary counts one; in which case, instead of thirty, the hand 
reckons for sixty ; to which are added as many points as may be reckoned 
above thirty. 

Capot, when either party makes every trick, which counts for forty 
points. 

Cards, the majority of the tricks, reckoned for ten points. 

Carte Blanche.— Not having a picture card in hand, reckoned fo* 
ten points, and takes place of everything else. 

Quatorze, or Fours.— The four aces, kings, queens, knaves, or tens. 
Each quatorze reckons for fourteen points. 

Threes of Aces, etc., down to tens, reckon for three points. 

Point.— The greatest number of pips on cards of the same suit, reck- 
oned thus : the ace for eleven, the court cards for ten, nines for nine, etc., 
and count for as many points as cards. 

Tierce, or Three of a Sequence.— Three successive cards of the 
same suit for three pointe. There are six kinds of tierces, viz., ace, king, 
queen, called a tierce-major, down to nine, eight, seven, a tierce-minor. 

Quart, or Four of a Sequence.— Four successive cards of the 
same suit reckoned for four points. There are five kinds of quarts— ace, 
king, queen, knave, called quart-major, down to ten, nine, eight, seven, 
a quart-minor. 

Quint, or Five of a Sequence.— Five successive cards of the same 
suit, reckoned for fifteen points. There are four kinds of quints— ace, 
king, queen, knave, ten, called quint-major, down to knave, ten, nine, 
eight, seven, a quint-minor. 

Sixieme, or Six of a Sequence.— Six successive cards of the same 
suit, and reckoned for sixteen points. There are three kinds of sixiemes 
—ace, king, queen, knave, ten, nine, a sixieme-major, down to queea, 
knave, ten, nine, eight, seven, a sixieme-minor. 

Septieme, or Seven of a Sequence. — Seven successive cards of a 
suit, and counts for seventeen point-. There are two sorts, viz., from 



432 



PIQUET. 



the ace to the eight inclusive, a septieme-major, and from the king 
to the seven inclusive, a septieme-minor. 

Huitieme, or Eight of a Sequence.— Eight successive cards of the 
same suit, and reckons for eighteen points. 

METHOD OF PLAYING PIQUET. 

On commencing the game, the players cut for deal, and he who cuts 
the lowest card is dealer. The deal is made by giving two cards alter- 
nately until each player has twelve. The remaining eight cards are placed 
on the table. The non-dealer has considerable advantage, from being 
elder hand. 

The players having examined their hands, the elder hand takes the five 
cards which seem the least necessary for his advantage, and, laying them 
aside, takes as many from the talon or heap that is left ; and the younger 
hand lays out three, and takes in the last three of the talon. 

When you have carte blanche, you must let your adversary discard, 
and, when he is going to take his share from the talo?i, you must, before 
he has touched it, show your twelve cards, and your adversary must not 
touch the cards he has discarded. 

In discarding, skilful players endeavor to gain the cards, and to havF 
the point, which most commonly engages them to keep in that suit of 
which they have the most cards, or that which is their strongest suit ; for 
it is convenient to prefer, sometimes, forty-one in one suit to forty- four in 
another in which a quint is not made ; sometimes, even having a quint, 
it is more advantageous to hold the forty-one, where, if one card only is 
taken, it may make it a quint-major, gain the point, or the cards, which 
could not have been done by holding the forty-four, at least without an 
extraordinary take-in. 

Endeavor, in laying out, to get a quatorze, that is, four aces, kings, 
queens, knaves, or tens, each of which reckons for fourteen. If you have 
four aces, you may reckon also any inferior quatorze, as of tens, and 
your adversary cannot reckon four kings, though he should hold them, the 
stronger annulling the weaker. In like manner, you can count three aces, 
and inferior threes down to tens, while your adversary is not entitled to 
count his three kings, etc. Quatorze kings, if neither player has four 
aces, annul queens, and queens annul knaves in the adversary's hand, by 
the same rule. 

The same is to be observed in regard to the huitihnes, septiemes, six- 
iemes, quints, quarts, and tierces, to which the player must have regard 
in his discarding, so that what he takes in may make for him. 

The point being selected, the eldest hand declares what it is, and aski 



PIQUET. 433 

if it is good : u his adversary has not so many, he answers, it is good ; if 
he has just as many, he answers, it is equal ; and if he has more, he an- 
swers, it is not good; he who has the best, counts as many for it as he has 
cards which compose it, and whoever has the point counts it first, whether 
he is eldest or youngest ; but if the points are equal, neither can count ; 
it is the same when the two players have equal tierces, quarts, quints, 
etc. 

The points, the tierces, quarts, quints, etc., are to be shown on the 
table, that their value may be seen and reckoned ; but you are not obliged 
to show quatorzes, or threes of aces, kings, etc. 

After each has examined his game, and the eldest, by the questions he 
asks, sees everything that is good in his hand, he begins to reckon. The 
carte blanche is first reckoned, then the point, then the sequences, and, 
lastly, the quatorzes, or threes of aces, kings, etc.; after which he begins 
to play his cards, for each of which he counts one, except it is a nine, or 
an inferior one. 

After the elder hand has led his first card, the younger shows his point, 
if it is good, also the sequences, quatorzes, or threes of aces, kings, etc., 
or ca7 te blanche, if he has it ; and, having reckoned them all together, he 
takes the first trick if he can with the same suit, and counts one for it ; 
if he cannot, the other turns the trick, and continues ; and when the 
younger hand can take the trick, he may lead which suit he pleases. 

To play the cards well, you must know the strength of your game ; that 
is, by your hand you should know what your opponent has discarded, 
and what he retains. To do this, be particularly attentive to what he 
shows and reckons. 

As there are no trumps at Piquet, the highest card of the suit led wins 
the trick. 

If the elder hand has neither point nor anything else to reckon, he De 
gins to count from the card he plays, which he continues till his adver- 
sary wins a trick, who then leads in his turn. He who wins the last trick 
counts two. When the tricks are equal, neither party counts for them. 

There are three chances in this game, viz., the repique, pique, and 
capot, all of which may be made in one deal. Thus, the eldest hand 
having the point, four tierce-majors, four aces, four kings, and foul 
queens, he will make thirteen points, by playing the cards, and forty fot 
the capot — which are reckoned in this way ; first — 



434 PIQUET. 

Points. 

Point 3 

Four tierce-majors 12 

Four aces 14 

Four kings 14 

Four queens 14 

By play 13 

Capot 40 

Total no 

To pique your antagonist, you must be the elder hand ; for, if you are 
the younger hand, your adversary will reckon one for the first card he 
plays ; and then your having counted twenty-nine in hand, even if you 
win the first trick, will not authorize you to count more than thirty. 

LAWS AND REGULATIONS OF PIQUET. 

1. Two cards at least must be cut. 

2. If a card be faced, and it happen to be discovered, either in the 
dealing or in the stock, there must be a new deal, unless it be the bottom 
card. 

3. If the dealer turn up a card belonging to the elder hand, it is in the 
option of the latter to have a new deal. 

4. If the dealer deal a card too few, it is in the option of the elder hand 
to have a new deal ; but if he stands the deal, he must leave three cards 
for the younger hand. 

5. If the elder or younger hand play with thirteen cards, he counts 
nothing. 

6. No penalty attends playing with eleven cards, or fewer. 

7. Should either of the players have thirteen cards dealt, it is at the op- 
tion of the elder hand to stand the deal or not ; and if he choose to stand, 
then the person having thirteen is to discard one more than he takts in \ 
but should either party have above thirteen cards, then a new deal must 
take place. 

8. The elder hand must lay out at least one card. 

9. If the elder hand take in one of the three cards which belong to the 
younger hand, he loses the game. 

10. If the elder hand, in taking his five cards, happen to turn up a card 
belonging to the younger hand, he reckons nothing that deal. 

11. If the elder hand touch the stock after he has discarded, ha canno* 
alter his discard. 



PIQUET. 435 

«a. If the younger aand take in five cards, he loses the game, unlesi 
«e elder hand has two left. 

13. If the elder hand leave a card, and after he has taken in, happen to 
put to his discard the four cards taken in, they must remain with his dis- 
card, and he must play with only eight cards. 

14. If the younger hand leave a card or cards, and mix it or them with 
his discard before he has shown it to the elder hand, who is first to tell 
him what he will play, the elder hand is entitled to see his whole discard, 

15. If the younger hand leave a card or cards, and does not see them 5 
nor mixes them to his discard, the elder hand has no right to see them ; 
but then they must remain separate whilst the cards are playing, and the 
younger hand cannot look at them. 

16. If the younger hand leave a card or cards and looks at them, the 
elder hand is entitled to see them, first declaring what suit he will lead. 

17. No player can discard twice, and after he has touched the stock, he 
is not allowed to take any of his discard back. 

18. When the elder hand does not take all his cards, he must specify 
what number he takes or leaves. 

19. Carte blanche counts first, and consequently saves piques and re- 
piques. It also piques and repiques the adversary in the same manner as 
if those points were reckoned in any other way. 

20. Carte blanche need not be shown till the adversary has first dis- 
carded ; only the elder hand must bid the younger hand to discard for 
carte blanche ; which, after he has done, show your blanche by counting 
the cards down one after another. 

21. The player who, at the commencement, does not reckon or show 
carte blanche, his point, or any sequence, etc., is not to count them after- 
ward. 

22. In the first place, call your point ; and if you have two points, if 
you design to reckon the highest, you are to call that first, and are to 
abide by your first call. 

23. If the elder hand call a point, and do not show it, it cannot be 
reckoned ; and the younger hand may show and reckon his point. 

24. The tierces, quarts, quints, etc., must next be called, and in case 
you design to reckon them, call the highest. 

25. You are to call a quatorze preferably to three aces, etc., if you 
design to reckon them. 

26. If you call a tierce, having a quart in your hand, you must abide 
by your first call. 

27. If the elder or younger hand reckon what he have not, he counts 
nothing. 



436 



PIQUET. 



28. If the elder hand call forty-one for his point, which happans to be 
a quart-major, and it is allowed to be good, and only reckons four for it. 
and plays away, he is not entitled to count more. 

29. If the elder hand show a point, or a quart or tierce, and asks if 
they are good, and afterward forgets to reckon any of them, it bars the 
younger hand from reckoning any of equal value. 

30. Whoever calls his game wrong, and does not correct himself before 
he plays, cannot reckon anything that game ; but the adversary reckons 
all he has good in his own game. 

31. The player who looks at any card belonging to the stock is liable 
to have a suit called. 

32. Any card that has touched the board is deemed to be played, unless 
in case of a revoke. 

33. If any player name a suit, and then plays a different one, the an- 
tagonist may call a suit. 

34. Whoever deals twice together, and discovers it previous to seeing 
his cards, may insist upon his adversary dealing, although the latter may 
have looked at his cards. 

35. Should the pack be found erroneous in any deal, that deal is void ; 
but the preceding deals are valid. 

The French have a very simple method of counting the game by means 
of a bit of cardboard, or an old playing-card, which they cut in the fol- 
lowing form. 



Tens. 




Five. 



run 



Fifty. 



One, two, 

three, 
and four.- 



The dark lines represent where the card is cat ; the dotted lines where 
bent. In this way the score can be kept perfectly without a pencil. 



ADVICE TO LEARNERS. 

It should be always remembered, that the factor ten, for the most tricks, 
is a constant one, and to try and make seven tricks must invariably be 
borne in mind 



SOLITAIRES. 437 

The hand that deals should always be on its guard against capot, ot 
giving the hand taking the 5 cards the chance of making all the tricks, 
which would score 40 points. To prevent this, it is better to break up 
even a good suit, so as to protect a king and one card, or to even keep a 
single card in hopes of obtaining a king in the three cards which are 
taken, is to preserve a queen and one card. If a third card of the suit 
were obtained, the queen would be safe. The younger hand is then one 
of some risk, and plays on the defensive. 

THREE-HANDED PIQUET. 

Every player is, in three-handed Piquet, for himself. Three cards are 
dealt twice around to. each player, which makes six cards, then four to 
each, which makes ten, thirty in all, and the lalon of two cards is as in 
ordinary Piquet placed face downward on the table. It is the dealer who 
has the right to these two cards. He may take them up and exchange 
them for two in his hand, but does not expose his discard, or he may de- 
cline taking the talo?i. The second or third player may act precisely as 
the first player. If no one takes the cards, the play r is the same. When 
the exchanges have or have not been made up to the dealer, the game be- 
gins. The elder hand has the advantage of drawing two cards, and of 
leading. The younger hand, when possible, ought to try and secure one 
point of some kind, in order to prevent the opponent making a sixty or a 
ninety. 

To discard properly, requires much judgment. Sometimes when a hand 
is full of picture cards, it is wise, since a suit cannot be established, or 
a sequence, to try and get threes or fours, and so secure a point. 

Sequences are the same as in ordinary Piquet, and so are suits, and fours. 
There is, however, this marked difference. When a first player can count 
on his cards twenty without playing, he scores ninety. If he has to play 
to score twenty, he counts sixty. The most tricks count ten, as in Piquet. 
Capots in the three-handed game are more common than in regular Piquet, 
but the count of 40 is not imposed on both players, each one losing 20 points. 



SOLITAIRES 

Solitaires are sometimes called games of Patience. J n some a cer- 
tain amount of personal skill is required, but in many of them the mak 
ing of a solitaire depends on chance alone. There are solitaires quite '<* 
intricate as is the solution o 



43« 



SOUTAIRBS. 



NIDGl NOVGOROD. 

This Solitaire is sometimes called the Russian Solitaire. It is played 
with one full pack. No skill is required. It depends entirely on the posi- 
lion of the cards. 

Two cards are taken of the same value, as two aces or two deuces. 
One ace is placed on top of the pack, the other at the bottom of the pack. 
The first card is placed on the table, and then the Solitaire commences. 
The object of the game is to get rid of all the cards, leaving on the table 
only the first and the last card. 

Suppose you began with the ace of spades. The second card is a club, 
the third a diamond, the fourth a spade. The first card being a spade, 
and the fourth in the series of four another spade, the two intermediate 
cards are thrown out. It is a solitaire depending on a series of four 
cards. In addition to the first and fourth card in the series being of the 
same suit, giving you the privilege to throw out the second and third 
card, if the first and fourth cards pair, the second and third of the series 
of four are thrown out. It often happens that from thus having two 
cards which pair, then two cards which are far apart, you approach then* 
in the series of four, and being of the same suit, get the discards. 

EXAMPLES. 







* * 




♦ 




<? 


y 




* 








<P 






A A 




♦ 




<? 



Beginning with the ace of hearts, the five of clubs, two of spades, aad 
three of hearts, the second and third cards are thrown out because the 
first and fourth cards are hearts. 







A A 




T 


V 




* 

A A 




♦ 



□ 



The second and third cards remain, because the ace M hearts anrt 
two of digmojic'Js are not of the same s«uA 



SOLITAIRES. 



439 





1 


j+ 4 




"V 









♦ 









* 


V 




* 

* * 




♦ 




o 














+ 



The deuce of diamonds and the deuce of clubs are the first and fourth 
of a series, then the three of spades and five of diamonds are thrown out, 
and the five of clubs, the first of a series of four, finding the deuce of 
clubs the fourth of the series of the same suit, the two deuces of spades 
and diamonds are thrown out. 

THE HOPEFUL. 

Played with a full pack. 

You make packets of three from the top of the pack. The bottom 
card of the packet, if it be a king or an ace, makes the foundation. 

You build on these from the packets of three. A queen goes on a 
king, a two on an ace. If you have a king, and a queen of spades comes 
at the bottom of the packet, you put it on. Under that queen in the 
packet there may be a knave of spades, and under that a ten of spades — 
they can all be put on. When the solitaire is ended, you have eight piles 
of the suits, four from king to eight, and four from ace to seven. 



PISTOLS AND COFFEE FOR TWO. 

This is not only a solitaire, but a game at two, requiring quickness of 
mind and motion. 

It is played with two full packs. The patterns on the back of the 
cards make no difference. 

Each player holds a pack, not seeing the cards, and both begin at the 
same moment. 

Each player makes eight piles, taking one card at a time. As the 
aces come out they are placed on the table in a straight line, exactly in- 
termediate between the two players. 

The eight aces are the foundation cards, and you build up on any of 
these in suits, the king coming after the ace, the deuce concluding the 
suit. 

The game becomes exciting toward the close, for an opponent can 
hold back a card, having more than one packet to add to, and so keep 
the game in his hands, but is obliged to play the card sometime or other, 

The one who gets rid of his last card first, wins the game. 



440 



SOLITAIRES. 



EXCELSIOR PATIENCE. 

Played with a full pack. 

Deal twelve cards, as shown in the diagram, beginning on the left. 
Place the top corner card, then the four side cards, lastly the lower corner 
;ard ; repeat this process on the right hand, beginning with the top 










! 








♦ 
4 
















* 

* 












*** 

* * 
4. 4. 












































*** 




" 








4* 
* 




corner and leaving space in the centre for the foundation cards. These 
will consist of four aces and four kings of different suits. Families are 
built up on the aces ascending in sequence to kings, and the kings de- 
scending in sequence to aces. 

Having dealt the first round of twelve cards, then deal out the entire 



SOLITAIRES. 44! 

pack in successive rounds, covering the first one ; but in dealing eari> 
several round the following method must be strictly observed : 

The eight foundation cards as they appear in the deal (whether they 
fall on the corner or on the side packets) are to be at once played in the 
space reserved for them, and on these may be played any suitable cards 
which in dealing fall on either of the four corner packets ; but when a 
card (otherwise suitable) falls on either of the side packets, it may not be 
played unless the foundation to which it belongs happens to be the one 
immediately adjoining the side packet on which that card fell in dealing. 

Note.— Whenever, in dealing, a card is withdrawn to place on one of 
the foundations, the next card in the pack is placed in its stead. 

RULES. 

t. After the deal is completed, the uppermost card of each packet is 
available, and may be placed on any of the foundations, the card under- 
neath being released as usual by the removal of the one that covered it. 

2. Each foundation must follow suit. 

3. Marriages must be formed in suit. 

After the entire deal is completed these restrictions cease. All suit- 
able cards may now be played, subject to Rule 1, and marriages, both in 
ascending and descending lines, may be made with cards on the surface 
of the twelve packets ; great care must, however, be taken in making 
these marriages, lest in releasing one card you block another that is 
equally required. The contents of each packet should be carefully exam- 
ined, and only those marriages made which release the greatest numbei 
of suitable cards. 

Note. — The sequences thus made may be reversed, if required, viz. . 
If one of the packets contained a sequence, beginning with deuce and 
ascending to eight (this being, of course, the top card), and one of the 
other packets had at the top a nine of the same suit, the eight might be 
placed on the nine, the rest of the sequence following, till the deuce be- 
came the top (or available) card. 

When all possible combinations have been made, and further progress 
is impossible, the twelve packets may be taken up in order, beginning on 
the left, redcalt, and played exactly as before. If necessary, there may 
be two redeals. 

The object, as in all games of Solitaire, is, of course, to bring the card? 
m the different packets into order. 



442 SOLITAIRES. 



THE OLD PATIENCE. 

This is one of the oldest, if not the oldest game of Patience. As it 
is played usually it is almost useless to attempt to win, as one can suc- 
ceed about once in three hundred times. Even in the original way 
once in one hundred is about the average number of successes. i)r. 
Pole has modified the game so that there is a reasonable chance of 
winning. 

One by one the cards are dealt until five have been laid side by side. 
As the aces appear they are placed below these five cards. The object 
of the game is to build up to kings on the aces, regardless of suits. 
The top card of each depot is always available. In dealing the cards 
the player can put them on any heap he elects, but he should not cover 
a card with another of higher rank unless he is forced to. If a 
higher one is placed over a lower, the use of all cards beneath it is 
prevented until the "higher card is removed. 

The player has the privilege of looking over the contents of each of 
the five depots, and, when possible, should avoid blocking any one 
which contains more than one card of the same rank. When possible, 
if obliged to place a higher card over a lower, choose the depot in 
which are the fewest cards. The chances in this game are three to 
one. Originally four depots only were used. 

NAPOLEON. 

This game of Patience is so named because it is said to have been 
the favorite game of the great French emperor. 

The game is played with two packs of fifty-two cards. They are 
shuffled thoroughly, and then the cards are placed in four rows of ten 
each and face upward. 

The object of Napoleon is to form ascending squares in suit. The 
game starts by the taking of any ace or aces in the fourth row. These 
are placed beneath the last row, side by side, for foundation cards. 
After this place, on the aces, cards in suit of ascending sequences, as 
they appear at the top of the stack, which is dealt face downward; or 
from the waste heap, which is to the right of the player, face upward; 
or from the four rows. As the aces appear they are placed for founda- 
tion cards. On the depots of the fourth row or on unguarded cards 
of the other rows descending sequences are built. 

If the game is over the eight kings appear at the top of the eight 
foundations. The chances are about one to five in favor of the player. 



DRA UGHTS. 



443 



DRAUGHTS, 

or CHECKERS. 

THE IMPLEMENTS. 

A draught-board and draughts-men are required. 

The boards which is square, is generally made of leather or wood. 

The surface of the board is divided into sixty-four squares of equat 
size, eight on each of the four sides. The squares are colored alternately 
white and black, or white and red. 

The men, which are flat at the top and bottom and circular at the cir- 
cumference, are generally made of ivory or wood. 

The men are twenty-four in number. Of these, twelve (which belong 
to one player) are colored black or red ; and twelve (which belong to the 
©ther player) are colored white. 

The men and kings are called pieces. 

Draughts is played by two persons, who occupy positions opposite to 
each ©ther, where the words " Black " and M White " occur it Diagram I. 

DIAGRAM I. 

» 

WHITE. 




444 



DRAUGHTS. 



The board is usually placed with a white square in the right-hand 
corner, and the men on the black squares, as in Diagram I. Some play- 
ers place the men on the white squares, when there should be a black 
corner to the right hand. It is immaterial which method is employed, so 
long as there is no man in a right-hand corner square, or, as it is tech- 
nically termed, so long as there is a double corner to the right, 

The players having determined which shall have the black men and 
which the white (see Law 14), the game is opened by the player 
who has the black men moving one of his men in the manner which will 
be presently explained. His adversary then moves a man, and so on al- 
ternatively. The game thus proceeds until one of the players (it being 
his turn to move) has all his pieces so blocked that he cannot move any, 
or until all his pieces are captured (see Capturing). The player who is 
blocked, or who has no piece left on the board, loses the game. 

If neither player can obtain sufficient advantage in force or position to 
enable him to win, the game is drawn. When one player appears 
stronger than the other in force or position, he may be required to win ia 
forty of his own moves ; if he fails, the game is drawn. 

DIAGRAM II. 

WHITE. 




BLACK. * 

MOVING. 

A move is made by pushing a man from the square on which he starjct* 



DRA UGHTS. 445 

to an adjacent unoccupied square of the same color, right or left. The 
move is always forward — 1. e., when Black moves, the man approaches 
the word "White" (see A, Diagram 2), and when White moves, the 
man approaches the word " Black." 

CAPTURING. 

When a man meets an opponent's man, no further move can be made 
in that direction, unless there is a vacant square immediately beyond one 
of the men, in which case he is said to be unguarded. If a man that 
meets another is unguarded himself on the move, or if the man that is 
met is or becomes unguarded after the next move, the player must cap- 
ture the adverse man, which he does by placing his man on the vacant 
square immediately beyond (see B, Diagram 2, it being Black's turn to 
move), and removing the adverse man from the board. If two or mor& 
men are so placed that one vacant square intervenes between each, in a 
direction that the capturing man can move, he must take all that are en 
prise at the same time (see C, Diagram 2, Black to move). 

HUFFING. 

If a player neglects to capture when able, the adversary has the option 
(a) of allowing the move to stand ; (6) of requiring the player who moved 
without capturing to replace the man moved, and to take the man or men 
en prise ; or (c) of huffing, which is done thus : The last move stands 
good, and the man that could have captured is removed from the board 
as a penalty for not taking. 

A player who huffs also makes a mo"e. Huffing is not a move, or, in 
technical terms, " huff and move go together." The huff must be made 
before the move, or the right of huffing is lost ; but if the player at his 
next move again neglects to capture, his adversary has the same options 
as before. 

If a player can capture on more than one square, he may elect which 
way he will take ; if able to capture one man on one square, and more 
than one on another, he is not obliged to take tne larger number. But, 
if he elects to capture the larger number, he must take all of that lot which 
are en prise. Should he overlook any, he is liable to be huffed, or may 
be compelled to take the remainder. Thus, if in C, Diagram 2, Black 
only takes two men, those two are removed from the board (the capture 
being so far completed), and Black may be huffed, or may be compelled 
to capture the third man. or the move may be allowed to stand. 



446 DRA UGHT&. 



KINGS. 

When » man belonging to either player reaches one of the squares far- 
thest from Ins own end of the board, whether by moving or capturing, he 
becomes a king. Thus, in Diagram 2, C, if the black man captures the 
three white men he becomes a king. 

To distinguish kings from men the kings are crowned — i. e. , the adver- 
sary places another man of the same color on the one that has just become 
a king. 

A king moves and captures in precisely the same way as a man, with 
the additional privilege that he can do so either forward or backward. 
Consequently, if after one capture he meets an unguarded piece, he con* 
tinues the capture in any direction. 

An unguarded king can also be captured by a piece, just as in the case 
of a man. 

A king is liable to be huffed for not capturing, or the adversary may 
allow the move to stand, or ma> compel the king to take, just as in the 
case of a man. 

When a man becomes a king his move is finished—/. e. y if there is a 
man or king en prise of the new-made king, it cannot be captured until 
the adversary has made his next move. This rule does not apply to a 
king already made when he captures, but only tp & man that becomes a 
king on the move. 

HINTS. 

1. The game of Draughts has been so thoroughly analyzed that the 
answer to every move is known by all good players. In order to play 
well, the published openings in more extended works on Draughts must 
be studied. 

2. For beginners it may be observed that it is better, as a rule, to move 
into the middle of the board than to the sides, as a man at the side can 
only move in one direction, and, consequently, half his power is lost. 

3. It is advisable to make a king as early in the game as possible. 

4. As soon as a player has an advantage in force, he should make as 
many exchanges as possible. 

5. When the force of each player is equal, it is generally an advantage 
to have the move^ but not always. 

To have the move does not mean to be next to move, but to occupy 
such a position as to be able to secure the last move. Thus : place a 
black and a white man, as in Diagram 3, on the column to the extreme 
left of the board, and remove from the board the other pieces, which illu9» 



DRAUGHTS. 



447 



trate another position. Black has to play. White has the move, and 

must win. But had White to play, Black would have the move, and must 
win; Again : remove the two men from the column to the left, and re- 
place (as in Diagram 3) the two men and two kings previously removed. 
Black to play. Black has the move, and wins. He first moves his man. 
White's best reply is to play the white king to the square just vacated by 
Black's man. Black then moves his man to the right, putting him en 
prise of White's man, who captures. Black then moves his king forward 

DIAGRAM IIL 

WHITE. 




BLACK. 



to the right. White's only move now is his king. Black captures* %n* 
blocks White's remaining man, and, as White has no move, Black wins. 
To ascertain which player has the move, add together all the pieces on 
alternate columns. If their sum is odd, the next player has the move ; 
if their sum is even, the last player has the move. For example : in the 
first case given in Diagram 3, there are two men on one column (the 
others it will be remembered are to be removed from the board). Their 
sura is even, consequently the last player has the move. In the second 
rase given in Diagram 3 (remove the two men on the left colurw- and 
r eplace the other two men •" i ■' t**o Vines), there is onlv one max >u the 



448 DRA UGHTS. 

alternate coL .ins, commencing with a black square from Black's end ol 
me board. Consequently, one being an odd number, Black, who is the 
next player, has the move. A similar result is arrived at, if the men and 
kings on the columns commencing with a white square are added together. 

At the beginning of a game the second player has the move, but it is oi 
no use to him at this stage. 

An exchange of one man for one man, or of one king for one king, 
changes the move. Consequently, the player who has the move should 
avoid exchanging, unless he can force a second exchange, and so keep 
the move. 

POLISH DRAUGHTS. 

The original game of Polish Draughts was played on a board oi one hun« 
dred squares with forty men ; but now an ordinary draught-board and 
men are commonly used. 

The men move like the men at Draughts, but capture like kings at 
Draughts — I. e. y either forward or backward. A man reaching one of the 
squares farthest from his own end of the board, is crowned and becomes 
a queen . A queen moves like a bishop at chess — t. e. , along any of the 
four diagonals she guards, and can remain on any unoccupied square of 
that diagonal, provided the intermediate squares are vacant. If there is 
an unguarded piece on one of the diagonals within a queen's range — i. e. y 
no guarded piece intervening, she must capture, and may remain on any 
unoccupied square of that diagonal beyond the piece captured, provided 
the intermediate squares are vacant. But if there is another unguarded 
piece on the board, the capturing queen is bound to choose, if possible, 
the square of the diagonal from which another capture can be made. 
Also, if by the uncovering of a square during the captures another piece 
becomes unguarded, it is similarly liable to be captured on the move. In 
consequence of the intricacy of some of these moves it is imperative ta 
remove from the board every piece as it is taken. 

If a man in capturing reaches a crowning square, and there is anothei 
piece en prise of a man's move, the move is not finished as at Draughts, 
afea passing the crowning square in capturing does not entitle the man 
moved to be made a queen. 

If a player is able to capture in more than one direction, he is bound 
to choose the capture which comprises the greatest number of pieces. 
Thus, three men must be taken in preference to two queens ; if the num- 
bers are equal the player may take which set he chooses. 

If a player neglects to capture, or does not capture all the pieces he 
can* or does not choose the move by which he can capture the greatest 



DRA UGHT& 449 

number, the adversary may huff, ur nay compel the player to complete 
the capture, or may allow the move to stand. 

When two pieces of one color are played on a diagonal with one un« 
occupied square between them to which the adversary can move, the po- 
sition is called a lu?iette. If a lunette is entered, one of the adversary's 
pieces must be captured. It is often laid as a snare by a skilful player ; 
therefore, before entering a lunette it is well to consider what will be the 
position after the capture. 

A single queen against three queens can draw. A player with a queen 
and a man against three queens should sacrifice the man, as the game at 
this point is more easily defended with the queen alone. 

LAWS OF DRAUGHTS. 

^i'OICE OF MEN AND FIRST MOVE. 

X. The choice of color for the first game is determined by lot. After 
this, if a series of games is played, the players take the white and black 
men alternately. 

2. The player who has the black men has the first move, whether the 
previous game was won or drawn. 

TOUCH AND MOVE. 

3. If a player whose turn it is to play touches a piece he must move it, 
unless, prior to touching it, he intimates his intention of adjusting it. If 
a piece that cannot be moved is touched, there is no penalty. 

MOVING. 

4. A move or a capture is completed as soon as the hand is withdrawn 
from the piece played to another square. 

5. If a piece is moved over the angle of the square on which it is 
stationed, the adversary may require the move to be completed in that 
direction. 

6. If a player makes a false or illegal move, the adversary may require 
the piece improperly moved to make its proper move in either direction 
he pleases, or he may allow the false move to stand. If the piece cannot 
be legally moved there is no penalty beyond the option of allowing the 
false move to stand. 

7. If a player capture* one of his own pieces, the adversary may have 
it replaced or not at his option. 

8. If more than one piece can be captured at one move, and the player 



45° 



DRA UGHTS. 



removes his hand from the capturing piece while any of the pieces en 
prise are untaken, the move is completed, and the player is liable to 
Law ii. 

9. When a player pushes a man to king, his adversary is bound to 
crown. 

10. Each player is obliged to move within a specified time, which must 
be agreed on before play commences. A player who does not move with- 
in the specified time loses the game. 

Example. — Suppose five minutes and one minute are agreed on, and 
when there is only one way of taking one or more pieces, or onlv one 
move on the board, one minute and one minute. At the expiration of 
five minutes in the first case, and of one minute in the second, time is 
called, and the move must be made in one minute more. 

HUFFING. 

11. If a player neglects to capture when able, the adversary may (a) 
allow the move to stand good ; or, (6) compel the capture ; or, (c) may 
huff the piece that could have captured. 

12. If a player entitled to huff touches the adverse piece that could have 
captured, he must huff. If he moves without huffing, he cannot huff 
afterward ; but if the adversary again neglects to capture, the player has 
again the options in Law 11. 

COUNTING THE MOVES AND ODDS. 

13. A player who has a superiority of force may be required to win in 
forty of his own moves (t. e. % forty by each player), computed from the 
move on which notice is given. If he faPs to win in forty moves, the 
game is drawn. And 

14. When two kings remain against one, the player with two kings may 
be similarly required to win in twenty moves. 

15. When the odds of the draw are given, and the game can be ren- 
dered equal by repeating the same moves, the player giving the odds may 
be required to win in twenty moves. If he fails, the game is counted 
against him. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLAYING DRAUGHTS. 

Draughts being a game of calculation, as such craves wary policy. 
The diagrams represent the board and men in their original position ; 
and also the mode in which the squares are conventionally numbered for 



DRAUGHTS. 



45* 



the sake of reference.* It will be seen that the upper half of the board is 
occupied by the twelve black men, and the lower half by their antago- 
nists, the white. 

The men being placed, the game is begun by each player moving al- 
ternately one of his men, along the white diagonal on which they are first 
posted. The men can only move forward, either to the right or left, one 
square at a time, unless they have attained one of the four squares on the 
extreme line of the board, on which they become kings, and can move 
either forward or backward, but still only one square at a time . The 
men take in the direction they move, by leaping over any hostile piece or 
pieces that may be immediately contiguous, provided there be a vacant 
white square behind them. The piece or pieces so taken are then re- 
moved from off the board, and the man taking them is placed on the 
square beyond. If several pieces, on forward diagonals, should be ex- 
posed by alternately having open squares behind them, they may all be 
taken at one capture, and the taking piece is then placed on the square 





beyond the last piece. To explain the mode of taking by practical illus- 
tration, let us begin by placing the draughts in their original position. 
You will perceive that if Black should move first he can only move one of 
the men placed on 9, 10, 11, or 12. Supposing him then to play the man 
from 11 to 15, and White answering this move by playing his piece from 
22 to 18, Black can take White by leaping his man from 15 to 22 and re- 
moving the captured piece off the board. Should Black not take in 
the above pesition, but move in another direction — for instance, from 12 
to 16— he is liable to be huffed ; that is, White may remove the man with 



* Practiced players who have studied printed games, are generally so familiar 
with the numerical position of the square, that they can read add comprehend 
a series of intricate «iov«* «rkWout even referring to the 



452 DRAUGHTS? 

which Black should have taken, from the board, as a penalty for not tak« 
ing ; for, at Draughts, you have not the option of refusing to take, as at 
Chess, but must always take when you can, whatever be the consequence. 
The player who is in a position to huff his adversary has also the option 
of insisting on his taking, instead of standing the huff. When one party 
huffs the other, in preference to compelling the take, he does not replace 
the piece his adversary moved ; but simply removes the man huffed, from 
off the board, and then plays his own move. Should he, however, insist 
upon his adversary taking the piece, instead of standing the huff, then the 
pawn improperly moved must first be replaced. 

To give another example of huffing. Suppose a white man to be placed 
at 28, and three black men at 24, 15, and 6, or 24, 16, and 8, with unoc- 
cupied intervals he would capture all three men, and make a king, or be 
huffed for omitting to take them all ; and it is not uncommon with nov- 
ices to take one man, and overlook a second or third en prise (/. e., liable 
to be taken). 

When either 0/ the men reaches one of the extreme squares of the 
board, he is, as already indicated, made a king, by having another piece 
put on, which is called crowning him. The king can move or take both 
forward or backward ; keeping, of course, on the white diagonals. Both 
the king and common man can take any number of pieces at once which 
may be en prise at one move, and both are equally liable to be huffed. 
For instance : if white, by reaching one of the back squares on his antag- 
onist's side, say No. 2, had gained a king, he might, upon having the 
move, and the black pieces (either kings or men) being conveniently 
posted at No. 7, 16, 24, 23, and 14, with intermediate blanks, take them 
all at one fell swoop, remaining at square 9. But such a coup could 
hardly happen in English Draughts. One of the great objects of the 
£ame, even at its very opening, is to push on for a king ; but it is unnec- 
essary to dwell much on the elementary part of the science, as the playing 
through one of the many games annexed, from the numbers, will do 
more in the way of teaching the rudiments of Draughts than the most 
elaborate theoretical explanation. 

The game is won by him who can first succeed in capturing or blocking 
up all his adversary's men, so that he has nothing left to move ; but when 
the pieces are so reduced that each player has but a very small degree of 
force remaining, and, being equal in numbers, neither can hope to make 
any decided impression on his antagonist, the game is relinquished as 
drawn. It is obvious that were this not the case, and both parties had 
one or two kings, the game might be prolonged day and night, with the 
same hopeless chance of natural termination, as at the first moment of 



DRAUGHTS. 453 

the pieces being resolved into the position in question. It has already 
been shown that when a man reaches one of the squares on the extreme 
line of the board, he is crowned and becomes a king ; but theic Is another 
point relative to this, which it is necessary to understand. The man thus 
reaching- one of the extreme squares, finishes the move on being made a 
king, and cannot take any piece which may be en prise. He must first 
await his antagonist's move, and should he omit to remove or fortify an 
'exposed piece, it may then be taken. To exemplify this, place a white 
man on n, and black men on 7 and 6 : white, having the move, takes 
the man, and demands that his own man should be crowned ; but he 
cannot take the man on 6 at the same move, which he could do were his 
piece a king when it made the first capture. But if the piece be left there 
after the next move, he must take it. 

In particular situations, to have the move on your side is a decisive 
advantage. This is a matter little understood by ordinary players, but 
its importance will fully appear by studying the critical situations. To 
have the move, signifies your occupying that position on the board which 
will eventually enable you to force your adversary into a confined situa- 
tion, and which, at the end of the game, secures to yourself the last move. 
It must, however, be observed, that where your men are in a confined 
state, the move is not only of no use to you, but, tor that very reason, 
may occasion the loss of the game. To know in any particular situation 
whether you have the move, you must number the men and the squares, 
and if the men are even and the squares odd, or the squares even and the 
men odd, you have the move. With even men and even squares, or 
odd men and odd squares, you have not the move. This will be best ex- 
plained by an example. Look, then, at the Sth critical situation, where 
White plays first : there the adverse men are even, two to two ; but the 
White squares, being five in number, are odd. The squares may be 
thus reckoned — from 26, a White king, to 28, a Black king, are three, 
viz. : 31, 27, and 24 — the White squares between 32, a W T hite man, and 
19, a Black man, are two, viz. : 27 and 23. You may reckon more ways 
than one, but reckon which way you will, the squares will still be found 
odd, and therefore White, so situated, has the move. When you have 
not the move, you must endeavor to procure it by giving man for *~*~n, 
a mode of play fully and successfully exemplified in this treatise. 

There is another mode which will, in less time than reckonmg the 
squares, enable you to see who has the move. For instance, if you 
wish to know whether any one man of yours has the move of any one 
man of your adversary's, examine the situation of both, and if you find 
a Black square on the right angle, under ..his man> you have the move. 



454 DRA UGHT5. 

For example, you are to play first, and your White man is on 30, whe& 
your adversary's 31ack man is on 3. In this situation, you will find the 
right angle in a black square between 31 and 32, immediately under 3, 
and therefore you have the move. This rule will apply to any number 
of men, and holds true in every case. 

To play over the games in this work, number the White squares on 
your draught-board from 1 to 32, and remember that in the diagrams 
the Black pieces always occupy the first twelve squares. The abbrevia- 
tions are so obvious that they cannot need explanation ; as B. for Black, 
W. for White, Var. for Variation, etc. Occasionally, stars (asterisks) 
are introduced, to point out the move causing the loss of the game. The 
learner begins with the first game and finding the leading move to be 
ii . 15 (that is, from 11 to 15), knows that Black begins the game. The 
second move 22 . 18 belongs to White, and the game is thus played out ; 
each party moving alternately. After finishing the game, the player pro- 
ceeds to examine the variations to which he is referred by the letters and 
other directions. The numerous variations on some particular games, 
and the consequent necessity each time of going through the leading 
moves up to the point at which the variation arises, will, probably, at 
first, occasion some little fatigue ; but this will soon be forgotten in the 
speedy and decided improvement found to be derived from this course of 
study. One of the minor advantages resulting from a numerous body of 
variations is, that, in tracing them out, the leading moves are so fre- 
quently repeated that they become indelibly fixed in the mind of the 
player, who thus remembers which moves are to be shunned as danger- 
ous if not ruinous, and which moves are to be adopted as equally sound 
and scientific. f 

As to general advice relative to draught-playing, next to nothing can 
be learned from a volume 01 such instruction. The various modes of 
opening will be seen by reference to the accompanying examples. Among 
the few general rules that can be given, you should bear in mind that it 
is generally better to keep your men in the middle of the board, than to 
play them to the side squares, as, fin the latter case, one-half of their 
power is curtailed. And when you have once gained an advantage in 
the number of your pieces, you increase the proportion by exchanges ; 
but in forcing them you must take care not to damage your position. If 
you are a chess player, you will do well to compare the draughts in their 
march and mode of manceuvering with the pawns at Chess, which, as well 
as the bishops, or other pieces, are seldom so strong on the side squares 
as in the centre of the board. Accustom yourself to play slow at first, 
*nd, if a beginner, prefer playing with those who will agree to allow ao 



DRA UGHTS. 



455 



unconditional time for the consideration of a difficult position, to those 
who rigidly exact the observance of the strict law. Never touch a man 
without moving it, and do not permit the loss of a few games to ruffle 
your temper, but rather let continued defeat act as an incentive to greater 
efforts both of study and practice. When one player is decidedly stronger 
than another, he should give odds, to make the game equally interesting 
to both parties. There must be a great disparity indeed if he can give a 
man, but it is very common to give one man in a rubber of three games ; 
that is, in one of the three games, the superior player engages to play 
with only eleven men instead of twelve. Another description of odds 
consists in giving the drawn games ; that is, the superior player allows 
the weaker party to reckon as won, all games he draws. Never play with 
a better player without offering to take such odds as he may choose to 
give. If you find yourself, on the other hand, so superior to your adver- 
sary, that you feel no amusement in playing even, offer him odds, and 
should he refuse, cease playing with him unless he will play for a stake ; 
the losing which, for a few games in succession, will soon bring him to 
his senses, and make him willing to receive the odds you offer. Follow 
the rules of the game most rigorously, and compel your antagonist to do 
the same ; without which, Draughts are mere child's play. If you wish 
to improve, play with better players, in preference to such as you can 
beat ; and take every opportunity of looking on when fine players are en- 
gaged. Never touch the squares of the board with your finger, as some 
do, from the supposition that it assists their powers of calculation, and 
accustom yourself to play your move off-hand when you have once made 
up your mind, without hovering with your fingers over the board for a 
couple of minutes, to the great annoyance of the lookers-on. While you 
play, do not fall into the vulgar habit of incessantly chattering nonsense ; 
and show no impatience at your adversary, should he be a little slow. 
Finally, bear in mind what may well be termed the three golden rules to 
be observed in playing games of calculation : Firstly, to avoid all boast- 
ing anc ?.oud talking about your skill ; secondly, to lose with good tem- 
per ; and, thirdly, to win with silence and modesty. 

LAWS OF THE GAME. 
I. The first move of each game is to be taken by the players in turn, 
whether the game be won or drawn. For the move in the first game 
at each sitting, the players must cast or draw lots, as they must for the 
men, which are, however, to be changed every game, so that each player 
shall use the black and white alternately. Whoever gains the choice 
may either play first, or call upon his adversary to do so. 



456 DRAUGHTS. 

2. You must n^i point over the board with your finger, nor do any* 
thing which may interrupt your adversary's full and continued view of 
the game. 

3„ At any part of the game you may adjust the men properly on the 
squares, by previously intimating your intention to your adversary. This 
in polite society is usually done by saying " J'adoube." But after they 
are so adjusted, if you touch a man, it being your turn to play, you must 
play him in one direction or other if practicable ; and if you move a man 
so far as to be in any part visible over the angle of an open square, that 
move must be completed, although by moving it to a different square you 
might have taken a piece, for the omission of which you incur huffing. 
The rule is "touch and move." No penalty, however, is attached to 
your touching any man which cannot be played. 

4. In the case of your standing the huff, it is optional on the part of 
your adversary to take your capturing piece, whether man or king, or to 
compel you to take the piece or pieces of his, which you omitted by the 
huff. The necessity of this law is evident, when the young player is 
shown that it is not unusual to sacrifice two or three men in succession, 
for the power of making some decisive " coup." Were this law different, 
the players might take the first man so offered, and on the second's being 
placed " en prise" might refuse to capture, and thus spoil the beauty of 
the game (which consists in the brilliant results arising from scientific cal- 
culation), by quietly standing the huff. It should be observed, however, 
that on the principle of " touch and move," the option ceases the moment 
the huffing party has so far made his election as to touch the piece he is 
entitled to remove. After a player entitled to huff has moved without 
taking his adversary, he cannot remedy the omission, unless his adver- 
sary should still neglect to take or to change the position of the piece con- 
cerned, and so leave the opportunity. It does not matter how long a 
piece has remained u en prise " it may at anytime either be huffed or the 
adversary be compelled to take it. When several pieces are taken at one 
move, they must not be removed from the board until the capturing piecd 
has arrived at its destination ; the opposite course may lead to disputes, 
especially in Polish Draughts. The act of huffing is not reckoned as a 
move, a " huff and a move " go together. 

5. If, when it is your turn to play, you delay moving at>ove three min- 
utes, your adversary may require you to play ; and should you not move 
within five minutes after being so called upon, you lose the game ; which 
your adversary is adjudged to have won, through your improper delay. 

6. When you are in a situation to take on either of two forward diag- 
onals* you may take which way you please ; without regard (as in Polish 



DRAUGHTS. 457 

Draughts) to the on_ capture comprising greater force than t;he other. 
For example, if one man is "en prise" one way and two another, you 
may take either the one or the two, at your option. 

7. During the game, neither party can leave the room without mutual 
agreement ; or the party so leaving forfeits the game. Such a rule, how- 
ever, could only be carried out with certain limitations. 

8. When, at the end of the game, a small degree of force alone remains, 
the player appearing the stronger may be required to win the game in a 
certain number of moves ; and, if he cannot do this, the game must be 
abandoned as drawn. Suppose that three Black kings and two White 
kings were the only pieces remaining on the board ; the White insists that 
his adversary shall win or relinquish the game as drawn, after forty * 
moves (at most) have been played by each player. The moves to be com- 
puted from that point at which notice was given. If two kings remain 
opposed to one king only, the moves must not exceed twenty on each 
side. The number of moves once claimed, they are not to be exceeded, 
even if one more would win the game. A move, it should be observed, 
Is not complete until both sides have played ; therefore, twenty moves, 
60 called, consist of twenty on each side. In giving the odds of "the 
draw," the game must, however, be played to a more advanced state than 
is required in any other case. When, in such a game, the situations be- 
come so equal that no advantage can be taken, he who gives the draw 
«hall not occasion any unnecessary delay by uselessly repeating the same 
manoeuvres ; but shall force his adversary out of his strong position, or, 
after at most twenty moves, lose the game through its being declared 
drawn. 

9. Bystanders are forbidden to make any remarks whatever relative to 
the game, until that game shall be played out. Should the players be con- 
tending for a bet or stake, and the spectator say anything that can be 
construed into the slightest approach to warning or Intimation, that 
ipectator shall pay all bets pending on the losing side, should that side 
win which has received the intimation. 

10. Should any dispute occur between the players, not satisfactorily 
determined by the printed rules, the question must be mutually referred 
to a third party, whose decision shall be considered final. Of course, 
should a player commit any breach of the laws, and refuse to submit to 
the penalty, his adversary is justified in claiming the game without play- 
ing it out. 

11. Respecting a false move, such as giving a common man the move 



* We think half the number would be b«£tee 



458 



DRA UGHTS. 



of a king, or any other impropriety of the same sort, the law varies in 
different countries as to the penalty to be exacted by the opposite party. 
We cannot but suppose that such mistakes are unintentional, and con- 
sider it sufficient penalty, that in all such cases the piece touched must be 
moved to whichever square the adversary chooses ; or he has the option 
of allowing the false move to stand, if more to his advantage. Should 
the piece be unable to move at all, that part of the penalty cannot be 
inflicted. 

12. The rule (almost universal with English Draughts) is to play on 
the white squares. The exception (limited, we believe, to Scotland) is to 
play on the black. When, therefore, players are pledged to a match, 
without any previous agreement as to which squares are to be played on, 
white must be taken as the law. The color of the squares, excepting so 
far as habit is concerned, makes no difference in their relative position 
on the board. 

In all cases, a player refusing to take, to play, or to comply with any of 
the rules, loses the game. Hence the saying, " Whoever leaves the gam* 
loses it." 



CRITICAL POSITIONS, TO BE WON OR DRAWN BY 
SCIENTIFIC PLAY. 

Throughout these critical situations, the whites are supposed to hav» 
occupied the lower half of the board ; their men are, consequently, mo>N 
ing upwards. 



No. i. 

White to move and win* 



No. 2. 

White to move and win. 





* This situation occurs in a great number of games, and ought to be we| 
understood. 



DRA UGHTS. 



459 



No. 3. 
White to move and draw* 




No. 5. 

White to move and win. 




No. 7. 
White to move and win. 




&o. 4. 
Either to move, W. win. 




No. 6. 
White to move and win. 




No. 8. 
White to move and win. 




* This situation often occurs when each player has equal men on 
different parts of the board; black, however, not being able to 
extricate those men, it becomes a draw. 



460 



1>RA UGHTS. 



No. 9. 
White to move and win. 




No. 10. 
White to move and win. 




No. 11. 

White to move and win. 




No. 12. 
White to move and win. 




No. 13. 
White to move and win. 




DRA UGHTS. 



46 



EXAMPLES OF GAMES, FROM STURGES. 



Game 1. 


4. 8* 


25.21 


11. 7 


E. 


11. 15 


31.27 


9-13 


18.22 


2. 9 


22.18 


24.20 


11. 7 


7- 3 


28.19 


15.22 


27.23 


W. wins. 


5- 9 


9.14 


P5.i8 


8.11 




3- 7 


25.22 


8. 1 1 Var. 


23.18 


A. 


9-13 


1. 6 


29.25 


11. 8 


9.14 


7.10 


32.28 


4- 8 


18.15 


17.10 


22.25 C. 


6. 9F. 


25.22 


B. wins. 


6.15 


10.14 


3L27 


12.16 




27.24 


25.29 


9.13 


24.20 


Tar. 


8.12 


31.27 


27.24 


10.15 


12.16 


24.19 


29.25 


1317 


27.24* 


29.25 


15.24 


Drawn. 


22.13 


16.19 


8.11 


28.19 




1417 


23.16 


24.20 


5- 9 


C. 


23.18 


1519 


10.15 


13. 6 


13.17 


16.23 


24- 15 


25.22 


1. 10 


10.14 


24.19 


9.14 


4. 8 


32.28 


17.21 


W. wins, 


18. 9 


21.17 


3- 7 


14.17 




11.25 


7.10 


28.24 


22.25 


F. 


32.27 


17.14 


10.14 


17.22 


6.10 


5.14 


10.17 


31.26 


25.29 


28.24 


27.23 


22.13 


14.18 


22.26 


5- 9 


6.10 


15.22 


Drawn. 


29.25 


31.27 


16.12 


26.17 




31.27 


9.13 


8.11 


8. 12 A. 


B. 


W. wins. 


22.18 


28.24 


27.24 


25.21 




13.17 


25.29 


3- 7 


10.14 


D. 


18. 9 


30.25 


30-25 


17.10 


28.19 


17.22 


29.22 


7.10 


6.15 


9.14 


9. 6 


26.17 


24. 19 B. 


13. 6 


25.22 


22.26 


11.15 


10.14 


2. 9 


2. 6 


6. 2 


20.16 


17.10 


24.19 


22.18 


26.31 


15.18 


6.24 


15.24 


6.10 


2. 7 


24.20 


13. 6 D. 


28.19 


18. 9 


10.14 


18.27 


1.10E. 


9.14 


5.14 


19^5 


3LJM 


28.19 


19-15 


13. 9 


11. 18 


14. x8 


2. 6 


11.27 


14.17 


20.11 


16. ki 


31.26 G. 


20.11 


9.6 


31.26 


7.16 


11. 15 


1. 6 


10.14 


23.19 


20.11 


20.11 


32.23 


6. 2 


26.23 


18.23 


15.24 


6. 9 


17.22 


24.20 


11. 8 


23.19 


23.19 


*9.i5 


23.32 


23.27 


10.14 


14.17 


11.27 


7.10 


8. 4 


26.22 


21.14 


20.11 


32.27 


27.31 


6.9 


9.18 


Drawn. 


10.17 



* These asterisks, wherever thev occur, denote the moves which cause th* 
loss of the game. ^ 



462 



DRAUGHTS. 



27.34 


32.28 


20.16 


2. 7 


24. 8 


30-25 


17.14 


7.II 


12.19 


25.21 


14.16 


18.22 


8.12 


26.17 


W. wins. 


II. 15 




20.I6 


G. 


15. 18 


25.22 


24.20 


6. 9 


18.22 


32.28 


37.24 


Q.I3 


23.26 


28.24 


19.15 


10.14 


13.19 


3 T • 2 ° 


13- 9 
6.22 


b-i7 


-2.13 


15. 6 


14.17 


1. 10 


19.15 


24. 6 


11.27 


Drawn. 


B. wins. 




Game 2. 




n.15 




24.20 




8. 11 




22.18 




15.22 




25.18 




4- 8 




29.25 




10.15 




25.22 




12.16 




21.17 




7. 10 Var. 




17.13 




8.12 




28.24 




9.14 




8. 9 




5-14 




2319 




10.23 




25. IQ 




V 8 




31.26 




15-18 




22.15 




II.lS 





Cwsuiie :(. 


10. 7 


23.19 


1115 


18.23 


1 1. 16 


22.18 


7- 3 


26.33 


15-22 


23.27 


6.9 


25.18 


3- 7 


13.6 


8.1* 


1418 


2. 9 


29.25 


7.H 


21.17 


4- 8 


27.31 


Draw* 


25.22 


II. 16 




12.16 


31.27 


B. 


24.19 


16.20 


17.13 
1 1. id 


16.20 


18.22 


28.24 Var. 1. 


B. wins. 


28.24 


ai2 




322I 


32.28 


Var. 1. 


10.15 


19.15 


7. 11 


19. 10 


io 19 


26.22 


7.14 


23.16 


11. 15 


30.25 


9.14 


B. wins. 


11.16 


18. 9 




18.15 


5-14 


Far. a. 


3-8 


16.13 


1714 


22.17 


11.15 


u.15 


14.18 


27.23 


21.17 


23.14 


6.10 


16.19 


9.18 


31-27 


3126 


26.23 


8.11 


2. 6 


6.9 


22.17 


17.13 
12.10 


2314 


1518 


9.18 
15-10 


30.25 
2. 6 A. 


35.21 

18.23 


8.11 


23.19 B. 


Drawn. 


ia 7 Var, 2, 


11.15 




11.15 


28.24 


Game 4 


7. 3 


6. 9 


11. 15 


2. 7 


I7.I3 


22.18 


3.19 
16.33 


I. 6 
26.22 


15.22 
25.18 


34.19 


7." 


8. 11 


33.27 


19.16 


29.25 


31.24 


3- 7 


4- 8 


20.27 


3419 


25.22 


17.14 


15-31 


12.16 


27-31 


22. 8 


24.20 


21. T7 


W. win% 


10.14 


3126 




27.24 


25.21 


A. 


8.11 


26.22 


1. 6 


2419 


17.13 


17.13 


7.10 


22.17 


11.15 


32.27 


14.10 


28.34 j 


9.13 


i'/.U 


7. II 


18. 9 



DRA UGHTS. 



463 



5.14 


14.17 


C. 


10.15 


30.25 


22.18 


21.14 


30.26 


21.17 


11.16 


*. 5 


10.26 


9.14 


7.10 


20.11 


18. 9 


31.22 


10. 6 


27.24 


7.23 


5-14 


7.10 


3. 8 


8.12 


25.21 


19.15 A. 


3°- 2 5 


24.20 


17.13 


18.25 


11.18 


10.14 


8. 11 


9.14 
18. 9 


27.11 


20.11 


25.21 


6. 1 


25.30 


18.22 


13.17 


1 1. 15 


5.14 I Var. 


11. 8 


26.17 


22.13 


1. 6 


24.19^ i, 2, 


30.26 


13.22 


6.9 


15.19 


15.24 ( & 3- 


8.3 


u. 8 


Drawn. 


20.16 


28.19 


26.23 


22.25 




18.23 


14.17 


3.8 


8. 4 




26.22 


3 2 - 2 7 


23.18 


25.29 


B. 


23.26 


10.14 


8. 11 


4- 8 


11. 7 


16. 1 1 


27.24 Var. 4. 


10.14 


2. 7 


6.9 


26.30 


3 * 7 rr 


24.19 


23.19 


13. 6 


11. 7 


30.25 Var. 5. 


18.23 
11. 16 


29.25 


23.27 


30.26 


6 -2 


27.24 


31-24 


B. wins. 


13- 6 


14.17 


14.18 


10.15 




I.IO 


21.14 


21.17 


19.10 


D. 


22.13 


6.10 


25.22 


12.19 


16.12 


14.18 


14. 7 


17.13 


24.15 


10.14 


23.14 


2.20 


18.23 


18. 9 


1. S 


16.30 


rs 


8.4 


28.24 


26.23 


25.21 


10.14 


14.18 


5- 1 


10.17 


B. wins. 


24.20 


24.19 C 


23.19 


21.14 




22.18 


18.23 


1. 6 


30.25 


Tar* 8 


4. 8 


19.16 


*9.i5 


14. 9 


30.25 


18.22 


9. 1 A 

10. 6 


6. 2 


n.15 Var. 6. 


14.17 


20.16 


15.11 


9 c 6 


25.21 


22.18 


23.27 


2. 6 


2. 9 


3. 7 


8. 11 


6. 1 


3. 7 


13. 6 


21.14 


7.10 


14.10 


6.10 


15.18 


10.17 


28.24 B. 


30.25 


14. l8 


6. 2 


24.19 


14.17 


27.31 


10. 3 


7.10 


15.24 


24.20 


25.21 


18.14 


2. 6 


28.19 


10.14 


31.20 


12. 8 


10.14 


7.10 


11. 8 


21.17 IX 


B. wins. 


6. 9 


32.27 


17.22 


26.23 




25.21 


17.21 


8.11 


I7.J3 


Game «>• 


31.26 


22.18 


1417 


10.14 


11.15 


14.17 


21.25 


11. 8 


1. 5 


22.18 


Drawn. 


I8.I5 


17.-1 


83.19 


15.22 




11.18 


B. wins. 


16.12 


25.18 


Tar. I. 


20.11 




19-15 


8.11 


23.19 


25.30 




S « 


29.25 


16.23 


23. 7 
B. wins 


A. 


15.10 


4. 8 


26.19 


27.24 


1. 5 


25.22 


3- 7 




3- 7 


10, 6 


12.16 


S3 


Var. 3, 


*6.23 


B. wins. 


•M» 


31.27 



464 



DRAUGHTS. 



l ' s A 


& 


1 Var. 4. 


17.26 


14.17 


?3-i9A. 


27.18 


22.18 


3122 


25.29 


16.33 


16.19 


I. 5 


14.17 


X7-*4 


27. 9 


32.27 C. 


18. 9 


22.18 


29.25 


5.14 


5- 9 


5.14 


17.22 


14.10 


24.19 


20.16 


19-15 


1915 


25.22 


I>2 4 


11,20 


II.18 


16.19 


10.14 


28 19 


18. 1 1 


20.11 


15. 8 


23.27 


II. 15 


10.15 


12.16 


10.28 


1410 


32.28 


22.17 


27.24 


18.14. 


'22.17 


A5-24 


3- 7 


18.27 


28.32 


31.26 


28.19 


11. 8 


24.20 


8. 3 


27.32 


3- 8 


7.10 


27.32 


7. 11 


26.23 


26.23 


8. 3 


31.27 


2319 


32.28 


14 17 


9.14 


32.23 


32.27 


23.19 


22.18 


3- 8 


26.12 


3. 8 


28.32 


17.22 


I4.2I 


17.22 


2. 7 


B wins 


B. wins. 


8.11 


11. 8 


8.15 






6. 9 


14.18 


7.10 


E. 




B. wins. 


8. 4 


t\ 


9. 5 


A. 




18.2:5 


22.18 




C. 


4. 8 


B. wins. 


31.26 


23.18 


22.17 D. 


22.26 




11.15 


14-23 


I53I 


3025 


Var. f . 


5- * 


26.19 B. 


24. 8 


26.30 


25.22f 


7. 11 


16.23 


5- 9 


25.22 


9. 6E, 


*' § 


27.18 


30.25 


3°. 25 


2. 9 


12.16 


10.14 


31.26 


22.17 


13. 6 


13. 9 


rS. 9 


B. wins. 


25.21 


22.18 


16.19 


5 14 




17.14 


6. 2F. 


B. wins, 


30. 26 


D. 


21.17 


18.23 




12.16 


26.23 
19.26 


14. 9 


2. 6 


F. 


26.23 


17.14 


11.15 


31-26 


4.17 


30-23 


Drawn. 


6. 2 


11.15 


24.19 


10.14 




7.11 


6. 2 


15.24 


18. 9 


Tar, 5. 


2. 6 


7.11 


28.12 


5.14 


22.18 


15.18 


2. 6 


17.26 


23.19 


1. 5 


6.10 


18.14 


23.18 


6.10 


18. 9 


18.22 


26.23 


(5. 10 


32.27 


5.14 


10.14 


12.16 


B. wins. 


B. wins. 


26.22 


22.25 


B. wins. 



LOSING GAME. 

This game, which is lively and amusing, may, for variety's sake, be 
occasionally played. Although not ranked as scientific, it has its nice- 
ties, and requires considerable attention and management. 

The player who first gets rid of all of his men wins the game. Your 
constant object, therefore, is to force your adversary to take as many pieces 
as possible, and to compel him to make kings, which is accomplished by 
opening your game freely, especially the back squares. Huffing, and tXe 
other rules, apply equally to this game* 






DRA UGHTS. 465 

SPANISH DRAUGHTS. 

This variation is played on a board like that used in the English 
game and with the same number of men. It is played with the double 
corner to the left of the player, instead of to the right as in the English 
game. There are several ways in which the movements of the piece-i 
in the two games differ. The laws and methods of the English game 
hold good, except in the following instances: 

When there are a good many pieces en prise — that is, in a position 
to be taken — on various parts of the board, it is compulsory for the 
player to make the captures with the man that takes the greatest num- 
ber. 

Sometimes the game is varied by playing with eleven men and a 
piece called Dama (king), or with ten men and two Damas. In these 
cases the king, or Dama, has the right to move as many squares as he 
likes in a diagonal direction from the square which he occupies. The 
king has a right to any of his adversary's men on a diagonal com- 
manded by him, provided, of course, that there are one or more vacant 
Squares behind the man. Should there be en prise one or more men 
on a diagonal crossing the diagonal that he commands, he must turn off 
at the angle and make the capture and every other capture that he 
can make. 

ITALIAN DRAUGHTS. 

This game is like the English and Spanish games as to board and 
men, with some differences, however, in the methods of play. Eike the 
Spanish game, it is played with the double corner to the left. The 
laws are few, and are: 

1. A single piece is not allowed to take a king. 

2. When there are several men in a position to be captured, it is 
compulsory to take the largest number and the most powerful. 

3. In the situations similar to those in the English game where it is 
optional for the player to capture a man with either a single piece or 
a king, in the Italian game the capture must be made with the king. 
In all other respects the laws of the English game govern. 

TURKISH DRAUGHTS. 

XI !.'■• game is different from ill the others. It is played on an un 

ered board, and the pieces move forward and sideways either to 

rlit right or left, but they cannov move backward nor diagonally. The 

boards and the management of U« men, and the method of marking the 



466 



DRAUGHTS. 



V. 



fcoard for the sake of working out problems and recording plays, aft 
shown in the diagrams below. 

In this game the men have greater liberty of action, as they 
are permitted to move in three instead of two directions. Also, 
they have a greater field of action, as there are sixty-four squares on 
the Turkish board, as against thirty-two on the English and fifty on 
the Polish boards. The elementary principles, however, are the same 
as in the games already mentioned, and the game offers as extensive 
and as scientific developments. 

This game, like the ancient varieties of the game, is a mimic battle 
in which the soldiers advance, extend and close, mass, march in 



81 


82 


83 


84 


85 


86 


87 


S 


CM 
















! 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


7 


78 
















dfa 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


6 


67 


68 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


51 


52 


53 


54 


5 


56 


57 


58 


















41 


42 


43 


4 


45 


46 


47 


48 


















31 


32 


3 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


21 


2 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


1 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 



















1 2 



* 5 6 7 8 



12 3 4 5 6 7 8 



columns, etc. The gar^e is governed by the rules of the English game, 
except as here described. 

White always moves first. The pieces move one square at a time* 
forward or to the right or the left. The men capture in the direction 
in which they are moving, by leaping over the adverse men be- 
hind which there is an open space. A pawn is made a king under the 
same conditions as in the English game, which, of course, can move 
in any direction. A king can jump a complete column in capturing or 
otherwise. His powers are the same as in the Spanish and Polish 
games. 

In this game, capturing, when it is possible to capture, is com- 
pulsory. The men captured are moved from the board as they ate 
captured, thus opening up the ranks of the enemy so that other 
tin be captured. 



DICE. 467 

DICE. 

The spots on dice, from one to six, are counted in their numerical 
order. The ace is the lowest; the six is the highest. The ace- counts 
for one, the six for six. 

THROWING. 

Dice being shaken in the box are to be thrown on the table. After 
throwing, dice not to be touched. 

FOUL THROWS. 

When a dice falls on the floor or on anything else but the table 
where the game is being played, it is counted as a false throw, and 
does not count. If a dice is touched when it is in motion, it is not 
counted as a throw. When one dice stands on another, a position 
called "a cocked dice," it is a false throw. If one dice leans up 
against another, or does not stand square on its base, this arising not 
from any equality of the table, it is a false dice. Foul throws due 
to accident as described, can be thrown over. 

REGULAR DICE. 

As many players engage as wish, and a pot is made. Three dice 
are used. To decide who shall play first, and the order, either small 
ivory balls with numbers are used, or a single suit from a pack of 
cards is taken, when the highest plays first. After the first round, 
the elder hand begins, and so on in succession. Three diee are 
thrown at a time, with three casts. The addition of the whole nine 
dice, makes the total. Thus, first throw: a four, a five, and a six. 
which is fifteen; second throw, a deuce, a three, and a five, which i^ 
ten; and the third and last throw, two fives and a six, which is 
The total is forty-one. 

First throw 15 

Second throw 10 

Third throw 16 



In the addition of the three casts, the highest total wins. When 
there are ties, another cast of three dice, thrown three tinu 
described before, are made, and the highest wins. This is the usual 
game played when an object is raffled. 



468 DICE. 



RAFFLES. 

In Raffles, pair or triplets win, as in Poker. Three dice are thrown, 
and the player can throw until he makes a pair. He may throw triplets. 
Thus he throws the three dice, and turns an ace, deuce, four. There are 
no pairs. He throws again, and makes a pair of sixes. Then he stops. 
He can throw no more. The other player makes a cast and throws two 
sixes or three aces at the first or second throw, and he wins. Any 
triplet will beat a pair. As in Poker, the dice after the pair counts the 
highest. Thus two players, each casting a pair of aces, if one had a 
single three, and the other a single deuce, the player with a pair of aces 
and a three would win. Once a pair reached at the second throw, or 
triplets, the player stops. 

DRAW POKER WITH DICE. 

Five dice are used. Each player may have two throws. Any numbei 
may engage in the game. The player throws the five dice at one cast 
Say he throws two aces, and a two, three, and four. He would leave 
the two aces, and throw the other three dice. He might throw another 
ace, make threes, or two more aces, making fours, or perhaps make all 
five aces. It would be possible for him to make three deuces with the 
cast, and have a full. The player may throw all his five dice, or any 
number a second time. Understanding Poker, all the variations of values 
are appreciated. This is the only difference, that the values of the points 
thrown begin with the ace and end with the six, a pair of sixes being 
worth more than a pair of aces. When the turn is made with five sixes, 
it is the best hand. The players each put in the pot one or more chips 
according to prior arrangement. It is not obligatory to throw a second 
time. The first cast may suffice a player. 

MULTIPLICATION. 

Three dice are used, and there are three throws for each player. The 
three dice being cast, the highest dice is left on the table. Then the two 
dice are thrown, and the highest is left. The last dice is then thrown. 
Say the first dice thrown was a six, which was left, and the two dice 
when thrown the higher was a four. Then the six of the first cast, the 
four of the second dice, if added, make ten. The third and last dice 
thrown is the multiplier. If it were a six, six times ten would inakt 
sixty. The bichc^t number made in this way wins. 



DICE. 469 



CENTENNIAL- DICE. 

Any number may play. Three dice are used. On the table numbers 
are chalked from one to twelve; as they come in numerical order, the 
player wipes them out if he throws them. Say a first cast is an ace 
and a deuce, and a six. Ace and deuce coming in numerical order, 
allow the player to efface the one and two chalked on the board. The 
six is useless. Any single number helps the score. For the numbers 
over six, the addition of any two dice makes the point. Thus, seven 
can be made with an ace and six, a two and five, a three and four, 
and so on. The throws go on in succession. If it is so agreed, the 
game is shortened; whenever a person happens to know the three 
exact numerical successions required, then he can count six points. 
Centennial has no exact rules, and can be played in a variety of ways. 

ACE POT. 

This is played with two dice, and any number of persons may engage 
in the game. Each player has two counters. It being decided by lot 
who shall begin, two dice are thrown. Every player begins with two 
chips in h's possession. If he throws an ace, he must place one counter 
in the pot. If a six, he passes a chip to his left-hand neighbor. No ac- 
count is taken of anything else but the ace and six. If he throws double 
aces or double sixes, he passes two chips to the pot or the next player. 
In time, the dice being thrown in succession, it happens that a player has 
one chip left. The player holding the last chip has three throws. If he 
throws an ace, he passes it to his neighbor, and he is out of the game. 
If he throws a six, he wins the pot. The same cast governs the elder 
player, if the first caster has not thrown a six. Ace Pot has no regular 
rules. 

VINGT-ET-UN, 

As in the game of cards, the dice are thrown, so as to make twenty 
one, or as near to it as possible. As three dice might show three sixes, 
which is 18, two dice are used. Two dice are cast, and the number 
added, and then the player may throw as often as he likes afterward, so 
as to get near to twenty-one. He may stand at any time. If he throws 
over twenty-one, he is worsted. Sometimes dice Vingt-et-un is played 
with one dice. All the rules are like those when Vingt-et-un is played 
wVJ; cards. Pairs pay the banker. There is no natural Vingt-et-u» as 
in the card game. Bets are made before the dice are thrown. 



47o 



DICE. 



BEGGAR YOUR NEIGHBOR WITH DICE. 

This is a simple modification of Centennial, the player cnalking from 
one to six on the table. A single dice is thrown. If the thrower turns 
up a number he does not want, the elder hand takes that number and 
wipes it off of his score. No numerical progression is requisite. If a 
dice is thrown, which neither the caster nor the elder hand has, the next 
player can efface it from his score. The first player who can rub out all 
his numbers wins. Failing to throw a dice having one number required, 
the casting h taken by the next player. 

ROUND THE SPOT. 

• • • 

Looking at the five # • the three • there is a centre spot around 

which the others are grouped. An ace has a central point, but has no 
surrounding. The ace, deuce, four, and six are considered then as not 
counting. 

Three dice are used, and only the fives and threes counted. Three 
throws are made, and the person throwing the greatest number of the 
additions of the threes and fives wins. 

CHUCK-A-LUCK, OR SWEAT. 

This is a game played with dice on a cloth-covered table, 
numbered in this way : 




SWEAT TABLE. 

Stakes are placed on the numbers by the players, and the wagers ao» 
repted by the banker. The player has three dice, and he throws these 
three dice. Say he has wagered a stake on the five. If he throws one 
five in the three dice, he wins one stake. Should he throw a double-five, 
he wins twice his stake ; if a triplet, he wins three times his stake. The 
banker takes after every throw all the wage*-* on the numbers not shown 
by the dice. 



DICE. 471 



GOING TO BOSTON. 

This game resembles Multiplication and is played with three dice. 
It differs from Multiplication only in the counting. The last throw is 
added to, instead of being* used as a multiplier of, the sum of the two 
remaining on the table. As an example, if 4 and 5 had been thrown 
and the last throw was 6, the sum would be 15. 

HELP YOUR NEIGHBOR. 

This is the opposite to "Beggar Your Neighbor'* (page 469). It is 
played with three dice and affords a great deal of amusement. Six 
persons is the usual number of players. When the game begins it is 
agreed that the game shall be for fifty, one hundred, or any number 
of points. The players are numbered from 1 to 6 in regular order, 
or each selects his number by lot. The players throw in regular rota- 
tion. For example, the first player throws 4, 5, 6. He counts nothing 
for himself, as his number is 1, but the highest number is chalked up 
in Xo. 6's score. If the second player throws 2, 2, 3, he scores two for 
himself and No. 3 scores three points. If No. 3 throws three fives he 
gets nothing, but No. 5 gets five points. If the next player throws 
three ones he gets nothing, but No. 1 scores a point. So to the end. 
When a player makes the number of points agreed upon, the game 
ends. If a pool is the prize the first man out wins; if the game is 
for refreshments the last player out loses. 



472 HAZARD. 



HAZARD. 

This is a game with dice. The player, who takes the box and dice, 
(hrows a main — i, e. y a chance for the company, which must exceed four, 
and not be more than nine, otherwise it is no main ; he consequently must 
keep throwing till he produce five, six, seven, eight, or nine ; this done, 
he must throw his own chance, which may be any above three, and not 
exceeding ten ; if he should throw two aces or trois ace (commonly termed 
crabs), he loses his stakes, let the company's chance, which we call the 
main, be what it may. If the main should be seven, and seven or eleven 
is thrown immediately after, it is called a nick, and the caster (the present 
player) wins out his stakes. If eight be the main, and eight or twelve 
should be thrown directly after, it is also termed a nick, and the caster 
wins his stakes. The caster throwing any other number for the main, 
such as are adrnitted, and brings the same number immediately after- 
ward, it is a nick, and he gains whatever stakes he has made. Every 
three successive mains the caster wins he pays to the box, or furnisher of 
the dice, the usual fee. 

The meaning of a stake or bet at this game differs from any other. II 
any one chooses to lay some money with the thrower or caster, he must 
place his cash upon the table, within a circle destined for that purpose ; 
when he has done this, if the caster agrees to it, he knocks the box upon 
the table at the person's money with whom he intends to bet, or mentions 
at whose money he throws, which is sufficient, and he becomes respon- 
sible for whatever sum is down, unless the staker calls to cover ; in which 
case the caster is obliged to stake also, else the bets are void. The person 
*ho bets with the thrower may bar any throw which the caster may be 
going to cast, on condition neither of the dice is seen ; but if one die 
should be discovered, the caster must throw the other to it, unless the 
throw is barred in proper time. 

TABLE OF THE ODDS. 

If seven is the main and four the chance, it is two to one agaiast the 
thrower. 

6 to 4 is 5 to 3. 
5 to 4 is 4 to 3. 

7 to 9 is 3 tc 2. 

^ i 3 to two, barring two trois. 

\ 6 to 5 with the tv/o trois. 
7 to 5 is 3 to 2, 






HAZARD. 473 

l even, barring two trois. 
^ ( 5 to 4, with two trois. 

Seven, barring two fours. 
5 to 4, with two fours- 
9 to 5 is even. 
9 to 4 is 4 to 3. 

The nick of seven is seven to two sometimes, and ten to three. 

The nick of six and eight is five to one. 

It is absolutely necessary to be a perfect master of these odds, so as to 
have them as quick as thought, for the purpose of playing a prudent 
game, and to make use of them by way of insuring bets, in what is 
termed hedging, in case the chance happens to be not a likely one ; for 
a good calculator secures himself by taking the odds, and often stands 
part of his bet to a certainty. For instance, if seven is the main, and four 
the chance, and he has five dollars depending on the main, by taking six 
dollars to three, he must either win two dollars or one ; and on the other 
hand, if he does not like his chance, by laying the odds against himself 
he must save in proportion to the bet he has made. 

ADDITIONAL CALCULATIONS ON HAZARD. 

If 8 and 6 are main and chance, it is nearly 11 to 12 that either one or 
the other is thrown off in two throws. 

If 5 and 6, or 9 and 7, are main and chance, the probability that they 
will be thrown in two throws is near n to 12. 

If 5 and 8, or 9 and 8, or 5 and 7, or 9 and 6, are main and chance, the 
probability of throwing one of them in two throws is as 7 to 9 exactly. 

And if 7 and 4, or 7 and 10, are main and chance, the probability that 
they will be thrown out in two throws is also as 7 to 9. 

If 7 and 8, or 7 and 6, are main and chance, you may lay 15 to 14 that 
one of them is thrown in two throws. 

But if 5 and 4, or 5 and 10, or 9 and 4, or 9 and 10, are main and 
chance, he that engages to throw either main or chance in three throws 
has the worst of the lay, for it is very near as 21 to 23. 

If the main be 7, the gain of the setter is about one and one-third 
per cent. 

If the main be 6 or 8, the gain of the setter is about two and a half 
per cent. 

If the main be 5 or 9, the gain of the setter is about one and a half 
per cent 



474 TEN-PINS. 

But should any person be resolved to set up on the first main that fa 
thrown, his chance is about one and seven-eighths per cent. 

Hence the probability of a main to the probability of no main, is as 
87 to 28, or very nearly. 

If a person should undertake to throw a six or an ace with two dice in 
Due throw, he o